Review
. 2018 Mar; 9(15):12452-12470.
doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.23746.

Current status and perspectives in immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma

Riccardo Marconcini 1 Francesco Spagnolo 2 Luigia Stefania Stucci 3 Simone Ribero 4 Elena Marra 4 Francesco De Rosa 5 Virginia Picasso 2 Lorenza Di Guardo 6 Carolina Cimminiello 6 Stefano Cavalieri 6 Laura Orgiano 7 Enrica Tanda 2 Laura Spano 2 Alfredo Falcone 1 Paola Queirolo 2 Italian Melanoma Intergroup (IMI)  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 29552325
  •     113 References
  •     24 citations

Abstract

Metastatic melanoma was the first malignancy in which immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrated their successful efficacy. Currently, the knowledge on the interaction between the immune system and malignant disease is steadily increasing and new drugs and therapeutic strategies are overlooking in the clinical scenario. To provide a comprehensive overview of immune modulating drugs currently available in the treatment of melanoma as well as to discuss of possible future strategies in the metastatic melanoma setting, the present review aims at analyzing controversial aspects about the optimal immunomodulating treatment sequences, the search for biomarkers of efficacy of immunocheckpoint inhibitors, and innovative combinations of drugs currently under investigation.

Keywords: immunotherapy; ipilimumab; melanoma; nivolumab; pembrolizumab.

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Upregulated expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in primary breast cancer correlates with increase of infiltrated regulatory T cells in situ and lymph node metastasis.
Jinpu Yu, Jingyan Sun, +5 authors, Xiubao Ren.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2011 Nov 24; 2011. PMID: 22110525    Free PMC article.
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Mechanism of tumor rejection with doublets of CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, or IDO blockade involves restored IL-2 production and proliferation of CD8(+) T cells directly within the tumor microenvironment.
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J Immunother Cancer, 2014 May 16; 2. PMID: 24829760    Free PMC article.
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Epigenetics of human cutaneous melanoma: setting the stage for new therapeutic strategies.
Luca Sigalotti, Alessia Covre, +7 authors, Michele Maio.
J Transl Med, 2010 Jun 15; 8. PMID: 20540720    Free PMC article.
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Lancet Oncol, 2015 Oct 05; 16(13). PMID: 26433823
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Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
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Changes in miRNA expression in solid tumors: an miRNA profiling in melanomas.
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Semin Cancer Biol, 2008 Feb 26; 18(2). PMID: 18296065
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The role of routine imaging in pediatric cutaneous melanoma.
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Homologous Recombination Repair Deficiency and the Immune Response in Breast Cancer: A Literature Review.
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microRNA-134 inhibits melanoma growth and metastasis by negatively regulating collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1).
Yuan Li, Yong Fu, +5 authors, Chong Ma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2018 Sep 01; 11(9). PMID: 31949828    Free PMC article.
Tumor Time-Course Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Atezolizumab: Dependency on Follow-Up Time.
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CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol, 2020 Jan 29; 9(2). PMID: 31991070    Free PMC article.
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A QSP Model for Predicting Clinical Responses to Monotherapy, Combination and Sequential Therapy Following CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade.
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Response and outcomes after anti-CTLA4 versus anti-PD1 combined with stereotactic body radiation therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: retrospective analysis of two single-institution prospective trials.
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Current Advances in the Treatment of BRAF-Mutant Melanoma.
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The promising immune checkpoint LAG-3: from tumor microenvironment to cancer immunotherapy.
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Combination treatment with nivolumab and Rigvir of a progressive stage IIC skin melanoma patient.
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The Influence of Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Escape of Melanoma.
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Natural Health Products (NHP's) and Natural Compounds as Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Cancer; Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Activity of Natural Compounds and Overall Trends.
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Vaccines as an Integral Component of Cancer Immunotherapy.
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JAMA, 2018 Nov 13; 320(21). PMID: 30419097    Free PMC article.
From Tumor Immunology to Immunotherapy in Gastric and Esophageal Cancer.
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Advances in the Understanding of Skin Cancer: Ultraviolet Radiation, Mutations, and Antisense Oligonucleotides as Anticancer Drugs.
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Serine-Threonine Kinase TAO3-Mediated Trafficking of Endosomes Containing the Invadopodia Scaffold TKS5α Promotes Cancer Invasion and Tumor Growth.
Shinji Iizuka, Manuela Quintavalle, +12 authors, Sara A Courtneidge.
Cancer Res, 2021 Jan 09; 81(6). PMID: 33414172    Free PMC article.
Recent Progress in the Synergistic Combination of Nanoparticle-Mediated Hyperthermia and Immunotherapy for Treatment of Cancer.
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Talimogene laherparepvec upregulates immune-cell populations in non-injected lesions: findings from a phase II, multicenter, open-label study in patients with stage IIIB-IVM1c melanoma.
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J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Apr 01; 9(3). PMID: 33785610    Free PMC article.
Recent Advances on Immune Targeted Therapy of Colorectal Cancer Using bi-Specific Antibodies and Therapeutic Vaccines.
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Development and Validation of a Prognostic Gene Signature Correlated With M2 Macrophage Infiltration in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
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Can Immune Suppression and Epigenome Regulation in Placenta Offer Novel Insights into Cancer Immune Evasion and Immunotherapy Resistance?
Sultana Mehbuba Hossain, Chiemi F Lynch-Sutherland, +2 authors, Michael R Eccles.
Epigenomes, 2021 Dec 31; 5(3). PMID: 34968365    Free PMC article.
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The Interplay between Tumour Microenvironment Components in Malignant Melanoma.
Cornelia Amalinei, Adriana Grigoraș, +3 authors, Raluca Anca Balan.
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Melanoma, Melanin, and Melanogenesis: The Yin and Yang Relationship.
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