. 2019 Jan;9(2).
doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-1177.

Insights into Molecular Classifications of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Improving Patient Selection for Treatment

Ana C Garrido-Castro 1 Nancy U Lin 1 Kornelia Polyak 2 
  • PMID: 30679171
  •     133 References
  •     71 citations


Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains the most challenging breast cancer subtype to treat. To date, therapies directed to specific molecular targets have rarely achieved clinically meaningful improvements in outcomes of patients with TNBC, and chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Here, we seek to review the most recent efforts to classify TNBC based on the comprehensive profiling of tumors for cellular composition and molecular features. Technologic advances allow for tumor characterization at ever-increasing depth, generating data that, if integrated with clinical-pathologic features, may help improve risk stratification of patients, guide treatment decisions and surveillance, and help identify new targets for drug development. SIGNIFICANCE: TNBC is characterized by higher rates of relapse, greater metastatic potential, and shorter overall survival compared with other major breast cancer subtypes. The identification of biomarkers that can help guide treatment decisions in TNBC remains a clinically unmet need. Understanding the mechanisms that drive resistance is key to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to help prevent the development of metastatic disease and, ultimately, to improve survival in this patient population.

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Germline BRCA1 mutations and a basal epithelial phenotype in breast cancer.
William D Foulkes, Ingunn M Stefansson, +5 authors, Lars A Akslen.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2003 Oct 02; 95(19). PMID: 14519755
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Defining a Cancer Dependency Map.
Aviad Tsherniak, Francisca Vazquez, +22 authors, William C Hahn.
Cell, 2017 Jul 29; 170(3). PMID: 28753430    Free PMC article.
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RAS/MAPK Activation Is Associated with Reduced Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Therapeutic Cooperation Between MEK and PD-1/PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Sherene Loi, Sathana Dushyanthen, +22 authors, Justin M Balko.
Clin Cancer Res, 2015 Oct 31; 22(6). PMID: 26515496    Free PMC article.
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Synthetic Lethality of PARP Inhibitors in Combination with MYC Blockade Is Independent of BRCA Status in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jason P W Carey, Cansu Karakas, +8 authors, Khandan Keyomarsi.
Cancer Res, 2017 Nov 29; 78(3). PMID: 29180466    Free PMC article.
A Randomized Phase II Neoadjuvant Study of Cisplatin, Paclitaxel With or Without Everolimus in Patients with Stage II/III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC): Responses and Long-term Outcome Correlated with Increased Frequency of DNA Damage Response Gene Mutations, TNBC Subtype, AR Status, and Ki67.
Bojana Jovanović, Ingrid A Mayer, +21 authors, Jennifer A Pietenpol.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Mar 09; 23(15). PMID: 28270498    Free PMC article.
Molecular profiling of the residual disease of triple-negative breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies actionable therapeutic targets.
Justin M Balko, Jennifer M Giltnane, +24 authors, Carlos L Arteaga.
Cancer Discov, 2013 Dec 21; 4(2). PMID: 24356096    Free PMC article.
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Single-Cell Dynamics Determines Response to CDK4/6 Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Uzma S Asghar, Alexis R Barr, +11 authors, Nicholas C Turner.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 14; 23(18). PMID: 28606920    Free PMC article.
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Long-Term Prognostic Risk After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Associated With Residual Cancer Burden and Breast Cancer Subtype.
W Fraser Symmans, Caimiao Wei, +17 authors, Gabriel N Hortobagyi.
J Clin Oncol, 2017 Jan 31; 35(10). PMID: 28135148    Free PMC article.
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Adjuvant Capecitabine for Breast Cancer after Preoperative Chemotherapy.
Norikazu Masuda, Soo-Jung Lee, +18 authors, Masakazu Toi.
N Engl J Med, 2017 Jun 01; 376(22). PMID: 28564564
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Borderline ER-Positive Primary Breast Cancer Gains No Significant Survival Benefit From Endocrine Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Tong Chen, Ning Zhang, +3 authors, Qifeng Yang.
Clin Breast Cancer, 2017 Jul 18; 18(1). PMID: 28712925
Systematic Review.
Phase II study of ruxolitinib, a selective JAK1/2 inhibitor, in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Daniel G Stover, Carlos R Gil Del Alcazar, +15 authors, Nancy U Lin.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 May 16; 4. PMID: 29761158    Free PMC article.
The Epigenetic Landscape of Promoter Genome-wide Analysis in Breast Cancer.
Seher Karsli-Ceppioglu, Aslihan Dagdemir, +4 authors, Dominique Bernard-Gallon.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jul 28; 7(1). PMID: 28747748    Free PMC article.
Phase I study of the gamma secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 in combination with docetaxel in patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer.
Marzia A Locatelli, Philippe Aftimos, +9 authors, Giuseppe Curigliano.
Oncotarget, 2016 Dec 03; 8(2). PMID: 27906684    Free PMC article.
Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and epidermal growth factor receptor expression and benefit from lapatinib in a randomized trial of paclitaxel with lapatinib or placebo as first-line treatment in HER2-negative or unknown metastatic breast cancer.
Richard S Finn, Michael F Press, +5 authors, Angelo Di Leo.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Jul 22; 27(24). PMID: 19620495    Free PMC article.
The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is required for growth of CD44⁺CD24⁻ stem cell-like breast cancer cells in human tumors.
Lauren L C Marotta, Vanessa Almendro, +25 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
J Clin Invest, 2011 Jun 03; 121(7). PMID: 21633165    Free PMC article.
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Dysregulation of the epigenome in triple-negative breast cancers: basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers express aberrant DNA hypermethylation.
J Devon Roll, Ashley G Rivenbark, +5 authors, William B Coleman.
Exp Mol Pathol, 2013 Sep 21; 95(3). PMID: 24045095
Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Trop-2 Antibody Drug Conjugate Sacituzumab Govitecan (IMMU-132) in Heavily Pretreated Patients With Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Aditya Bardia, Ingrid A Mayer, +19 authors, Linda T Vahdat.
J Clin Oncol, 2017 Mar 16; 35(19). PMID: 28291390    Free PMC article.
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Prevalence of BRCA mutations in an unselected population of triple-negative breast cancer.
Anne-Renee Hartman, Rajesh R Kaldate, +9 authors, John F Sandbach.
Cancer, 2012 May 23; 118(11). PMID: 22614657
The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of Rad51 and survival following treatment with the DNA cross-linking agent cisplatin.
A Bhattacharyya, U S Ear, +2 authors, D K Bishop.
J Biol Chem, 2000 Jun 14; 275(31). PMID: 10843985
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Phase III, double-blind, randomized study comparing lapatinib plus paclitaxel with placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer.
Angelo Di Leo, Henry L Gomez, +11 authors, Michael F Press.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Oct 29; 26(34). PMID: 18955454    Free PMC article.
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Kinase and BET Inhibitors Together Clamp Inhibition of PI3K Signaling and Overcome Resistance to Therapy.
Elias E Stratikopoulos, Meaghan Dendy, +4 authors, Ramon Parsons.
Cancer Cell, 2015 Jun 10; 27(6). PMID: 26058079    Free PMC article.
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Deconstructing the molecular portraits of breast cancer.
Aleix Prat, Charles M Perou.
Mol Oncol, 2010 Dec 15; 5(1). PMID: 21147047    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity.
Vanessa Almendro, Yu-Kang Cheng, +18 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cell Rep, 2014 Jan 28; 6(3). PMID: 24462293    Free PMC article.
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Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases.
Laurien D C Hoefnagel, Marc J van de Vijver, +12 authors, Paul J van Diest.
Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Sep 25; 12(5). PMID: 20863372    Free PMC article.
Rates of immune cell infiltration in patients with triple-negative breast cancer by molecular subtype.
Kenichi Harano, Ying Wang, +14 authors, Naoto T Ueno.
PLoS One, 2018 Oct 13; 13(10). PMID: 30312311    Free PMC article.
The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups.
Christina Curtis, Sohrab P Shah, +29 authors, Samuel Aparicio.
Nature, 2012 Apr 24; 486(7403). PMID: 22522925    Free PMC article.
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Differential response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among 7 triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes.
Hiroko Masuda, Keith A Baggerly, +9 authors, Naoto T Ueno.
Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Aug 21; 19(19). PMID: 23948975    Free PMC article.
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Ipatasertib plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (LOTUS): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.
Sung-Bae Kim, Rebecca Dent, +13 authors, LOTUS investigators.
Lancet Oncol, 2017 Aug 13; 18(10). PMID: 28800861    Free PMC article.
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HRDetect is a predictor of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deficiency based on mutational signatures.
Helen Davies, Dominik Glodzik, +30 authors, Serena Nik-Zainal.
Nat Med, 2017 Mar 14; 23(4). PMID: 28288110    Free PMC article.
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Identification of human triple-negative breast cancer subtypes and preclinical models for selection of targeted therapies.
Brian D Lehmann, Joshua A Bauer, +4 authors, Jennifer A Pietenpol.
J Clin Invest, 2011 Jun 03; 121(7). PMID: 21633166    Free PMC article.
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Dynamic reprogramming of the kinome in response to targeted MEK inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.
James S Duncan, Martin C Whittle, +24 authors, Gary L Johnson.
Cell, 2012 Apr 17; 149(2). PMID: 22500798    Free PMC article.
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TP53 Status and Estrogen Receptor-Beta in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Company Matters.
Sunil S Badve, Yesim Gökmen-Polar.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2019 Apr 17; 111(11). PMID: 30989234    Free PMC article.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Understanding and Future Therapeutic Breakthrough Targeting Cancer Stemness.
Kha-Liang Lee, Yung-Che Kuo, Yuan-Soon Ho, Yen-Hua Huang.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Sep 12; 11(9). PMID: 31505803    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
N6-methyladenosine-related Genomic Targets are Altered in Breast Cancer Tissue and Associated with Poor Survival.
Liwen Liu, Xin Liu, +6 authors, Ranran Sun.
J Cancer, 2019 Oct 22; 10(22). PMID: 31632489    Free PMC article.
Novel therapeutic avenues in triple-negative breast cancer: PI3K/AKT inhibition, androgen receptor blockade, and beyond.
Jack J Chan, Tira J Y Tan, Rebecca A Dent.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2019 Oct 23; 11. PMID: 31636720    Free PMC article.
Molecular stratification within triple-negative breast cancer subtypes.
Dong-Yu Wang, Zhe Jiang, +2 authors, Eldad Zacksenhaus.
Sci Rep, 2019 Dec 15; 9(1). PMID: 31836816    Free PMC article.
RNA-seq from archival FFPE breast cancer samples: molecular pathway fidelity and novel discovery.
Nathan D Pennock, Sonali Jindal, +10 authors, Zheng Xia.
BMC Med Genomics, 2019 Dec 21; 12(1). PMID: 31856832    Free PMC article.
Cluster of differentiation 8 and programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer combined with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberous sclerosis complex: a case report.
Kenji Gonda, Takanori Akama, +13 authors, Eiji Higashihara.
J Med Case Rep, 2019 Dec 25; 13(1). PMID: 31870441    Free PMC article.
MiR-210 Is Overexpressed in Tumor-infiltrating Plasma Cells in Triple-negative Breast Cancer.
Isabelle Bar, Ivan Theate, +5 authors, Ahmad Merhi.
J Histochem Cytochem, 2019 Dec 04; 68(1). PMID: 31787032    Free PMC article.
Identification of CXCR4 and CXCL10 as Potential Predictive Biomarkers in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).
Tian Chuan, Tian Li, Cui Yi.
Med Sci Monit, 2020 Jan 12; 26. PMID: 31924747    Free PMC article.
Interaction Proteomics Identifies ERbeta Association with Chromatin Repressive Complexes to Inhibit Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Exert An Oncosuppressive Role in Triple-negative Breast Cancer.
Elena Alexandrova, Giorgio Giurato, +13 authors, Alessandro Weisz.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 2019 Dec 04; 19(2). PMID: 31792072    Free PMC article.
DNA methylation markers predict recurrence-free interval in triple-negative breast cancer.
Mary Jo Fackler, Soonweng Cho, +12 authors, Christopher B Umbricht.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 Feb 07; 6. PMID: 32025567    Free PMC article.
'Omics Approaches to Explore the Breast Cancer Landscape.
Joseph Parsons, Chiara Francavilla.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Feb 11; 7. PMID: 32039208    Free PMC article.
Response of a chemo-resistant triple-negative breast cancer patient to a combination of p62-encoding plasmid, Elenagen, and CMF chemotherapy.
Dmitry M Ponomarenko, Vladimir L Gabai, +2 authors, Alexander M Shneider.
Oncotarget, 2020 Feb 23; 11(3). PMID: 32076489    Free PMC article.
LncRNA HEIH regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through miR-4458/SOCS1 axis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Peng Li, Bo Zhou, Yuetao Lv, Qian Qian.
Hum Cell, 2019 Aug 29; 32(4). PMID: 31456112
Serine-Arginine Protein Kinase 1 (SRPK1) as a Prognostic Factor and Potential Therapeutic Target in Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.
Ilias P Nikas, Sophie C Themistocleous, +2 authors, Han Suk Ryu.
Cells, 2019 Dec 22; 9(1). PMID: 31861708    Free PMC article.
Quadruple-Negative Breast Cancer: An Uneven Playing Field.
Geetanjali Saini, Shristi Bhattarai, Keerthi Gogineni, Ritu Aneja.
JCO Glob Oncol, 2020 Feb 20; 6. PMID: 32073910    Free PMC article.
Seviteronel, a Novel CYP17 Lyase Inhibitor and Androgen Receptor Antagonist, Radiosensitizes AR-Positive Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Anna R Michmerhuizen, Benjamin Chandler, +17 authors, Corey Speers.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2020 Mar 03; 11. PMID: 32117061    Free PMC article.
A gene signature predicts response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Tianzhi Zheng, Zhiyuan Pang, Zhao Zhao.
Biosci Rep, 2019 Apr 17; 39(5). PMID: 30988073    Free PMC article.
Recent advances in triple negative breast cancer: the immunotherapy era.
Antonio Marra, Giulia Viale, Giuseppe Curigliano.
BMC Med, 2019 May 10; 17(1). PMID: 31068190    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
SGLT1 is required for the survival of triple-negative breast cancer cells via potentiation of EGFR activity.
Huiquan Liu, Ayse Ertay, +11 authors, Yihua Wang.
Mol Oncol, 2019 Jun 15; 13(9). PMID: 31199048    Free PMC article.
A master regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis constitutes a therapeutic liability of triple negative breast cancer.
Demin Cai, Xiong Zhang, Hong-Wu Chen.
Mol Cell Oncol, 2020 Mar 12; 7(2). PMID: 32158915    Free PMC article.
Machilin D, a Lignin Derived from Saururus chinensis, Suppresses Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling.
Xing Zhen, Hack Sun Choi, +4 authors, Dong-Sun Lee.
Biomolecules, 2020 Feb 09; 10(2). PMID: 32033472    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Encoding IL12 Controls Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis.
Shanawaz M Ghouse, Hong-My Nguyen, +2 authors, Dipongkor Saha.
Front Oncol, 2020 Apr 09; 10. PMID: 32266155    Free PMC article.
Aurora kinase A stabilizes FOXM1 to enhance paclitaxel resistance in triple-negative breast cancer.
Na Yang, Chang Wang, +6 authors, BangLao Xu.
J Cell Mol Med, 2019 Jul 31; 23(9). PMID: 31359594    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer: A Molecularly Heterogenous Disease Needing Subtype-Specific Treatments.
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi.
Med Sci (Basel), 2020 Mar 27; 8(1). PMID: 32210163    Free PMC article.
EN1 Is a Transcriptional Dependency in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Associated with Brain Metastasis.
Guillermo Peluffo, Ashim Subedee, +17 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Res, 2019 Jun 27; 79(16). PMID: 31239270    Free PMC article.
Anti-cancer Activity of Centipeda minima Extract in Triple Negative Breast Cancer via Inhibition of AKT, NF-κB, and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.
Magnolia Muk-Lan Lee, Brandon Dow Chan, +7 authors, William Chi-Shing Tai.
Front Oncol, 2020 Apr 25; 10. PMID: 32328465    Free PMC article.
Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase upregulates pluripotent genes through β-catenin and promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression.
Tzu-Ting Huang, Ling-Ming Tseng, +12 authors, Chun-Yu Liu.
EBioMedicine, 2020 Apr 09; 54. PMID: 32268268    Free PMC article.
Early Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Conventional Treatment and Emerging Therapeutic Landscapes.
Anna Diana, Francesca Carlino, +5 authors, Michele Orditura.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Apr 03; 12(4). PMID: 32235297    Free PMC article.
IGF-1/IGF-1R/FAK/YAP Transduction Signaling Prompts Growth Effects in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Cells.
Damiano Cosimo Rigiracciolo, Nijiro Nohata, +5 authors, Marcello Maggiolini.
Cells, 2020 Apr 25; 9(4). PMID: 32325700    Free PMC article.
FGFR2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway Involves in the Development of MMTV-Related Spontaneous Breast Cancer in TA2 Mice.
Jiaxing Du, Qi Zhao, +7 authors, Shiwu Zhang.
Front Oncol, 2020 May 21; 10. PMID: 32432040    Free PMC article.
Adjuvant Capecitabine With Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Plus Epirubicin for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (CBCSG010): An Open-Label, Randomized, Multicenter, Phase III Trial.
Junjie Li, Keda Yu, +37 authors, CBCSG010 Study Group.
J Clin Oncol, 2020 Apr 11; 38(16). PMID: 32275467    Free PMC article.
Tumor Mutational Burden and PTEN Alterations as Molecular Correlates of Response to PD-1/L1 Blockade in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Tanya E Keenan, +18 authors, Sara M Tolaney.
Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Feb 06; 26(11). PMID: 32019858    Free PMC article.
Synthetic Lethal and Resistance Interactions with BET Bromodomain Inhibitors in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Shaokun Shu, Hua-Jun Wu, +36 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Mol Cell, 2020 May 18; 78(6). PMID: 32416067    Free PMC article.
Somatic genetic aberrations in benign breast disease and the risk of subsequent breast cancer.
Zexian Zeng, Andy Vo, +7 authors, Susan E Clare.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 Jun 23; 6. PMID: 32566745    Free PMC article.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of atezolizumab in advanced triple-negative breast cancer.
Lee Cheng Phua, Soo Chin Lee, Kwong Ng, Mohamed Ismail Abdul Aziz.
BMC Health Serv Res, 2020 Jun 26; 20(1). PMID: 32580722    Free PMC article.
Molecular determinants of drug response in TNBC cell lines.
Nathan M Merrill, Eric J Lachacz, +7 authors, Matthew B Soellner.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019 Oct 28; 179(2). PMID: 31655920    Free PMC article.
Exploring the Regulation Mechanism of Xihuang Pill, Olibanum and β-Boswellic Acid on the Biomolecular Network of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Based on Transcriptomics and Chemical Informatics Methodology.
Kailin Yang, Liuting Zeng, +4 authors, Lifang Liu.
Front Pharmacol, 2020 Jul 01; 11. PMID: 32595497    Free PMC article.
Brevilin A, a Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone Inhibited the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells via Akt/mTOR and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.
Zhao Qu, Yushan Lin, +3 authors, Sibao Chen.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Jul 02; 13. PMID: 32606754    Free PMC article.
TrkA overexpression in non-tumorigenic human breast cell lines confers oncogenic and metastatic properties.
Kelly Kyker-Snowman, Robert M Hughes, +13 authors, Ben Ho Park.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019 Dec 12; 179(3). PMID: 31823098    Free PMC article.
Arnicolide D Inhibits Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Suppression of Akt/mTOR and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.
Zhao Qu, Yushan Lin, +3 authors, Sibao Chen.
Int J Med Sci, 2020 Jul 17; 17(11). PMID: 32669950    Free PMC article.
Mechanistic Involvement of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Oncotherapeutics Resistance in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Samarth Kansara, Vijay Pandey, +3 authors, Amit Kumar Pandey.
Cells, 2020 Jun 25; 9(6). PMID: 32575858    Free PMC article.
Caudatin Isolated from Cynanchum auriculatum Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cell Formation via a GR/YAP Signaling.
Xing Zhen, Hack Sun Choi, +5 authors, Dong-Sun Lee.
Biomolecules, 2020 Jun 24; 10(6). PMID: 32570844    Free PMC article.
The Gαh/phospholipase C-δ1 interaction promotes autophagosome degradation by activating the Akt/mTORC1 pathway in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Hui-Yu Lin, Chia-Hao Kuei, +5 authors, Yuan-Feng Lin.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Jul 03; 12(13). PMID: 32615541    Free PMC article.
A Six-Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Gene Signature May Predict Metastasis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Li Yuan Wei, Xiao Jun Zhang, +4 authors, Jin Nan Gao.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Aug 06; 13. PMID: 32753890    Free PMC article.
The INPP4B Tumor Suppressor Modulates EGFR Trafficking and Promotes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Hui Liu, Marcia N Paddock, +8 authors, Alex Toker.
Cancer Discov, 2020 Jun 10; 10(8). PMID: 32513774    Free PMC article.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cell depletion therapy targets IL-17A-expressing mammary carcinomas.
Bassel Dawod, Jinghua Liu, +6 authors, Jun Wang.
Sci Rep, 2020 Aug 10; 10(1). PMID: 32770025    Free PMC article.
Long non-coding RNA LRRC75A-AS1 facilitates triple negative breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via functioning as a ceRNA to modulate BAALC.
Sijie Li, Di Wu, Hongyao Jia, Zhiru Zhang.
Cell Death Dis, 2020 Aug 20; 11(8). PMID: 32811810    Free PMC article.
MicroRNA-27b-3p Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis by Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Song-Jie Shen, Yu Song, +4 authors, Qiang Sun.
Front Oncol, 2020 Aug 28; 10. PMID: 32850439    Free PMC article.
Association between tumor mutation profile and clinical outcomes among Hispanic Latina women with triple-negative breast cancer.
Alexander Philipovskiy, Alok K Dwivedi, +5 authors, Sumit Gaur.
PLoS One, 2020 Sep 05; 15(9). PMID: 32886682    Free PMC article.
Aptamer targeted therapy potentiates immune checkpoint blockade in triple-negative breast cancer.
Simona Camorani, Margherita Passariello, +9 authors, Laura Cerchia.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Sep 08; 39(1). PMID: 32892748    Free PMC article.
Circular HER2 RNA positive triple negative breast cancer is sensitive to Pertuzumab.
Jie Li, Maoguang Ma, +8 authors, Nu Zhang.
Mol Cancer, 2020 Sep 13; 19(1). PMID: 32917240    Free PMC article.
Downregulation of miR-182-5p inhibits the proliferation and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells through regulating TLR4/NF-κB pathway activity by targeting FBXW7.
Xingping Wu, Hao Chen, +2 authors, Lin Zhang.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Sep 22; 8(16). PMID: 32953795    Free PMC article.
Gemcitabine resistance in triple-negative breast cancer cells can be reverted by Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase in the nucleus or cytosol.
Yan Zhao, Haiyang Jiang, +2 authors, Xinyu Zheng.
Oncol Lett, 2020 Sep 26; 20(5). PMID: 32973960    Free PMC article.
Inhibition of DNA Repair Mechanisms and Induction of Apoptosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Expressing the Human Herpesvirus 6 U94.
Francesca Caccuri, Michele Sommariva, +6 authors, Arnaldo Caruso.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jul 22; 11(7). PMID: 31323788    Free PMC article.
APR-246 alone and in combination with a phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody inhibits lung metastasis of human triple-negative breast cancer cells in nude mice.
Yayun Liang, Cynthia Besch-Williford, +3 authors, Salman M Hyder.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2019 Sep 20; 11. PMID: 31534364    Free PMC article.
Prodigiosin/PU-H71 as a novel potential combined therapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC): preclinical insights.
Mohammed Moustapha Anwar, Manal Shalaby, +3 authors, Ahmed Hussein.
Sci Rep, 2020 Sep 09; 10(1). PMID: 32895397    Free PMC article.
A miR-210-3p regulon that controls the Warburg effect by modulating HIF-1α and p53 activity in triple-negative breast cancer.
Ye Du, Na Wei, +2 authors, Dong Song.
Cell Death Dis, 2020 Sep 11; 11(9). PMID: 32908121    Free PMC article.
miR-452 Reverses Abnormal Glycosylation Modification of ERα and Estrogen Resistance in TNBC (Triple-Negative Breast Cancer) Through Targeting UGT1A1.
Yan Li, Yidong Zhou, +10 authors, Qiang Sun.
Front Oncol, 2020 Sep 29; 10. PMID: 32983995    Free PMC article.
A Screened GPR1 Peptide Exerts Antitumor Effects on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Chen Huang, Xiao-Yong Dai, +6 authors, Jian V Zhang.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2020 Oct 03; 18. PMID: 33005727    Free PMC article.
NLRP3 Inflammasome From Bench to Bedside: New Perspectives for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Margherita Sonnessa, Antonella Cioffi, +4 authors, Anita Mangia.
Front Oncol, 2020 Oct 06; 10. PMID: 33014808    Free PMC article.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Exhibit Differential Sensitivity to Cardenolides from Calotropis gigantea.
Petra J Pederson, Shengxin Cai, +6 authors, Robert H Cichewicz.
J Nat Prod, 2020 Jul 11; 83(7). PMID: 32649211    Free PMC article.
Potent Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Acetylated Microtubules as Anticancer Agents Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Ahreum Kwon, Gwi Bin Lee, +7 authors, Woo Keun Song.
Biomedicines, 2020 Sep 13; 8(9). PMID: 32917017    Free PMC article.
Practical classification of triple-negative breast cancer: intratumoral heterogeneity, mechanisms of drug resistance, and novel therapies.
Antonio Marra, Dario Trapani, +2 authors, Giuseppe Curigliano.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 Oct 23; 6. PMID: 33088912    Free PMC article.
Pharmacologic profiling of patient-derived xenograft models of primary treatment-naïve triple-negative breast cancer.
Reid T Powell, Abena Redwood, +21 authors, Helen Piwnica-Worms.
Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 23; 10(1). PMID: 33087803    Free PMC article.
LncRNA DLX6-AS1 Contributes to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cisplatin Resistance in Triple-negative Breast Cancer via Modulating Mir-199b-5p/Paxillin Axis.
Chuang Du, Yan Wang, +3 authors, Jingruo Li.
Cell Transplant, 2020 Jul 21; 29. PMID: 32686982    Free PMC article.
Perspectives on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Treatment Strategies, Unmet Needs, and Potential Targets for Future Therapies.
Gagan K Gupta, Amber L Collier, +13 authors, Amy H Tang.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 28; 12(9). PMID: 32846967    Free PMC article.
The CXCR4-Dependent LASP1-Ago2 Interaction in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Augustus M C Tilley, Cory M Howard, +4 authors, Dayanidhi Raman.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Sep 03; 12(9). PMID: 32872485    Free PMC article.
The Novel Circular RNA Circ-PGAP3 Promotes the Proliferation and Invasion of Triple Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating the miR-330-3p/Myc Axis.
Dabao He, Xiaoling Yang, +3 authors, Yonggang Zhang.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Oct 30; 13. PMID: 33116597    Free PMC article.
Efficacy based ginger fingerprinting reveals potential antiproliferative analytes for triple negative breast cancer.
Lihan Zhao, Manali Rupji, +5 authors, Ritu Aneja.
Sci Rep, 2020 Nov 07; 10(1). PMID: 33154433    Free PMC article.
A Novel Inhibitor of Carbonic Anhydrases Prevents Hypoxia-Induced TNBC Cell Plasticity.
Annachiara Sarnella, Giuliana D'Avino, +5 authors, Antonella Zannetti.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 14; 21(21). PMID: 33182416    Free PMC article.