. 2018 Apr; 24(5):472-489.
doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2018.03.006.

Macrophages: The Road Less Traveled, Changing Anticancer Therapy

Jennifer L Guerriero 1 
  • PMID: 29655673
  •     163 References
  •     102 citations


Macrophages are present in all vertebrate tissues and have emerged as multifarious cells with complex roles in development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Macrophages are a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, where they either promote or inhibit tumorigenesis and metastasis depending on their state. Successful preclinical strategies to target macrophages for anticancer therapy are now being evaluated in the clinic and provide proof of concept that targeting macrophages may enhance current therapies; however, clinical success has been limited. This review discusses the promise of targeting macrophages for anticancer therapy, yet highlights how much is unknown regarding their ontogeny, regulation, and tissue-specific diversity. Further work might identify subsets of macrophages within different tissues, which could reveal novel therapeutic opportunities for anticancer therapy.

Keywords: CSF-1R; novel anticancer therapy; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages.

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FcγRs Modulate the Anti-tumor Activity of Antibodies Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 Axis.
Rony Dahan, Emanuela Sega, +3 authors, Jeffrey V Ravetch.
Cancer Cell, 2015 Sep 17; 28(3). PMID: 26373277
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Orally administered colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor PLX3397 in recurrent glioblastoma: an Ivy Foundation Early Phase Clinical Trials Consortium phase II study.
Nicholas Butowski, Howard Colman, +15 authors, Michael Prados.
Neuro Oncol, 2015 Oct 10; 18(4). PMID: 26449250    Free PMC article.
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The role of microglia and macrophages in glioma maintenance and progression.
Dolores Hambardzumyan, David H Gutmann, Helmut Kettenmann.
Nat Neurosci, 2015 Dec 30; 19(1). PMID: 26713745    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Tissue-Resident Macrophage Ontogeny and Homeostasis.
Florent Ginhoux, Martin Guilliams.
Immunity, 2016 Mar 18; 44(3). PMID: 26982352
Highly Cited. Review.
Dual inhibition of Ang-2 and VEGF receptors normalizes tumor vasculature and prolongs survival in glioblastoma by altering macrophages.
Teresa E Peterson, Nathaniel D Kirkpatrick, +20 authors, Rakesh K Jain.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Apr 05; 113(16). PMID: 27044097    Free PMC article.
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Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival.
Jonas Kloepper, Lars Riedemann, +24 authors, Rakesh K Jain.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Apr 05; 113(16). PMID: 27044098    Free PMC article.
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Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.
Thomas R Gawriluk, Jennifer Simkin, +7 authors, Ashley W Seifert.
Nat Commun, 2016 Apr 26; 7. PMID: 27109826    Free PMC article.
Macrophage PI3Kγ Drives Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Progression.
Megan M Kaneda, Paola Cappello, +13 authors, Judith A Varner.
Cancer Discov, 2016 May 15; 6(8). PMID: 27179037    Free PMC article.
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The role of myeloid cells in cancer therapies.
Camilla Engblom, Christina Pfirschke, Mikael J Pittet.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2016 Jun 25; 16(7). PMID: 27339708
Highly Cited. Review.
STAT3 and STAT6 Signaling Pathways Synergize to Promote Cathepsin Secretion from Macrophages via IRE1α Activation.
Dongyao Yan, Hao-Wei Wang, Robert L Bowman, Johanna A Joyce.
Cell Rep, 2016 Sep 15; 16(11). PMID: 27626662    Free PMC article.
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PI3Kγ is a molecular switch that controls immune suppression.
Megan M Kaneda, Karen S Messer, +20 authors, Judith A Varner.
Nature, 2016 Nov 01; 539(7629). PMID: 27642729    Free PMC article.
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Discovery of a Selective Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K)-γ Inhibitor (IPI-549) as an Immuno-Oncology Clinical Candidate.
Catherine A Evans, Tao Liu, +22 authors, Alfredo C Castro.
ACS Med Chem Lett, 2016 Sep 24; 7(9). PMID: 27660692    Free PMC article.
Macrophage Ontogeny Underlies Differences in Tumor-Specific Education in Brain Malignancies.
Robert L Bowman, Florian Klemm, +11 authors, Johanna A Joyce.
Cell Rep, 2016 Nov 15; 17(9). PMID: 27840052    Free PMC article.
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The involvement of M2 macrophage polarization inhibition in fenretinide-mediated chemopreventive effects on colon cancer.
Rong Dong, Yanling Gong, +6 authors, Bo Yang.
Cancer Lett, 2016 Dec 04; 388. PMID: 27913199
Origins of Brain Tumor Macrophages.
Michele De Palma.
Cancer Cell, 2016 Dec 14; 30(6). PMID: 27960082
A current perspective on cancer immune therapy: step-by-step approach to constructing the magic bullet.
Gabriele D'Errico, Heather L Machado, Bruno Sainz.
Clin Transl Med, 2017 Jan 05; 6(1). PMID: 28050779    Free PMC article.
Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point.
Daniel S Chen, Ira Mellman.
Nature, 2017 Jan 20; 541(7637). PMID: 28102259
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Primary, Adaptive, and Acquired Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy.
Padmanee Sharma, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Jennifer A Wargo, Antoni Ribas.
Cell, 2017 Feb 12; 168(4). PMID: 28187290    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages.
Jennifer L Guerriero, Alaba Sotayo, +11 authors, Anthony Letai.
Nature, 2017 Mar 09; 543(7645). PMID: 28273064    Free PMC article.
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Quantitative Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Reveals Myeloid-Inflamed Tumor-Immune Complexity Associated with Poor Prognosis.
Takahiro Tsujikawa, Sushil Kumar, +19 authors, Lisa M Coussens.
Cell Rep, 2017 Apr 06; 19(1). PMID: 28380359    Free PMC article.
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Macrophages Facilitate Electrical Conduction in the Heart.
Maarten Hulsmans, Sebastian Clauss, +31 authors, Matthias Nahrendorf.
Cell, 2017 Apr 22; 169(3). PMID: 28431249    Free PMC article.
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Single-cell RNA-seq enables comprehensive tumour and immune cell profiling in primary breast cancer.
Woosung Chung, Hye Hyeon Eum, +10 authors, Woong-Yang Park.
Nat Commun, 2017 May 06; 8. PMID: 28474673    Free PMC article.
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An Immune Atlas of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Stéphane Chevrier, Jacob Harrison Levine, +14 authors, Bernd Bodenmiller.
Cell, 2017 May 06; 169(4). PMID: 28475899    Free PMC article.
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Innate Immune Landscape in Early Lung Adenocarcinoma by Paired Single-Cell Analyses.
Yonit Lavin, Soma Kobayashi, +26 authors, Miriam Merad.
Cell, 2017 May 06; 169(4). PMID: 28475900    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Macrophages are necessary for epimorphic regeneration in African spiny mice.
Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R Gawriluk, John C Gensel, Ashley W Seifert.
Elife, 2017 May 17; 6. PMID: 28508748    Free PMC article.
CNS Macrophages Control Neurovascular Development via CD95L.
Si Chen, Nathalie Tisch, +9 authors, Ana Martin-Villalba.
Cell Rep, 2017 May 18; 19(7). PMID: 28514658
An environment-dependent transcriptional network specifies human microglia identity.
David Gosselin, Dylan Skola, +14 authors, Christopher K Glass.
Science, 2017 May 27; 356(6344). PMID: 28546318    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Exploiting macrophage autophagy-lysosomal biogenesis as a therapy for atherosclerosis.
Ismail Sergin, Trent D Evans, +17 authors, Babak Razani.
Nat Commun, 2017 Jun 08; 8. PMID: 28589926    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune Escape in Breast Cancer During In Situ to Invasive Carcinoma Transition.
Carlos R Gil Del Alcazar, Sung Jin Huh, +27 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Discov, 2017 Jun 28; 7(10). PMID: 28652380    Free PMC article.
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Ly6Clo monocytes drive immunosuppression and confer resistance to anti-VEGFR2 cancer therapy.
Keehoon Jung, Takahiro Heishi, +13 authors, Dai Fukumura.
J Clin Invest, 2017 Jul 12; 127(8). PMID: 28691930    Free PMC article.
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Tumor Evolution of Glioma-Intrinsic Gene Expression Subtypes Associates with Immunological Changes in the Microenvironment.
Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, +31 authors, Roel G W Verhaak.
Cancer Cell, 2017 Jul 12; 32(1). PMID: 28697342    Free PMC article.
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Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitors in cancer therapy.
Michael A Cannarile, Martin Weisser, +3 authors, Dominik Rüttinger.
J Immunother Cancer, 2017 Jul 19; 5(1). PMID: 28716061    Free PMC article.
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Developmental origin and maintenance of distinct testicular macrophage populations.
Noushin Mossadegh-Keller, Rebecca Gentek, +3 authors, Michael H Sieweke.
J Exp Med, 2017 Aug 09; 214(10). PMID: 28784628    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated macrophages, potential targets for cancer treatment.
Li Yang, Yi Zhang.
Biomark Res, 2017 Aug 15; 5. PMID: 28804638    Free PMC article.
Tissue-Resident Macrophages in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Originate from Embryonic Hematopoiesis and Promote Tumor Progression.
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, +12 authors, David G DeNardo.
Immunity, 2017 Aug 17; 47(2). PMID: 28813661    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting CXCR4-dependent immunosuppressive Ly6Clow monocytes improves antiangiogenic therapy in colorectal cancer.
Keehoon Jung, Takahiro Heishi, +15 authors, Dai Fukumura.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 Sep 14; 114(39). PMID: 28900008    Free PMC article.
Tissue-Resident Macrophages in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Originate from Embryonic Hematopoiesis and Promote Tumor Progression.
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, +12 authors, David G DeNardo.
Immunity, 2017 Sep 21; 47(3). PMID: 28930665    Free PMC article.
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Regulation of Human Macrophage M1-M2 Polarization Balance by Hypoxia and the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1.
Federica Raggi, Simone Pelassa, +7 authors, Maria Carla Bosco.
Front Immunol, 2017 Sep 25; 8. PMID: 28936211    Free PMC article.
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Combination of CD40 Agonism and CSF-1R Blockade Reconditions Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Drives Potent Antitumor Immunity.
Karla R Wiehagen, Natasha M Girgis, +5 authors, Raluca I Verona.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2017 Nov 04; 5(12). PMID: 29097420
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Neutralize the Anti-tumor Effect of CSF1 Receptor Blockade by Inducing PMN-MDSC Infiltration of Tumors.
Vinit Kumar, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, +27 authors, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
Cancer Cell, 2017 Nov 15; 32(5). PMID: 29136508    Free PMC article.
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Comprehensive analysis of the clinical immuno-oncology landscape.
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Ann Oncol, 2017 Dec 12; 29(1). PMID: 29228097
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Single-cell profiling of human gliomas reveals macrophage ontogeny as a basis for regional differences in macrophage activation in the tumor microenvironment.
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Genome Biol, 2017 Dec 22; 18(1). PMID: 29262845    Free PMC article.
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Macrophages orchestrate breast cancer early dissemination and metastasis.
Nina Linde, Maria Casanova-Acebes, +10 authors, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso.
Nat Commun, 2018 Jan 04; 9(1). PMID: 29295986    Free PMC article.
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Infiltration of primary and metastatic melanomas with macrophages of the 25F9-positive phenotype.
E B Bröcker, G Zwadlo, +2 authors, C Sorg.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 1987 Jan 01; 25(2). PMID: 3664532
Immunohistochemical localization of a macrophage-specific antigen in developing mouse retina: phagocytosis of dying neurons and differentiation of microglial cells to form a regular array in the plexiform layers.
D A Hume, V H Perry, S Gordon.
J Cell Biol, 1983 Jul 01; 97(1). PMID: 6345555    Free PMC article.
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The mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80. Relationship between macrophages, Langerhans cells, reticular cells, and dendritic cells in lymphoid and hematopoietic organs.
D A Hume, A P Robinson, G G MacPherson, S Gordon.
J Exp Med, 1983 Nov 01; 158(5). PMID: 6355361    Free PMC article.
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Mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80. Identification of resident macrophages in renal medullary and cortical interstitium and the juxtaglomerular complex.
D A Hume, S Gordon.
J Exp Med, 1983 May 01; 157(5). PMID: 6854206    Free PMC article.
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W T Daems, J M de Bakker.
Immunobiology, 1982 Apr 01; 161(3-4). PMID: 7047370
Macrophage recruitment during limb development and wound healing in the embryonic and foetal mouse.
J Hopkinson-Woolley, D Hughes, S Gordon, P Martin.
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Immunohistochemical expression of CD68 antigen in human peripheral blood T cells.
A Hameed, R H Hruban, +2 authors, W M Fox.
Hum Pathol, 1994 Sep 01; 25(9). PMID: 8088761
Anti-colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody staining in primary breast adenocarcinomas correlates with marked inflammatory cell infiltrates and prognosis.
S M Scholl, C Pallud, +6 authors, R Lidereau.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 1994 Jan 19; 86(2). PMID: 8271294
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Aberrant expression of macrophage-associated antigens (CD68 and Ki-M1P) by Schwann cells in reactive and neoplastic neural tissue. Light- and electron-microscopic findings.
E Kaiserling, J C Xiao, P Ruck, H P Horny.
Mod Pathol, 1993 Jul 01; 6(4). PMID: 8415593
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M Naito, S Umeda, +6 authors, K Takahashi.
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Diverse Functions of Macrophages in Different Tumor Microenvironments.
Ming Yang, Daniel McKay, Jeffrey W Pollard, Claire E Lewis.
Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 13; 78(19). PMID: 30206177    Free PMC article.
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Chimeric antigen receptor macrophage therapy for breast tumours mediated by targeting the tumour extracellular matrix.
Wenlong Zhang, Ling Liu, +8 authors, Pingping Shen.
Br J Cancer, 2019 Oct 02; 121(10). PMID: 31570753    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated macrophages: an accomplice in solid tumor progression.
Yibing Chen, Yucen Song, +3 authors, Zhengzhi Zou.
J Biomed Sci, 2019 Oct 21; 26(1). PMID: 31629410    Free PMC article.
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IL27Rα Deficiency Alters Endothelial Cell Function and Subverts Tumor Angiogenesis in Mammary Carcinoma.
Annika F Fink, Giorgia Ciliberti, +6 authors, Bernhard Brüne.
Front Oncol, 2019 Oct 23; 9. PMID: 31637217    Free PMC article.
Digitaldlsorter: Deep-Learning on scRNA-Seq to Deconvolute Gene Expression Data.
Carlos Torroja, Fatima Sanchez-Cabo.
Front Genet, 2019 Nov 12; 10. PMID: 31708961    Free PMC article.
Targeted Delivery of siRNA Lipoplexes to Cancer Cells Using Macrophage Transient Horizontal Gene Transfer.
Elizabeth C Wayne, Christian Long, +4 authors, Alexander V Kabanov.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2019 Nov 16; 6(21). PMID: 31728272    Free PMC article.
Intraperitoneal cancer-immune microenvironment promotes peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.
Shuichi Sakamoto, Shunsuke Kagawa, +10 authors, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Nov 20; 8(12). PMID: 31741772    Free PMC article.
Harnessing tumor-associated macrophages as aids for cancer immunotherapy.
Xiaolei Li, Rui Liu, +4 authors, Yufang Shi.
Mol Cancer, 2019 Dec 07; 18(1). PMID: 31805946    Free PMC article.
MicroRNAs in tumor immunity: functional regulation in tumor-associated macrophages.
Chong Chen, Jia-Ming Liu, Yun-Ping Luo.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2020 Jan 04; 21(1). PMID: 31898439    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Infiltrating Immunosuppressive Cells in Cancer-Cell Plasticity, Tumor Progression and Therapy Response.
Laura Lorenzo-Sanz, Purificación Muñoz.
Cancer Microenviron, 2019 Oct 05; 12(2-3). PMID: 31583529    Free PMC article.
Innate αβ T Cells Mediate Antitumor Immunity by Orchestrating Immunogenic Macrophage Programming.
Mautin Hundeyin, Emma Kurz, +34 authors, George Miller.
Cancer Discov, 2019 Jul 04; 9(9). PMID: 31266770    Free PMC article.
Immuno-PET identifies the myeloid compartment as a key contributor to the outcome of the antitumor response under PD-1 blockade.
Mohammad Rashidian, Martin W LaFleur, +13 authors, Hidde L Ploegh.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Aug 04; 116(34). PMID: 31375632    Free PMC article.
Wnt Signaling Cascade in Dendritic Cells and Regulation of Anti-tumor Immunity.
Amol Suryawanshi, Mohamed S Hussein, Puttur D Prasad, Santhakumar Manicassamy.
Front Immunol, 2020 Mar 07; 11. PMID: 32132993    Free PMC article.
Tumor cell-released autophagosomes (TRAPs) promote immunosuppression through induction of M2-like macrophages with increased expression of PD-L1.
Zhi-Fa Wen, Hongxiang Liu, +12 authors, Li-Xin Wang.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Dec 20; 6(1). PMID: 30563569    Free PMC article.
Development of innate immune cells from human pluripotent stem cells.
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Exp Hematol, 2019 Jan 07; 71. PMID: 30611869    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment Modulates Immunological Outcomes of Myeloid Cells with mTORC1 Disruption.
Chuanlin Ding, Xiaomin Sun, +3 authors, Jun Yan.
J Immunol, 2019 Jan 23; 202(5). PMID: 30665937    Free PMC article.
Toward Normalization of the Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Therapy.
Jie Zheng, Peng Gao.
Integr Cancer Ther, 2019 Jul 10; 18. PMID: 31282197    Free PMC article.
Treg Cells Promote the SREBP1-Dependent Metabolic Fitness of Tumor-Promoting Macrophages via Repression of CD8+ T Cell-Derived Interferon-γ.
Chang Liu, Maria Chikina, +13 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Immunity, 2019 Jul 28; 51(2). PMID: 31350177    Free PMC article.
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Immunosurveillance and Immunoediting of Lung Cancer: Current Perspectives and Challenges.
Kei Kunimasa, Taichiro Goto.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jan 23; 21(2). PMID: 31963413    Free PMC article.
FTY720 Exerts Anti-Glioma Effects by Regulating the Glioma Microenvironment Through Increased CXCR4 Internalization by Glioma-Associated Microglia.
Xu-Dong Guo, Juan Ji, +4 authors, Xiu-Lan Sun.
Front Immunol, 2020 Mar 21; 11. PMID: 32194542    Free PMC article.
Microlocalization and clinical significance of stabilin-1+ macrophages in treatment-naïve patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Bo Wang, Hao Huang, +7 authors, Jian Huang.
World J Urol, 2019 Jul 16; 38(3). PMID: 31302753    Free PMC article.
The Immune Microenvironment in Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Before and After Preoperative Chemotherapy.
Adrienne G Waks, Daniel G Stover, +26 authors, Sara M Tolaney.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 May 08; 25(15). PMID: 31061067    Free PMC article.
Macrophages as a Source and Recipient of Wnt Signals.
Elizabeth S Malsin, Seokjo Kim, Anna P Lam, Cara J Gottardi.
Front Immunol, 2019 Aug 17; 10. PMID: 31417574    Free PMC article.
The Remarkable Plasticity of Macrophages: A Chance to Fight Cancer.
Nadège Bercovici, Marion V Guérin, Alain Trautmann, Emmanuel Donnadieu.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jul 30; 10. PMID: 31354719    Free PMC article.
Revisiting Cancer Stem Cells as the Origin of Cancer-Associated Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment: A Hypothetical View from the Potential of iPSCs.
Amira Osman, Said M Afify, +3 authors, Masaharu Seno.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Apr 09; 12(4). PMID: 32260363    Free PMC article.
Macrophage-cancer hybrid membrane-coated nanoparticles for targeting lung metastasis in breast cancer therapy.
Chunai Gong, Xiaoyan Yu, +6 authors, Yongfang Yuan.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2020 Jun 18; 18(1). PMID: 32546174    Free PMC article.
Macrophage Modification Strategies for Efficient Cell Therapy.
Anastasiya S Poltavets, Polina A Vishnyakova, +2 authors, Timur Kh Fatkhudinov.
Cells, 2020 Jul 01; 9(6). PMID: 32599709    Free PMC article.
Emerging neo adjuvants for harnessing therapeutic potential of M1 tumor associated macrophages (TAM) against solid tumors: Enusage of plasticity.
Vinod Nadella, Manoj Garg, +3 authors, Hridayesh Prakash.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Sep 22; 8(16). PMID: 32953829    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic value of CD206+CD14+ macrophages in diagnosis of lung cancer originated malignant pleural effusion.
Xue-Bin Pei, Xiu-Zhi Wu, +2 authors, Huan-Zhong Shi.
J Thorac Dis, 2019 Aug 30; 11(7). PMID: 31463100    Free PMC article.
QSP-IO: A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Toolbox for Mechanistic Multiscale Modeling for Immuno-Oncology Applications.
Richard J Sové, Mohammad Jafarnejad, +3 authors, Aleksander S Popel.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol, 2020 Jul 04; 9(9). PMID: 32618119    Free PMC article.
M1 Macrophage and M1/M2 ratio defined by transcriptomic signatures resemble only part of their conventional clinical characteristics in breast cancer.
Masanori Oshi, Yoshihisa Tokumaru, +9 authors, Kazuaki Takabe.
Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 08; 10(1). PMID: 33024179    Free PMC article.
Specific Effects of Trabectedin and Lurbinectedin on Human Macrophage Function and Fate-Novel Insights.
Adrián Povo-Retana, Marina Mojena, +9 authors, Lisardo Boscá.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 24; 12(10). PMID: 33092171    Free PMC article.
Shp1 Loss Enhances Macrophage Effector Function and Promotes Anti-Tumor Immunity.
Darienne R Myers, Clare L Abram, +13 authors, Clifford A Lowell.
Front Immunol, 2020 Nov 03; 11. PMID: 33133093    Free PMC article.
Tackling TAMs for Cancer Immunotherapy: It's Nano Time.
Yishun Yang, Jianfeng Guo, Leaf Huang.
Trends Pharmacol Sci, 2020 Sep 19; 41(10). PMID: 32946772    Free PMC article.
Targeting dual signalling pathways in concert with immune checkpoints for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Erik S Knudsen, Vishnu Kumarasamy, +11 authors, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz.
Gut, 2020 May 20; 70(1). PMID: 32424005    Free PMC article.
Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Increase the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Glimpse into Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Metastatic Melanoma.
Claudia Ceci, Maria Grazia Atzori, Pedro Miguel Lacal, Grazia Graziani.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 21; 12(11). PMID: 33212945    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated macrophages: a short compendium.
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Cell Mol Life Sci, 2019 Feb 13; 76(8). PMID: 30747250
The Contribution of the Immune System in Bone Metastasis Pathogenesis.
Lisha Xiang, Daniele M Gilkes.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Mar 03; 20(4). PMID: 30823602    Free PMC article.
Preclinical evaluation of 3D185, a novel potent inhibitor of FGFR1/2/3 and CSF-1R, in FGFR-dependent and macrophage-dominant cancer models.
Xia Peng, Pengcong Hou, +13 authors, Jing Ai.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 24; 38(1). PMID: 31438996    Free PMC article.
Systemic inflammation in colorectal cancer: Underlying factors, effects, and prognostic significance.
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World J Gastroenterol, 2019 Sep 10; 25(31). PMID: 31496619    Free PMC article.
Optimised generation of iPSC-derived macrophages and dendritic cells that are functionally and transcriptionally similar to their primary counterparts.
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PLoS One, 2020 Dec 18; 15(12). PMID: 33332401    Free PMC article.
The Prognostic Role of Macrophage Polarization in the Colorectal Cancer Microenvironment.
Juha P Väyrynen, Koichiro Haruki, +26 authors, Jonathan A Nowak.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2020 Oct 08; 9(1). PMID: 33023967    Free PMC article.
Polarization of intestinal tumour-associated macrophages regulates the development of schistosomal colorectal cancer.
Zijian Wang, Zhixiang Du, +5 authors, Jianghua Yang.
J Cancer, 2021 Jan 15; 12(4). PMID: 33442402    Free PMC article.
A 3D View of Colorectal Cancer Models in Predicting Therapeutic Responses and Resistance.
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Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 14; 13(2). PMID: 33435170    Free PMC article.
Multi-scale modeling of macrophage-T cell interactions within the tumor microenvironment.
Colin G Cess, Stacey D Finley.
PLoS Comput Biol, 2020 Dec 29; 16(12). PMID: 33362239    Free PMC article.
Extracellular vesicles shed from gastric cancer mediate protumor macrophage differentiation.
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BMC Cancer, 2021 Jan 30; 21(1). PMID: 33509150    Free PMC article.
Application of a Scavenger Receptor A1-Targeted Polymeric Prodrug Platform for Lymphatic Drug Delivery in HIV.
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Mol Pharm, 2020 Aug 26; 17(10). PMID: 32841040    Free PMC article.
ILT4 inhibition prevents TAM- and dysfunctional T cell-mediated immunosuppression and enhances the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 therapy in NSCLC with EGFR activation.
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Characterization of Macrophages and Osteoclasts in the Osteosarcoma Tumor Microenvironment at Diagnosis: New Perspective for Osteosarcoma Treatment?
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Pro-tumorigenic functions of macrophages at the primary, invasive and metastatic tumor site.
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Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Jun 06; 69(9). PMID: 32500231
Aging-Associated Alterations in Mammary Epithelia and Stroma Revealed by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing.
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Cell Rep, 2020 Dec 31; 33(13). PMID: 33378681    Free PMC article.
Cancer stem cells and macrophages: molecular connections and future perspectives against cancer.
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Targeting immunosuppressive macrophages overcomes PARP inhibitor resistance in BRCA1-associated triple-negative breast cancer.
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Plinabulin, a Distinct Microtubule-Targeting Chemotherapy, Promotes M1-Like Macrophage Polarization and Anti-tumor Immunity.
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Harnessing and Enhancing Macrophage Phagocytosis for Cancer Therapy.
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Front Immunol, 2021 Apr 02; 12. PMID: 33790906    Free PMC article.
Reprograming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Breast Tumor-Bearing Mice under Chemotherapy by Targeting Heme Oxygenase-1.
Seung Hyeon Kim, Su-Jung Kim, +9 authors, Young-Joon Surh.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 10(3). PMID: 33809707    Free PMC article.
Locally advanced gastroesophageal junction cancer with pathological complete response to neoadjuvant therapy: a case report and literature review.
Xiaoying Li, Qian Huang, +4 authors, Ming Liu.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Apr 15; 9(6). PMID: 33850910    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Associated Macrophages-Implications for Molecular Oncology and Imaging.
Melanie A Kimm, Christopher Klenk, +5 authors, Moritz Wildgruber.
Biomedicines, 2021 May 01; 9(4). PMID: 33918295    Free PMC article.
Role of Myeloid Cells in Oncolytic Reovirus-Based Cancer Therapy.
Vishnupriyan Kumar, Michael A Giacomantonio, Shashi Gujar.
Viruses, 2021 May 01; 13(4). PMID: 33920168    Free PMC article.
Macrophage Biology and Mechanisms of Immune Suppression in Breast Cancer.
Anita K Mehta, Sapana Kadel, +2 authors, Jennifer L Guerriero.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 11; 12. PMID: 33968034    Free PMC article.
Tumor and immune reprogramming during immunotherapy in advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Kevin Bi, Meng Xiao He, +27 authors, Eliezer M Van Allen.
Cancer Cell, 2021 Mar 13; 39(5). PMID: 33711272    Free PMC article.
Getting TANned: How the tumor microenvironment drives neutrophil recruitment.
Shuvasree SenGupta, Bhagawat C Subramanian, Carole A Parent.
J Leukoc Biol, 2018 Dec 15; 105(3). PMID: 30549315    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Targets and Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer.
Gaetano Gallo, Giuseppina Vescio, Gilda De Paola, Giuseppe Sammarco.
J Clin Med, 2021 Jun 03; 10(11). PMID: 34070480    Free PMC article.
Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Review.
Kyoko Oura, Asahiro Morishita, Joji Tani, Tsutomu Masaki.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jun 03; 22(11). PMID: 34071550    Free PMC article.
Identification of macrophage related gene in colorectal cancer patients and their functional roles.
Yingxiang Chen, Cui Zhang, +6 authors, Bin Liu.
BMC Med Genomics, 2021 Jun 15; 14(1). PMID: 34120619    Free PMC article.
The Immunology of Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.
Jonathan Goldberg, Ricardo G Pastorello, +9 authors, Jennifer L Guerriero.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jun 18; 12. PMID: 34135901    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Associated Macrophages: A Potential Target for Cancer Therapy.
Yifan Tan, Min Wang, +4 authors, Chuanyu Sun.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 29; 11. PMID: 34178692    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Multifaceted Regulators of Breast Tumor Growth.
Maliha Tabassum Munir, Matthew K Kay, +6 authors, Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jul 03; 22(12). PMID: 34207035    Free PMC article.
The Impact of the Tumor Microenvironment on Macrophage Polarization in Cancer Metastatic Progression.
Huogang Wang, Mingo M H Yung, +2 authors, David W Chan.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jul 03; 22(12). PMID: 34207286    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Characterization of Immune Landscape Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Signature in OSCC: Implication for Prognosis and Immunotherapy.
Si-Yuan Zhang, Xian-Yue Ren, +9 authors, Tong Wu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 20; 11. PMID: 34277389    Free PMC article.
CAFs Interacting With TAMs in Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumorigenesis and Immune Evasion.
Gurcan Gunaydin.
Front Oncol, 2021 Aug 03; 11. PMID: 34336660    Free PMC article.
Preclinical evaluation of AFM24, a novel CD16A-specific innate immune cell engager targeting EGFR-positive tumors.
Susanne Wingert, Uwe Reusch, +13 authors, Erich Rajkovic.
MAbs, 2021 Jul 31; 13(1). PMID: 34325617    Free PMC article.
Tumor Associated Macrophages, as the Dominant Immune Cells, Are an Indispensable Target for Immunologically Cold Tumor-Glioma Therapy?
Ni Tong, Zhenqiang He, +9 authors, Qirui Wang.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Aug 10; 9. PMID: 34368156    Free PMC article.
Green nanotechnology of MGF-AuNPs for immunomodulatory intervention in prostate cancer therapy.
Menka Khoobchandani, Aslam Khan, +7 authors, Kattesh V Katti.
Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 20; 11(1). PMID: 34408231    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Analyses of the Infiltrating Immune Cell Landscape and Its Clinical Significance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Zeyu Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Yun Huang.
Int J Gen Med, 2021 Aug 28; 14. PMID: 34447264    Free PMC article.
DMF Activates NRF2 to Inhibit the Pro-Invasion Ability of TAMs in Breast Cancer.
Ying Li, Yaxu Jia, Yurong Xu, Kan Li.
Front Oncol, 2021 Sep 04; 11. PMID: 34476214    Free PMC article.
Systemic Inflammation Associates With a Myeloid Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment in Primary Resected Colon Cancer-May Cold Tumors Simply Be Too Hot?
Anne Helene Køstner, Patricia Switten Nielsen, +4 authors, Torben Steiniche.
Front Immunol, 2021 Sep 18; 12. PMID: 34531864    Free PMC article.
Molecular correlates of response to eribulin and pembrolizumab in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Tanya E Keenan, Jennifer L Guerriero, +26 authors, Sara M Tolaney.
Nat Commun, 2021 Sep 23; 12(1). PMID: 34548479    Free PMC article.
Modulation of macrophages by a paeoniflorin-loaded hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel promotes diabetic wound healing.
Hao Yang, Liu Song, +7 authors, Jianfeng Guo.
Mater Today Bio, 2021 Oct 12; 12. PMID: 34632363    Free PMC article.
Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) in macrophages promotes the migration of HER2-positive breast cancer cells and monocyte recruitment through CCL2-CCR2 signaling.
Shin Ung Kang, Soo Youn Cho, +7 authors, Mi Jeong Kwon.
Lab Invest, 2021 Nov 15; 102(4). PMID: 34775491
Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Metastases.
Jozef Ban, Valerie Fock, Dave N T Aryee, Heinrich Kovar.
Cells, 2021 Nov 28; 10(11). PMID: 34831167    Free PMC article.
Microglial-stimulation of glioma invasion involves the EGFR ligand amphiregulin.
Salvatore J Coniglio, Jeffrey E Segall.
PLoS One, 2021 Nov 30; 16(11). PMID: 34843542    Free PMC article.
Ezh2 is essential for the generation of functional yolk sac derived erythro-myeloid progenitors.
Wen Hao Neo, Yiran Meng, +8 authors, Georges Lacaud.
Nat Commun, 2021 Dec 04; 12(1). PMID: 34857757    Free PMC article.
circRNAs: Insight Into Their Role in Tumor-Associated Macrophages.
Saili Duan, Shan Wang, +2 authors, Xiaoqing Yuan.
Front Oncol, 2021 Dec 21; 11. PMID: 34926295    Free PMC article.
The Immuno-Modulation Effect of Macrophage-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases.
Yi Xing, Xun Sun, +4 authors, Yanhong Zhao.
Front Immunol, 2022 Jan 04; 12. PMID: 34975877    Free PMC article.
Immune Phenotype and Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Clinton Yam, Er-Yen Yen, +28 authors, Elizabeth A Mittendorf.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Jul 14; 27(19). PMID: 34253579    Free PMC article.
RGS12 inhibits the progression and metastasis of multiple myeloma by driving M1 macrophage polarization and activation in the bone marrow microenvironment.
Gongsheng Yuan, Yan Huang, +2 authors, Shuying Yang.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2021 Dec 22; 42(1). PMID: 34931491    Free PMC article.
Ginseng-derived nanoparticles potentiate immune checkpoint antibody efficacy by reprogramming the cold tumor microenvironment.
Xuan Han, Qin Wei, +9 authors, Peng Cao.
Mol Ther, 2021 Aug 28; 30(1). PMID: 34450250    Free PMC article.
The allergy mediator histamine confers resistance to immunotherapy in cancer patients via activation of the macrophage histamine receptor H1.
Hongzhong Li, Yi Xiao, +17 authors, Dihua Yu.
Cancer Cell, 2021 Nov 26; 40(1). PMID: 34822775    Free PMC article.
Pharmacological inhibition of BACE1 suppresses glioblastoma growth by stimulating macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells.
Kui Zhai, Zhi Huang, +7 authors, Shideng Bao.
Nat Cancer, 2022 Feb 06; 2(11). PMID: 35122055    Free PMC article.
Intervening pyruvate carboxylase stunts tumor growth by strengthening anti-tumor actions of tumor-associated macrophages.
Yuxin Shu, Nanfei Yang, +7 authors, Pingping Shen.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2022 Feb 03; 7(1). PMID: 35105865    Free PMC article.
Redirecting macrophage function to sustain their "defender" antitumor activity.
Stephanie L Tzetzo, Scott I Abrams.
Cancer Cell, 2021 Apr 03; 39(6). PMID: 33798473    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated macrophages in cancer: recent advancements in cancer nanoimmunotherapies.
Nisha Kumari, Seung Hong Choi.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022 Feb 21; 41(1). PMID: 35183252    Free PMC article.
Exosome-mediated genetic reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages by exoASO-STAT6 leads to potent monotherapy antitumor activity.
Sushrut Kamerkar, Charan Leng, +15 authors, Sriram Sathyanarayanan.
Sci Adv, 2022 Feb 19; 8(7). PMID: 35179953    Free PMC article.
Molecular imaging of tumor-associated macrophages in cancer immunotherapy.
Xiaoying Li, Ruike Wang, +7 authors, Wei Li.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2022 Mar 08; 14. PMID: 35251314    Free PMC article.
Modulation of Gut Microbiota Combined with Upregulation of Intestinal Tight Junction Explains Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Corylin on Colitis-Associated Cancer in Mice.
Zi-Yu Chang, Hsuan-Miao Liu, +2 authors, Tzung-Yan Lee.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Mar 11; 23(5). PMID: 35269806    Free PMC article.
Landscape and perspectives of macrophage -targeted cancer therapy in clinical trials.
Shuhang Wang, Yuqi Yang, +10 authors, Ning Li.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2022 Mar 24; 24. PMID: 35317518    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Mediated Neutrophil Polarization and Therapeutic Implications.
Sofia Raftopoulou, Paulina Valadez-Cosmes, +2 authors, Julia Kargl.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Mar 26; 23(6). PMID: 35328639    Free PMC article.
Role of macrophages in tumor progression and therapy (Review).
Yiwei Xu, Xiaomin Wang, +3 authors, Changgang Sun.
Int J Oncol, 2022 Apr 02; 60(5). PMID: 35362544    Free PMC article.
Dual Effect of Immune Cells within Tumour Microenvironment: Pro- and Anti-Tumour Effects and Their Triggers.
Alicia Cristina Peña-Romero, Esteban Orenes-Piñero.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Apr 13; 14(7). PMID: 35406451    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated macrophages in multiple myeloma: advances in biology and therapy.
Jennifer Sun, Chaelee Park, +9 authors, Abdel Kareem Azab.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022 Apr 17; 10(4). PMID: 35428704    Free PMC article.
Roles of exosomal circRNAs in tumour immunity and cancer progression.
Baojing Tuo, Zhuang Chen, +4 authors, Zhenqiang Sun.
Cell Death Dis, 2022 Jun 09; 13(6). PMID: 35676257