. 2019 Feb; 103(7):1306-1322.
doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000002656.

Enhancing the Value of Histopathological Assessment of Allograft Biopsy Monitoring

Michelle A Wood-Trageser 1 Andrew J Lesniak 1 Anthony J Demetris 1 
  • PMID: 30768568
  •     225 References
  •     6 citations


Traditional histopathological allograft biopsy evaluation provides, within hours, diagnoses, prognostic information, and mechanistic insights into disease processes. However, proponents of an array of alternative monitoring platforms, broadly classified as "invasive" or "noninvasive" depending on whether allograft tissue is needed, question the value proposition of tissue histopathology. The authors explore the pros and cons of current analytical methods relative to the value of traditional and illustrate advancements of next-generation histopathological evaluation of tissue biopsies. We describe the continuing value of traditional histopathological tissue assessment and "next-generation pathology (NGP)," broadly defined as staining/labeling techniques coupled with digital imaging and automated image analysis. Noninvasive imaging and fluid (blood and urine) analyses promote low-risk, global organ assessment, and "molecular" data output, respectively; invasive alternatives promote objective, "mechanistic" insights by creating gene lists with variably increased/decreased expression compared with steady state/baseline. Proponents of alternative approaches contrast their preferred methods with traditional histopathology and: (1) fail to cite the main value of traditional and NGP-retention of spatial and inferred temporal context available for innumerable objective analyses and (2) belie an unfamiliarity with the impact of advances in imaging and software-guided analytics on emerging histopathology practices. Illustrative NGP examples demonstrate the value of multidimensional data that preserve tissue-based spatial and temporal contexts. We outline a path forward for clinical NGP implementation where "software-assisted sign-out" will enable pathologists to conduct objective analyses that can be incorporated into their final reports and improve patient care.

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Highly Cited. Review.
Recent developments in multiplexing techniques for immunohistochemistry.
Angela R Dixon, Cédric Bathany, +3 authors, Shuichi Takayama.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 2015 Aug 21; 15(9). PMID: 26289603    Free PMC article.
'De novo' and 'recurrent' autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation: A comprehensive review.
Nanda Kerkar, George Yanni.
J Autoimmun, 2015 Sep 18; 66. PMID: 26377632
A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience.
Ravinder Jerath, Molly W Crawford, Vernon A Barnes.
Front Psychol, 2015 Sep 18; 6. PMID: 26379573    Free PMC article.
Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Liver Allografts.
J G O'Leary, J Cai, +8 authors, A J Demetris.
Am J Transplant, 2015 Oct 16; 16(2). PMID: 26469278
Protecting Quantum Dot Fluorescence from Quenching to Achieve a Reliable Automated Multiplex Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.
Wenjun Zhang, Antony Hubbard, +4 authors, Lei Tang.
J Biomed Nanotechnol, 2015 Oct 22; 11(9). PMID: 26485928
Multispectral imaging of formalin-fixed tissue predicts ability to generate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from melanoma.
Zipei Feng, Sachin Puri, +7 authors, Bernard A Fox.
J Immunother Cancer, 2015 Oct 27; 3. PMID: 26500776    Free PMC article.
Molecular Characterization of Acute Cellular Rejection Occurring During Intentional Immunosuppression Withdrawal in Liver Transplantation.
E Bonaccorsi-Riani, A Pennycuick, +9 authors, A Sánchez-Fueyo.
Am J Transplant, 2015 Oct 31; 16(2). PMID: 26517400
A High RORγT/CD3 Ratio is a Strong Prognostic Factor for Postoperative Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of Helper T Cell Lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Regulatory T Cells).
Naohiro Yoshida, Tetsushi Kinugasa, +8 authors, Koichi Ohshima.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2015 Nov 14; 23(3). PMID: 26564244
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A J Demetris, B H Markus.
Crit Rev Immunol, 1989 Jan 01; 9(2). PMID: 2663025
Biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection as an efficacy endpoint of randomized trials in liver transplantation: a systematic review and critical appraisal.
Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Jose M Rico-Juri, +3 authors, Jan Lerut.
Transpl Int, 2015 Dec 30; 29(9). PMID: 26714264
Systematic Review.
Using Molecular Phenotyping to Guide Improvements in the Histologic Diagnosis of T Cell-Mediated Rejection.
J Reeve, J Chang, +2 authors, P F Halloran.
Am J Transplant, 2016 Jan 06; 16(4). PMID: 26730747
Detection and Clinical Patterns of Nephron Hypertrophy and Nephrosclerosis Among Apparently Healthy Adults.
Aleksandar Denic, Mariam P Alexander, +9 authors, Andrew D Rule.
Am J Kidney Dis, 2016 Feb 10; 68(1). PMID: 26857648    Free PMC article.
Locality Sensitive Deep Learning for Detection and Classification of Nuclei in Routine Colon Cancer Histology Images.
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IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2016 Feb 11; 35(5). PMID: 26863654
Highly Cited.
Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.
Rui Huang, Hongyan Wu, +10 authors, Chao Wu.
Discov Med, 2016 Feb 21; 21(113). PMID: 26896599
Preferential accumulation of T helper cells but not cytotoxic T cells characterizes benign subclinical rejection of human liver allografts.
Anna K Baumann, Jerome Schlue, +7 authors, Elmar Jaeckel.
Liver Transpl, 2016 Mar 02; 22(7). PMID: 26929119
Vascular (humoral) rejection in heart transplantation: pathologic observations and clinical implications.
E H Hammond, R L Yowell, +6 authors, J B O'Connell.
J Heart Transplant, 1989 Nov 01; 8(6). PMID: 2693662
Reproducibility of the NEPTUNE descriptor-based scoring system on whole-slide images and histologic and ultrastructural digital images.
Laura Barisoni, Jonathan P Troost, +18 authors, Stephen M Hewitt.
Mod Pathol, 2016 Apr 23; 29(7). PMID: 27102348    Free PMC article.
Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury.
Tara K Sigdel, Yuqian Gao, +10 authors, Minnie M Sarwal.
Kidney Int, 2016 May 12; 89(6). PMID: 27165815    Free PMC article.
Biomarker quantification by multiplexed quantum dot technology for predicting lymph node metastasis and prognosis in head and neck cancer.
Zhongliang Hu, Guoqing Qian, +11 authors, Zhuo Georgia Chen.
Oncotarget, 2016 May 14; 7(28). PMID: 27172790    Free PMC article.
2016 Comprehensive Update of the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology: Introduction of Antibody-Mediated Rejection.
A J Demetris, C Bellamy, +74 authors, Y Zen.
Am J Transplant, 2016 Jun 09; 16(10). PMID: 27273869
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Five-year histological and serological follow-up of operationally tolerant pediatric liver transplant recipients enrolled in WISP-R.
Sandy Feng, Anthony J Demetris, +8 authors, Nadia K Tchao.
Hepatology, 2016 Jun 16; 65(2). PMID: 27302659    Free PMC article.
Progressive Fibrosis Is Driven by Genetic Predisposition, Allo-immunity, and Inflammation in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients.
S Varma, J Ambroise, +6 authors, E M Sokal.
EBioMedicine, 2016 Jun 23; 9. PMID: 27333038    Free PMC article.
Molecular assessment of disease states in kidney transplant biopsy samples.
Philip F Halloran, Konrad S Famulski, Jeff Reeve.
Nat Rev Nephrol, 2016 Jun 28; 12(9). PMID: 27345248
Simultaneous multicolor imaging of wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy with four-bucket detection.
Kwan Seob Park, Dong Uk Kim, +2 authors, Ki Soo Chang.
Biomed Opt Express, 2016 Jul 05; 7(6). PMID: 27375944    Free PMC article.
Image analysis and machine learning in digital pathology: Challenges and opportunities.
Anant Madabhushi, George Lee.
Med Image Anal, 2016 Jul 18; 33. PMID: 27423409    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The Development of Fluorescence Intensity Standards.
A K Gaigalas, L Li, +5 authors, A Schwartz.
J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol, 2001 Jan 01; 106(2). PMID: 27500028    Free PMC article.
Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases.
Andrew Janowczyk, Anant Madabhushi.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 Aug 27; 7. PMID: 27563488    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Evaluating the Visualization of What a Deep Neural Network Has Learned.
Wojciech Samek, Alexander Binder, +2 authors, Klaus-Robert Muller.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst, 2016 Sep 01; 28(11). PMID: 27576267
Standardization and quality management in next-generation sequencing.
Christoph Endrullat, Jörn Glökler, Philipp Franke, Marcus Frohme.
Appl Transl Genom, 2016 Sep 27; 10. PMID: 27668169    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Working with Commercially Available Quantum Dots for Immunofluorescence on Tissue Sections.
Sandrine Prost, Ria E B Kishen, David C Kluth, Christopher O C Bellamy.
PLoS One, 2016 Sep 30; 11(9). PMID: 27685858    Free PMC article.
Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?
Andreas Holzinger.
Brain Inform, 2016 Oct 18; 3(2). PMID: 27747607    Free PMC article.
Immunohistochemistry for Pathologists: Protocols, Pitfalls, and Tips.
So-Woon Kim, Jin Roh, Chan-Sik Park.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2016 Nov 04; 50(6). PMID: 27809448    Free PMC article.
Covalently deposited dyes: a new chromogen paradigm that facilitates analysis of multiple biomarkers in situ.
William A Day, Mark R Lefever, +9 authors, Larry E Morrison.
Lab Invest, 2016 Nov 22; 97(1). PMID: 27869794
Single-frame rapid autofocusing for brightfield and fluorescence whole slide imaging.
Jun Liao, Liheng Bian, +5 authors, Guoan Zheng.
Biomed Opt Express, 2016 Nov 30; 7(11). PMID: 27896014    Free PMC article.
Phenotyping Multiple Subsets of Immune Cells In Situ in FFPE Tissue Sections: An Overview of Methodologies.
James R Mansfield.
Methods Mol Biol, 2016 Nov 30; 1546. PMID: 27896758
Enterprise Implementation of Digital Pathology: Feasibility, Challenges, and Opportunities.
D J Hartman, L Pantanowitz, +3 authors, G R Lauro.
J Digit Imaging, 2017 Jan 25; 30(5). PMID: 28116576    Free PMC article.
Gene Expression Profiling for the Identification and Classification of Antibody-Mediated Heart Rejection.
Alexandre Loupy, Jean Paul Duong Van Huyen, +20 authors, Philip F Halloran.
Circulation, 2017 Feb 06; 135(10). PMID: 28148598
Hapten-Anti-Hapten Technique for Two-Color IHC Detection of Phosphorylated EGFR and H2AX Using Primary Antibodies Raised in the Same Host Species.
Jodi Hagen, David Schwartz, Alexander E Kalyuzhny.
Methods Mol Biol, 2017 Feb 12; 1554. PMID: 28185188
Macrophage density in early surveillance biopsies predicts future renal transplant function.
Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Abedalrazag Khalifa, +8 authors, Sibylle von Vietinghoff.
Kidney Int, 2017 Apr 01; 92(2). PMID: 28359537
Implementation of Whole Slide Imaging for Clinical Purposes: Issues to Consider From the Perspective of Early Adopters.
Andrew J Evans, Mohamed E Salama, Walter H Henricks, Liron Pantanowitz.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2017 Apr 26; 141(7). PMID: 28440660
Chronic AMR in Liver Transplant: Validation of the 1-Year cAMR Score's Ability to Determine Long-term Outcome.
Jacqueline G O'Leary, Cory Smith, +5 authors, Anthony J Demetris.
Transplantation, 2017 Apr 30; 101(9). PMID: 28452922
A subcellular map of the human proteome.
Peter J Thul, Lovisa Åkesson, +40 authors, Emma Lundberg.
Science, 2017 May 13; 356(6340). PMID: 28495876
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Fully automated 5-plex fluorescent immunohistochemistry with tyramide signal amplification and same species antibodies.
Wenjun Zhang, Antony Hubbard, +13 authors, Lei Tang.
Lab Invest, 2017 May 16; 97(7). PMID: 28504684
Proteoforms in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells as Novel Rejection Biomarkers in Liver Transplant Recipients.
T K Toby, M Abecassis, +6 authors, J Levitsky.
Am J Transplant, 2017 May 17; 17(9). PMID: 28510335    Free PMC article.
Multiplexed ion beam imaging analysis for quantitation of protein expression in cancer tissue sections.
Sandra Rost, Jennifer Giltnane, +3 authors, Scot D Liu.
Lab Invest, 2017 May 30; 97(8). PMID: 28553935
Building a tissue-based molecular diagnostic system in heart transplant rejection: The heart Molecular Microscope Diagnostic (MMDx) System.
Philip F Halloran, Luciano Potena, +6 authors, Alexandre Loupy.
J Heart Lung Transplant, 2017 Jul 01; 36(11). PMID: 28662985
Non-HLA Antibodies Impact on C4d Staining, Stellate Cell Activation and Fibrosis in Liver Allografts.
Jacqueline G OʼLeary, Anthony J Demetris, +10 authors, Duska Dragun.
Transplantation, 2017 Jul 01; 101(10). PMID: 28665894
Alemtuzumab versus antithymocyte globulin induction therapies in kidney transplantation patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Jianming Zheng, Wenli Song.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Jul 13; 96(28). PMID: 28700465    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Hyper-Stain Inspector: A Framework for Robust Registration and Localised Co-Expression Analysis of Multiple Whole-Slide Images of Serial Histology Sections.
Nicholas Trahearn, David Epstein, +2 authors, Nasir Rajpoot.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jul 19; 7(1). PMID: 28717124    Free PMC article.
The Image Data Resource: A Bioimage Data Integration and Publication Platform.
Eleanor Williams, Josh Moore, +10 authors, Jason R Swedlow.
Nat Methods, 2017 Aug 05; 14(8). PMID: 28775673    Free PMC article.
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Validation of whole-slide imaging in the primary diagnosis of liver biopsies in a University Hospital.
Adela Saco, Alba Diaz, +7 authors, Jaume Ordi.
Dig Liver Dis, 2017 Aug 07; 49(11). PMID: 28780052
A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome.
Mathias Uhlen, Cheng Zhang, +24 authors, Fredrik Ponten.
Science, 2017 Aug 19; 357(6352). PMID: 28818916
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An update on the validation of whole slide imaging systems following FDA approval of a system for a routine pathology diagnostic service in the United States.
B F Boyce.
Biotech Histochem, 2017 Aug 25; 92(6). PMID: 28836859
Whole Slide Imaging Versus Microscopy for Primary Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology: A Multicenter Blinded Randomized Noninferiority Study of 1992 Cases (Pivotal Study).
Sanjay Mukhopadhyay, Michael D Feldman, +31 authors, Clive R Taylor.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2017 Sep 30; 42(1). PMID: 28961557    Free PMC article.
Adequacy of percutaneous non-targeted liver biopsy under real-time ultrasound guidance when comparing the Biopince™ and Achieve™ biopsy needle.
Thomas C Hall, Claire Deakin, Gurprit Ss Atwal, Rajeev K Singh.
Br J Radiol, 2017 Oct 04; 90(1080). PMID: 28972801    Free PMC article.
Large-scale retrieval for medical image analytics: A comprehensive review.
Zhongyu Li, Xiaofan Zhang, Henning Müller, Shaoting Zhang.
Med Image Anal, 2017 Oct 17; 43. PMID: 29031831
Late graft dysfunction after pediatric heart transplantation is associated with fibrosis and microvasculopathy by automated, digital whole-slide analysis.
Brian Feingold, Jennifer Picarsic, +3 authors, Anthony J Demetris.
J Heart Lung Transplant, 2017 Oct 23; 36(12). PMID: 29055602
Prospective Study of the Impact of Liver Biopsy Core Size on Specimen Adequacy and Procedural Complications.
Mitchell E Tublin, Rosalind Blair, +3 authors, Anthony Demetris.
AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2017 Nov 02; 210(1). PMID: 29091001
The Digital Slide Archive: A Software Platform for Management, Integration, and Analysis of Histology for Cancer Research.
David A Gutman, Mohammed Khalilia, +6 authors, Lee A D Cooper.
Cancer Res, 2017 Nov 03; 77(21). PMID: 29092945    Free PMC article.
Development of CD3 cell quantitation algorithms for renal allograft biopsy rejection assessment utilizing open source image analysis software.
Andres Moon, Geoffrey H Smith, +3 authors, Alton B Brad Farris.
Virchows Arch, 2017 Nov 09; 472(2). PMID: 29116389
Systems pathology by multiplexed immunohistochemistry and whole-slide digital image analysis.
Sami Blom, Lassi Paavolainen, +7 authors, Teijo Pellinen.
Sci Rep, 2017 Nov 16; 7(1). PMID: 29138507    Free PMC article.
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Review: The transcripts associated with organ allograft rejection.
Philip F Halloran, Jeffery M Venner, +4 authors, Konrad S Famulski.
Am J Transplant, 2017 Nov 28; 18(4). PMID: 29178397
The bridge between transplantation and regenerative medicine: Beginning a new Banff classification of tissue engineering pathology.
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Am J Transplant, 2017 Dec 02; 18(2). PMID: 29194964    Free PMC article.
QuPath: Open source software for digital pathology image analysis.
Peter Bankhead, Maurice B Loughrey, +10 authors, Peter W Hamilton.
Sci Rep, 2017 Dec 06; 7(1). PMID: 29203879    Free PMC article.
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Quantitative Analysis of a Multiplexed Immunofluorescence Panel in T-Cell Lymphoma.
Siok-Bian Ng, Shuangyi Fan, +4 authors, Anand D Jeyasekharan.
SLAS Technol, 2017 Dec 15; 23(3). PMID: 29241019
Towards machine learned quality control: A benchmark for sharpness quantification in digital pathology.
Gabriele Campanella, Arjun R Rajanna, +3 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2017 Dec 16; 65. PMID: 29241972
The Banff 2017 Kidney Meeting Report: Revised diagnostic criteria for chronic active T cell-mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and prospects for integrative endpoints for next-generation clinical trials.
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Am J Transplant, 2017 Dec 16; 18(2). PMID: 29243394    Free PMC article.
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Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment.
Marie-Caline Z Abadjian, W Barry Edwards, Carolyn J Anderson.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2017 Dec 25; 1036. PMID: 29275475
Multispectral imaging for quantitative and compartment-specific immune infiltrates reveals distinct immune profiles that classify lung cancer patients.
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J Pathol, 2017 Dec 29; 244(4). PMID: 29282718
RNA expression profiling of renal allografts in a nonhuman primate identifies variation in NK and endothelial gene expression.
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Am J Transplant, 2017 Dec 30; 18(6). PMID: 29286578    Free PMC article.
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Hum Pathol, 2017 Dec 31; 73. PMID: 29288041
Liver sampling: a vital window into HBV pathogenesis on the path to functional cure.
Upkar S Gill, Laura J Pallett, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini.
Gut, 2018 Jan 15; 67(4). PMID: 29331944    Free PMC article.
Noninvasive, Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat by MRI-PDFF as an Endpoint in NASH Trials.
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Hepatology, 2018 Jan 23; 68(2). PMID: 29356032    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Non-invasive assessments for liver fibrosis: The crystal ball we long for.
Grace Lai-Hung Wong.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2018 Jan 31; 33(5). PMID: 29380413
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the ongoing role of liver biopsy evaluation.
Elizabeth M Brunt.
Hepatol Commun, 2018 Feb 07; 1(5). PMID: 29404465    Free PMC article.
Routine Digital Pathology Workflow: The Catania Experience.
Filippo Fraggetta, Salvatore Garozzo, +2 authors, Esther Diana Rossi.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Feb 09; 8. PMID: 29416914    Free PMC article.
Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Why liver biopsy is essential.
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Liver Int, 2018 Feb 11; 38 Suppl 1. PMID: 29427497
Quantitative Elastography Methods in Liver Disease: Current Evidence and Future Directions.
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Radiology, 2018 Feb 21; 286(3). PMID: 29461949    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Noninvasive imaging biomarker assessment of liver fibrosis by elastography in NAFLD.
Elliot B Tapper, Rohit Loomba.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2018 Feb 22; 15(5). PMID: 29463906    Free PMC article.
Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research.
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World J Hepatol, 2018 Mar 13; 10(2). PMID: 29527259    Free PMC article.
Predicting cancer outcomes from histology and genomics using convolutional networks.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Mar 14; 115(13). PMID: 29531073    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images.
Joel Saltz, Rajarsi Gupta, +14 authors, Vésteinn Thorsson.
Cell Rep, 2018 Apr 05; 23(1). PMID: 29617659    Free PMC article.
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When and how should we perform a biopsy for HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis in 2018? A review.
Francesco Paolo Russo, Angela Imondi, Erica Nicola Lynch, Fabio Farinati.
Dig Liver Dis, 2018 Apr 11; 50(7). PMID: 29636240
Autoimmune hepatitis.
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, +5 authors, Aldo J Montano-Loza.
Nat Rev Dis Primers, 2018 Apr 13; 4. PMID: 29644994
In Silico Labeling: Predicting Fluorescent Labels in Unlabeled Images.
Eric M Christiansen, Samuel J Yang, +15 authors, Steven Finkbeiner.
Cell, 2018 Apr 17; 173(3). PMID: 29656897    Free PMC article.
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Molecular profiling of subclinical inflammatory lesions in long-term surviving adult liver transplant recipients.
María-Carlota Londoño, Lara Neves Souza, +7 authors, Alberto Sánchez-Fueyo.
J Hepatol, 2018 May 02; 69(3). PMID: 29709679
Novel molecular approaches to the detection of heart transplant rejection.
Evan P Kransdorf, Jon A Kobashigawa.
Per Med, 2018 May 12; 14(4). PMID: 29749832
Computer-assisted liver graft steatosis assessment via learning-based texture analysis.
Sara Moccia, Leonardo S Mattos, +9 authors, Manuela Cesaretti.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg, 2018 May 26; 13(9). PMID: 29796834
Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update.
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J Clin Oncol, 2018 May 31; 36(20). PMID: 29846122
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Precision histology: how deep learning is poised to revitalize histomorphology for personalized cancer care.
Ugljesa Djuric, Gelareh Zadeh, Kenneth Aldape, Phedias Diamandis.
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Non-invasive in vivo Imaging Grading of Liver Fibrosis.
Hanyu Jiang, Tianying Zheng, +2 authors, Bin Song.
J Clin Transl Hepatol, 2018 Jun 29; 6(2). PMID: 29951365    Free PMC article.
Histopathological Whole Slide Image Analysis Using Context-Based CBIR.
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IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2018 Jul 04; 37(7). PMID: 29969415
A 2018 Reference Guide to the Banff Classification of Renal Allograft Pathology.
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Transplantation, 2018 Jul 22; 102(11). PMID: 30028786    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Deep Profiling of Mouse Splenic Architecture with CODEX Multiplexed Imaging.
Yury Goltsev, Nikolay Samusik, +5 authors, Garry P Nolan.
Cell, 2018 Aug 07; 174(4). PMID: 30078711    Free PMC article.
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Evidence of Chronic Allograft Injury in Liver Biopsies From Long-term Pediatric Recipients of Liver Transplants.
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Hyperacute rejection of kidney allografts, associated with pre-existing humoral antibodies against donor cells.
F Kissmeyer-Nielsen, S Olsen, V P Petersen, O Fjeldborg.
Lancet, 1966 Sep 24; 2(7465). PMID: 4162350
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D A Ogden, K A Porter, +3 authors, T E Starzl.
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Ilaria Girolami, Stefano Marletta, Albino Eccher.
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