. 2018 Jul; 41(1):69-85.
doi: 10.1007/s00281-018-0691-z.

Therapeutic cancer vaccine: building the future from lessons of the past

T Tran 1 C Blanc 1 C Granier 1 A Saldmann 1 C Tanchot 1 Eric Tartour 2 
  • PMID: 29978248
  •     177 References
  •     23 citations


Anti-cancer vaccines have raised many hopes from the start of immunotherapy but have not yet been clinically successful. The few positive results of anti-cancer vaccines have been observed in clinical situations of low tumor burden or preneoplastic lesions. Several new concepts and new results reposition this therapeutic approach in the field of immunotherapy. Indeed, cancers that respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 (20-30%) are those that are infiltrated by anti-tumor T cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. However, 70% of cancers do not appear to have an anti-tumor immune reaction in the tumor microenvironment. To induce this anti-tumor immunity, therapeutic combinations between vaccines and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 are being evaluated. In addition, the identification of neoepitopes against which the immune system is less tolerated is giving rise to a new enthusiasm by the first clinical results of the vaccine including these neoepitopes in humans. The ability of anti-cancer vaccines to induce a population of anti-tumor T cells called memory resident T cells that play an important role in immunosurveillance is also a new criterion to consider in the design of therapeutic vaccines.

Keywords: CD8+ T cells; Cancer vaccine; Checkpoint inhibitor; Resident memory T cells; Therapeutic combination; Tumor antigens.

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Science, 2014 May 09; 344(6184). PMID: 24812403    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A phase I study of vaccination with NY-ESO-1f peptide mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.
Kazuhiro Kakimi, Midori Isobe, +17 authors, Eiichi Nakayama.
Int J Cancer, 2011 Mar 31; 129(12). PMID: 21448901
Cancer vaccine adjuvants--recent clinical progress and future perspectives.
Abid H Banday, Salika Jeelani, Victor J Hruby.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 2014 Oct 17; 37(1). PMID: 25318595
Increased vaccine-specific T cell frequency after peptide-based vaccination correlates with increased susceptibility to in vitro stimulation but does not lead to tumor regression.
K H Lee, E Wang, +6 authors, F M Marincola.
J Immunol, 1999 Nov 26; 163(11). PMID: 10570323
Tumor-targeted delivery of sunitinib base enhances vaccine therapy for advanced melanoma by remodeling the tumor microenvironment.
Meirong Huo, Yan Zhao, +3 authors, Leaf Huang.
J Control Release, 2016 Nov 20; 245. PMID: 27863995    Free PMC article.
Radiation and Anti-Cancer Vaccines: A Winning Combination.
Alexandra Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, +3 authors, Maria Angelica Cortez.
Vaccines (Basel), 2018 Feb 02; 6(1). PMID: 29385680    Free PMC article.
Efficacy of the MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected MAGE-A3-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (MAGRIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Johan F Vansteenkiste, Byoung Chul Cho, +27 authors, Nasser Altorki.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 May 02; 17(6). PMID: 27132212
Highly Cited.
Cancer vaccines: translation from mice to human clinical trials.
Hoyoung Maeng, Masaki Terabe, Jay A Berzofsky.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2018 Mar 20; 51. PMID: 29554495    Free PMC article.
Targeting fibroblast activation protein in cancer - Prospects and caveats.
Petr Busek, Rosana Mateu, +2 authors, Aleksi Sedo.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed), 2018 May 18; 23(10). PMID: 29772538
Mining exomic sequencing data to identify mutated antigens recognized by adoptively transferred tumor-reactive T cells.
Paul F Robbins, Yong-Chen Lu, +9 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
Nat Med, 2013 May 07; 19(6). PMID: 23644516    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma.
P van der Bruggen, C Traversari, +5 authors, T Boon.
Science, 1991 Dec 13; 254(5038). PMID: 1840703
Highly Cited.
Unique potential of 4-1BB agonist antibody to promote durable regression of HPV+ tumors when combined with an E6/E7 peptide vaccine.
Todd Bartkowiak, Shailbala Singh, +6 authors, Michael A Curran.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Sep 10; 112(38). PMID: 26351680    Free PMC article.
Immunization with a P53 synthetic long peptide vaccine induces P53-specific immune responses in ovarian cancer patients, a phase II trial.
Ninke Leffers, Annechien J A Lambeck, +17 authors, Hans W Nijman.
Int J Cancer, 2009 Jul 22; 125(9). PMID: 19621448
Immunologic response to the survivin-derived multi-epitope vaccine EMD640744 in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Volker Lennerz, Stefanie Gross, +12 authors, Eckhart Kaempgen.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2014 Feb 04; 63(4). PMID: 24487961
A Therapeutic Her2/neu Vaccine Targeting Dendritic Cells Preferentially Inhibits the Growth of Low Her2/neu-Expressing Tumor in HLA-A2 Transgenic Mice.
Thi Tran, Mariana O Diniz, +10 authors, Eric Tartour.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Mar 24; 22(16). PMID: 27006496
Dual blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 combined with tumor vaccine effectively restores T-cell rejection function in tumors.
Jaikumar Duraiswamy, Karen M Kaluza, Gordon J Freeman, George Coukos.
Cancer Res, 2013 May 02; 73(12). PMID: 23633484    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The Balance Players of the Adaptive Immune System.
Mads Hald Andersen.
Cancer Res, 2018 Feb 15; 78(6). PMID: 29440147
Synthetic melanin bound to subunit vaccine antigens significantly enhances CD8+ T-cell responses.
Antoine F Carpentier, Frédéric Geinguenaud, +5 authors, Claire Banissi.
PLoS One, 2017 Jul 18; 12(7). PMID: 28715455    Free PMC article.
The multifaceted role of CD4(+) T cells in CD8(+) T cell memory.
Brian J Laidlaw, Joseph E Craft, Susan M Kaech.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2016 Jan 20; 16(2). PMID: 26781939    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
OX40 engagement and chemotherapy combination provides potent antitumor immunity with concomitant regulatory T cell apoptosis.
Daniel Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, +6 authors, Alan N Houghton.
J Exp Med, 2009 May 06; 206(5). PMID: 19414558    Free PMC article.
Concurrent PD-1 Blockade Negates the Effects of OX40 Agonist Antibody in Combination Immunotherapy through Inducing T-cell Apoptosis.
Rajeev K Shrimali, Shamim Ahmad, +12 authors, Samir N Khleif.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2017 Aug 30; 5(9). PMID: 28848055
Highly Cited.
Correlates of immune and clinical activity of novel cancer vaccines.
Sjoerd H van der Burg.
Semin Immunol, 2018 May 02; 39. PMID: 29709421
Synergy of Radiotherapy and a Cancer Vaccine for the Treatment of HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancer.
Michele Mondini, Mevyn Nizard, +15 authors, Eric Deutsch.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2015 Apr 03; 14(6). PMID: 25833837
Adenoviral vaccination combined with CD40 stimulation and CTLA-4 blockage can lead to complete tumor regression in a murine melanoma model.
Maria R Sorensen, Peter J Holst, +2 authors, Allan R Thomsen.
Vaccine, 2010 Aug 05; 28(41). PMID: 20682365
The Shiga toxin B-subunit targets antigen in vivo to dendritic cells and elicits anti-tumor immunity.
Benoit Vingert, Olivier Adotevi, +10 authors, Eric Tartour.
Eur J Immunol, 2006 Mar 29; 36(5). PMID: 16568496
Targeting dendritic cells: a promising strategy to improve vaccine effectiveness.
Christophe Macri, Claire Dumont, Angus Pr Johnston, Justine D Mintern.
Clin Transl Immunology, 2016 May 25; 5(3). PMID: 27217957    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
PD-1 and Tim-3 regulate the expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells induced by melanoma vaccines.
Julien Fourcade, Zhaojun Sun, +14 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
Cancer Res, 2013 Dec 18; 74(4). PMID: 24343228    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Dacarbazine (DTIC) versus vaccination with autologous peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma: a randomized phase III trial of the DC study group of the DeCOG.
D Schadendorf, S Ugurel, +18 authors, DC study group of the DeCOG.
Ann Oncol, 2006 Jan 19; 17(4). PMID: 16418308
Highly Cited.
Phase II Study of Autologous Monocyte-Derived mRNA Electroporated Dendritic Cells (TriMixDC-MEL) Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Pretreated Advanced Melanoma.
Sofie Wilgenhof, Jurgen Corthals, +5 authors, Bart Neyns.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Mar 02; 34(12). PMID: 26926680
Highly Cited.
Analysis and characterization of antitumor T-cell response after administration of dendritic cells loaded with allogeneic tumor lysate to metastatic melanoma patients.
Nadege Bercovici, Nacilla Haicheur, +15 authors, Eric Tartour.
J Immunother, 2007 Dec 25; 31(1). PMID: 18157017
Tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts.
Sergio A Quezada, Tyler R Simpson, +9 authors, James P Allison.
J Exp Med, 2010 Feb 17; 207(3). PMID: 20156971    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial.
Mariette I E van Poelgeest, Marij J P Welters, +13 authors, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
J Transl Med, 2013 Apr 06; 11. PMID: 23557172    Free PMC article.
CD4+ T lymphocytes play a critical role in antibody production and tumor immunity against simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.
Ronald C Kennedy, Michael H Shearer, Allison M Watts, Robert K Bright.
Cancer Res, 2003 Mar 05; 63(5). PMID: 12615720
Peptide Vaccine Formulation Controls the Duration of Antigen Presentation and Magnitude of Tumor-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response.
Hiep Khong, Annika Volmari, +10 authors, Willem W Overwijk.
J Immunol, 2018 Apr 13; 200(10). PMID: 29643190    Free PMC article.
A nonapeptide encoded by human gene MAGE-1 is recognized on HLA-A1 by cytolytic T lymphocytes directed against tumor antigen MZ2-E.
C Traversari, P van der Bruggen, +6 authors, T Boon.
J Exp Med, 1992 Nov 01; 176(5). PMID: 1402688    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Antibody-targeted NY-ESO-1 to mannose receptor or DEC-205 in vitro elicits dual human CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses with broad antigen specificity.
Takemasa Tsuji, Junko Matsuzaki, +8 authors, Sacha Gnjatic.
J Immunol, 2010 Dec 15; 186(2). PMID: 21149605
Emerging Therapeutic Options for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.
Miguel Martin, Sara López-Tarruella.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book, 2016 Jun 02; 35. PMID: 27249772
Recombinant viral vaccines for cancer.
Ryan Cawood, Thomas Hills, +4 authors, Leonard W Seymour.
Trends Mol Med, 2012 Aug 25; 18(9). PMID: 22917663
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumour antigens recognized by T lymphocytes: at the core of cancer immunotherapy.
Pierre G Coulie, Benoît J Van den Eynde, Pierre van der Bruggen, Thierry Boon.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2014 Jan 25; 14(2). PMID: 24457417
Highly Cited. Review.
Determinant spreading associated with clinical response in dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for malignant melanoma.
Lisa H Butterfield, Antoni Ribas, +10 authors, James S Economou.
Clin Cancer Res, 2003 Mar 13; 9(3). PMID: 12631598
Survivin-specific T-cell reactivity correlates with tumor response and patient survival: a phase-II peptide vaccination trial in metastatic melanoma.
Jürgen C Becker, Mads H Andersen, +12 authors, Selma Ugurel.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2012 May 09; 61(11). PMID: 22565484    Free PMC article.
Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer.
Sebastian Kreiter, Mathias Vormehr, +12 authors, Ugur Sahin.
Nature, 2015 Apr 23; 520(7549). PMID: 25901682    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A phase 1 trial extension to assess immunologic efficacy and safety of prime-boost vaccination with VXM01, an oral T cell vaccine against VEGFR2, in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
Friedrich H Schmitz-Winnenthal, Nicolas Hohmann, +16 authors, Philipp Beckhove.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Apr 11; 7(4). PMID: 29632710    Free PMC article.
CD4+ T-cell help controls CD8+ T-cell memory via TRAIL-mediated activation-induced cell death.
Edith M Janssen, Nathalie M Droin, +6 authors, Stephen P Schoenberger.
Nature, 2005 Mar 04; 434(7029). PMID: 15744305
Highly Cited.
Phase I trial of a MART-1 peptide vaccine with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for resected high-risk melanoma.
F Wang, E Bade, +5 authors, J Weber.
Clin Cancer Res, 1999 Oct 28; 5(10). PMID: 10537339
PD-1-expressing tumor-infiltrating T cells are a favorable prognostic biomarker in HPV-associated head and neck cancer.
Cécile Badoual, Stéphane Hans, +27 authors, Eric Tartour.
Cancer Res, 2012 Nov 09; 73(1). PMID: 23135914
Highly Cited.
VISTA Regulates the Development of Protective Antitumor Immunity.
Isabelle Le Mercier, Wenna Chen, +5 authors, Li Wang.
Cancer Res, 2014 Apr 03; 74(7). PMID: 24691994    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes.
Edith M Janssen, Edward E Lemmens, +3 authors, Stephen P Schoenberger.
Nature, 2003 Feb 21; 421(6925). PMID: 12594515
Highly Cited.
Tecemotide (L-BLP25) versus placebo after chemoradiotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (START): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Charles Butts, Mark A Socinski, +20 authors, START trial team.
Lancet Oncol, 2013 Dec 18; 15(1). PMID: 24331154
Highly Cited.
Vaccination against Oncoproteins of HPV16 for Noninvasive Vulvar/Vaginal Lesions: Lesion Clearance Is Related to the Strength of the T-Cell Response.
Mariëtte I E van Poelgeest, Marij J P Welters, +24 authors, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Jan 28; 22(10). PMID: 26813357
Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Philip W Kantoff, Celestia S Higano, +11 authors, IMPACT Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Sep 08; 363(5). PMID: 20818862
Highly Cited.
A phase II study of the cancer vaccine TG4010 alone and in combination with cytokines in patients with metastatic renal clear-cell carcinoma: clinical and immunological findings.
Stéphane Oudard, Olivier Rixe, +12 authors, Eric Tartour.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2010 Nov 12; 60(2). PMID: 21069322
Is There Still Room for Cancer Vaccines at the Era of Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Soumaya Karaki, Marie Anson, +4 authors, Eric Tartour.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Nov 10; 4(4). PMID: 27827885    Free PMC article.
Conjugation of lymphoma idiotype to CD40 antibody enhances lymphoma vaccine immunogenicity and antitumor effects in mice.
Jennifer Carlring, Marika J Szabo, +2 authors, Andrew W Heath.
Blood, 2012 Jan 12; 119(9). PMID: 22234700
Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of VGX-3100, a therapeutic synthetic DNA vaccine targeting human papillomavirus 16 and 18 E6 and E7 proteins for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial.
Cornelia L Trimble, Matthew P Morrow, +21 authors, Mark L Bagarazzi.
Lancet, 2015 Sep 21; 386(10008). PMID: 26386540    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Vaccination during myeloid cell depletion by cancer chemotherapy fosters robust T cell responses.
Marij J Welters, Tetje C van der Sluis, +13 authors, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
Sci Transl Med, 2016 Apr 15; 8(334). PMID: 27075626
Highly Cited.
Analysis of spontaneous tumor-specific CD4 T-cell immunity in lung cancer using promiscuous HLA-DR telomerase-derived epitopes: potential synergistic effect with chemotherapy response.
Yann Godet, Elizabeth Fabre, +14 authors, Olivier Adotévi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Mar 13; 18(10). PMID: 22407833
Randomized multicenter trial of the effects of melanoma-associated helper peptides and cyclophosphamide on the immunogenicity of a multipeptide melanoma vaccine.
Craig L Slingluff, Gina R Petroni, +5 authors, William W Grosh.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Jun 22; 29(21). PMID: 21690475    Free PMC article.
[Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: role in immunosurveillance and in immunotherapy].
Fabrice Benchetrit, Agnès Gazagne, +5 authors, Eric Tartour.
Bull Cancer, 2003 Nov 12; 90(8-9). PMID: 14609756
Towards a cellular definition of CD8+ T-cell memory: the role of CD4+ T-cell help in CD8+ T-cell responses.
Benedita Rocha, Corinne Tanchot.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2004 May 12; 16(3). PMID: 15134772
Combination OX40 agonism/CTLA-4 blockade with HER2 vaccination reverses T-cell anergy and promotes survival in tumor-bearing mice.
Stefanie N Linch, Melissa J Kasiewicz, +3 authors, William L Redmond.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Jan 06; 113(3). PMID: 26729864    Free PMC article.
OX40 costimulation synergizes with GM-CSF whole-cell vaccination to overcome established CD8+ T cell tolerance to an endogenous tumor antigen.
Satoshi Murata, Brian H Ladle, +8 authors, R Todd Reilly.
J Immunol, 2006 Jan 06; 176(2). PMID: 16393983
Activated lymphocyte recruitment into the tumor microenvironment following preoperative sipuleucel-T for localized prostate cancer.
Lawrence Fong, Peter Carroll, +10 authors, Eric J Small.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2014 Sep 27; 106(11). PMID: 25255802    Free PMC article.
Immunization of patients with metastatic melanoma using both class I- and class II-restricted peptides from melanoma-associated antigens.
Giao Q Phan, Christopher E Touloukian, +11 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
J Immunother, 2003 Jul 05; 26(4). PMID: 12843797    Free PMC article.
Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade.
Dung T Le, Jennifer N Durham, +43 authors, Luis A Diaz.
Science, 2017 Jun 10; 357(6349). PMID: 28596308    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors.
Marc Arbyn, Lan Xu, Cindy Simoens, Pierre Pl Martin-Hirsch.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 May 10; 5. PMID: 29740819    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Tissue-resident memory T cells play a key role in the efficacy of cancer vaccines.
C Granier, C Blanc, +3 authors, E Tartour.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Nov 18; 6(11). PMID: 29147623    Free PMC article.
Combined vaccination and immunostimulatory antibodies provides durable cure of murine melanoma and induces transcriptional changes associated with positive outcome in human melanoma patients.
A J Robert McGray, Dannie Bernard, +8 authors, Jonathan L Bramson.
Oncoimmunology, 2012 Jul 04; 1(4). PMID: 22754760    Free PMC article.
CTLA-4 blockade in combination with xenogeneic DNA vaccines enhances T-cell responses, tumor immunity and autoimmunity to self antigens in animal and cellular model systems.
Polly D Gregor, Jedd D Wolchok, +11 authors, Alan N Houghton.
Vaccine, 2004 Apr 08; 22(13-14). PMID: 15068853
Combined blockade of TIM-3 and TIM-4 augments cancer vaccine efficacy against established melanomas.
Muhammad Baghdadi, Hiroko Nagao, +4 authors, Masahisa Jinushi.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2012 Nov 13; 62(4). PMID: 23143694
TCR affinity for p/MHC formed by tumor antigens that are self-proteins: impact on efficacy and toxicity.
Jennifer D Stone, Daniel T Harris, David M Kranz.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2015 Jan 27; 33. PMID: 25618219    Free PMC article.
Eradication of large established tumors in mice by combination immunotherapy that engages innate and adaptive immune responses.
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, +19 authors, Darrell J Irvine.
Nat Med, 2016 Nov 01; 22(12). PMID: 27775706    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Treatment of metastatic melanoma with autologous CD4+ T cells against NY-ESO-1.
Naomi N Hunder, Herschel Wallen, +7 authors, Cassian Yee.
N Engl J Med, 2008 Jun 21; 358(25). PMID: 18565862    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Two distinct mechanisms of augmented antitumor activity by modulation of immunostimulatory/inhibitory signals.
Jun Mitsui, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, +9 authors, Hiroshi Shiku.
Clin Cancer Res, 2010 May 13; 16(10). PMID: 20460483
Immunogenicity of a Tripartite Cell Penetrating Peptide Containing a MUC1 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) and A T Helper Epitope.
Nicole Brooks, Jennifer Hsu, +2 authors, Geoffrey A Pietersz.
Molecules, 2018 Sep 12; 23(9). PMID: 30200528    Free PMC article.
Design of Outer Membrane Vesicles as Cancer Vaccines: A New Toolkit for Cancer Therapy.
Yingxuan Zhang, Zheyan Fang, +2 authors, Qiong Liu.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Sep 11; 11(9). PMID: 31500086    Free PMC article.
Anti-cancer immunotherapy: breakthroughs and future strategies.
Mads Hald Andersen.
Semin Immunopathol, 2018 Sep 23; 41(1). PMID: 30242450
Reader-free ELISPOT assay for immuno-monitoring in peptide-based cancer vaccine immunotherapy.
Sae Hayashi, Rin Imanishi, +12 authors, Yusuke Oji.
Biomed Rep, 2020 Apr 08; 12(5). PMID: 32257187    Free PMC article.
Personalized neoantigen vaccination with synthetic long peptides: recent advances and future perspectives.
Xiaotong Chen, Ju Yang, Lifeng Wang, Baorui Liu.
Theranostics, 2020 Jun 03; 10(13). PMID: 32483434    Free PMC article.
BCMA peptide-engineered nanoparticles enhance induction and function of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes against multiple myeloma: clinical applications.
Jooeun Bae, Neha Parayath, +3 authors, Kenneth C Anderson.
Leukemia, 2019 Aug 21; 34(1). PMID: 31427721    Free PMC article.
Cancer Immune Therapy for Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.
Morten Orebo Holmström, Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Mads Hald Andersen.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 08; 12(7). PMID: 32630667    Free PMC article.
Peptide Vaccination Against PD-L1 With IO103 a Novel Immune Modulatory Vaccine in Multiple Myeloma: A Phase I First-in-Human Trial.
Nicolai Grønne Jørgensen, Uffe Klausen, +13 authors, Mads Hald Andersen.
Front Immunol, 2020 Nov 27; 11. PMID: 33240282    Free PMC article.
Selecting Target Antigens for Cancer Vaccine Development.
Luigi Buonaguro, Maria Tagliamonte.
Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Oct 22; 8(4). PMID: 33080888    Free PMC article.
Personalized Cancer Vaccines: Clinical Landscape, Challenges, and Opportunities.
Colby S Shemesh, Joy C Hsu, +5 authors, Benjamin Wu.
Mol Ther, 2020 Oct 11; 29(2). PMID: 33038322    Free PMC article.
Cancer Vaccines: Adjuvant Potency, Importance of Age, Lifestyle, and Treatments.
Stefania Cuzzubbo, Sara Mangsbo, +3 authors, Stephanie E B McArdle.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 09; 11. PMID: 33679703    Free PMC article.
The Cellular and Chemical Biology of Endocytic Trafficking and Intracellular Delivery-The GL-Lect Hypothesis.
Ludger Johannes.
Molecules, 2021 Jun 03; 26(11). PMID: 34072622    Free PMC article.
Identification and validation of viral antigens sharing sequence and structural homology with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs).
Concetta Ragone, Carmen Manolio, +9 authors, Luigi Buonaguro.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 May 30; 9(5). PMID: 34049932    Free PMC article.
Nano-immunotherapy for each stage of cancer cellular immunity: which, why, and what?
Shiyi Zuo, Jiaxuan Song, +3 authors, Jin Sun.
Theranostics, 2021 Jun 24; 11(15). PMID: 34158861    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy and Vaccination in Surgically Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).
Li-Chung Chiu, Shu-Min Lin, +3 authors, Ping-Chih Hsu.
Vaccines (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 9(7). PMID: 34201650    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Adenovirus: Prospects for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Yaqi Zhao, Zheming Liu, +5 authors, Bin Xu.
Front Microbiol, 2021 Aug 10; 12. PMID: 34367111    Free PMC article.
Unraveling How Tumor-Derived Galectins Contribute to Anti-Cancer Immunity Failure.
Diego José Laderach, Daniel Compagno.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 13(18). PMID: 34572756    Free PMC article.
An Allogeneic Multiple Myeloma GM-CSF-Secreting Vaccine with Lenalidomide Induces Long-term Immunity and Durable Clinical Responses in Patients in Near Complete Remission.
Luca Biavati, Carol Ann Huff, +15 authors, Ivan Borrello.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Oct 21; 27(24). PMID: 34667029    Free PMC article.
Extracellular Vesicles as an Advanced Delivery Biomaterial for Precision Cancer Immunotherapy.
Shaobo Ruan, Zachary Greenberg, +3 authors, Mei He.
Adv Healthc Mater, 2021 Jul 02; 11(5). PMID: 34197051    Free PMC article.
Cooperating minimalist nanovaccine with PD-1 blockade for effective and feasible cancer immunotherapy.
Mingxia Jiang, Liping Zhao, +5 authors, Weifen Zhang.
J Adv Res, 2022 Jan 11; 35. PMID: 35003793    Free PMC article.
Using PAMPs and DAMPs as adjuvants in cancer vaccines.
Huanyou Sun, Wenwen Hu, +8 authors, Gang Wang.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2021 Sep 15; 17(12). PMID: 34520322    Free PMC article.
STxB as an Antigen Delivery Tool for Mucosal Vaccination.
Eric Tartour, Ludger Johannes.
Toxins (Basel), 2022 Mar 25; 14(3). PMID: 35324699    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Vaccines Targeting Neoantigens to Induce T-Cell Immunity against Cancers.
Shih-Cheng Pao, Mu-Tzu Chu, Shuen-Iu Hung.
Pharmaceutics, 2022 Apr 24; 14(4). PMID: 35456701    Free PMC article.