. 2019 May; 110(7):2080-2089.
doi: 10.1111/cas.14069.

Regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer: Can Treg cells be a new therapeutic target?

Yoshihiro Ohue 1 Hiroyoshi Nishikawa 1 
  • PMID: 31102428
  •     83 References
  •     176 citations


Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress abnormal/excessive immune responses to self- and nonself-antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. In tumor immunity, Treg cells are involved in tumor development and progression by inhibiting antitumor immunity. There are several Treg cell immune suppressive mechanisms: inhibition of costimulatory signals by CD80 and CD86 expressed by dendritic cells through cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, interleukin (IL)-2 consumption by high-affinity IL-2 receptors with high CD25 (IL-2 receptor α-chain) expression, secretion of inhibitory cytokines, metabolic modulation of tryptophan and adenosine, and direct killing of effector T cells. Infiltration of Treg cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) occurs in multiple murine and human tumors. Regulatory T cells are chemoattracted to the TME by chemokine gradients such as CCR4-CCL17/22, CCR8-CCL1, CCR10-CCL28, and CXCR3-CCL9/10/11. Regulatory T cells are then activated and inhibit antitumor immune responses. A high infiltration by Treg cells is associated with poor survival in various types of cancer. Therefore, strategies to deplete Treg cells and control of Treg cell functions to increase antitumor immune responses are urgently required in the cancer immunotherapy field. Various molecules that are highly expressed by Treg cells, such as immune checkpoint molecules, chemokine receptors, and metabolites, have been targeted by Abs or small molecules, but additional strategies are needed to fine-tune and optimize for augmenting antitumor effects restricted in the TME while avoiding systemic autoimmunity. Here, we provide a brief synopsis of these cells in cancer and how they can be controlled to achieve therapeutic outcomes.

Keywords: Treg; immune checkpoint; immune suppression; tolerance; tumor.

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Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Versatile Players in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Debolina Ganguly, Raghav Chandra, +10 authors, Matteo Ligorio.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Sep 23; 12(9). PMID: 32957515    Free PMC article.
EZH2 inhibition: a promising strategy to prevent cancer immune editing.
Ning Kang, Mark Eccleston, +4 authors, Francesco Crea.
Epigenomics, 2020 Sep 18; 12(16). PMID: 32938196    Free PMC article.
The effect of CCL5 on the immune cells infiltration and the prognosis of patients with kidney renal clear cell carcinoma.
Shuheng Bai, YinYing Wu, +8 authors, Juan Ren.
Int J Med Sci, 2020 Nov 12; 17(18). PMID: 33173412    Free PMC article.
Lactic Acid and an Acidic Tumor Microenvironment suppress Anticancer Immunity.
Joy X Wang, Stephen Y C Choi, +4 authors, Yuzhuo Wang.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 12; 21(21). PMID: 33171818    Free PMC article.
TMEM205 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor and Is Associated With Immune Cell Infiltrates in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Jiawei Rao, Xukun Wu, +2 authors, Yi Ma.
Front Genet, 2020 Nov 17; 11. PMID: 33193690    Free PMC article.
Tet2 at the interface between cancer and immunity.
Shuai Jiang.
Commun Biol, 2020 Nov 14; 3(1). PMID: 33184433    Free PMC article.
Microbial Biosurfactants in Cosmetic and Personal Skincare Pharmaceutical Formulations.
Simms A Adu, Patrick J Naughton, Roger Marchant, Ibrahim M Banat.
Pharmaceutics, 2020 Nov 20; 12(11). PMID: 33207832    Free PMC article.
The Janus Face of Tumor Microenvironment Targeted by Immunotherapy.
Maria Buoncervello, Lucia Gabriele, Elena Toschi.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Sep 06; 20(17). PMID: 31484464    Free PMC article.
Influence of patient characteristics on chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Furun An, Huiping Wang, +14 authors, Zhimin Zhai.
Nat Commun, 2020 Nov 25; 11(1). PMID: 33230103    Free PMC article.
Influence of oncogenic mutations and tumor microenvironment alterations on extranodal invasion in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Rong Shen, Peng-Peng Xu, +9 authors, Wei-Li Zhao.
Clin Transl Med, 2020 Dec 01; 10(7). PMID: 33252851    Free PMC article.
'Nur'turing tumor T cell tolerance and exhaustion: novel function for Nuclear Receptor Nur77 in immunity.
Sanne C Lith, Bram W van Os, Tom T P Seijkens, Carlie J M de Vries.
Eur J Immunol, 2020 Oct 17; 50(11). PMID: 33063848    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cell metabolism at the intersection between autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Henry Kurniawan, Leticia Soriano-Baguet, Dirk Brenner.
Eur J Immunol, 2020 Oct 18; 50(11). PMID: 33067808    Free PMC article.
Cytokine-chemokine network driven metastasis in esophageal cancer; promising avenue for targeted therapy.
Ajaz A Bhat, Sabah Nisar, +17 authors, Mohammad Haris.
Mol Cancer, 2021 Jan 05; 20(1). PMID: 33390169    Free PMC article.
Immunostimulation with chemotherapy in the era of immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Juliette Humeau, +2 authors, Guido Kroemer.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2020 Aug 08; 17(12). PMID: 32760014
Regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer: Can Treg cells be a new therapeutic target?
Yoshihiro Ohue, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa.
Cancer Sci, 2019 May 19; 110(7). PMID: 31102428    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Is There a Place for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Vulvar Neoplasms? A State of the Art Review.
Fulvio Borella, Mario Preti, +9 authors, Leonardo Micheletti.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Dec 31; 22(1). PMID: 33375467    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Immunosuppression in Colorectal Cancer.
Yang Zhang, Ashwani Rajput, Ning Jin, Jing Wang.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 10; 12(12). PMID: 33419310    Free PMC article.
Hematopoietic versus Solid Cancers and T Cell Dysfunction: Looking for Similarities and Distinctions.
Chiara Montironi, Cristina Muñoz-Pinedo, Eric Eldering.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 21; 13(2). PMID: 33466674    Free PMC article.
Accumulation of TNFR2-expressing regulatory T cells in malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer patients is associated with poor prognosis.
Lin-Lin Ye, Wen-Bei Peng, +7 authors, Qiong Zhou.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Jan 26; 8(24). PMID: 33490159    Free PMC article.
Exosomes in Immune Regulation.
Heidi Schwarzenbach, Peter B Gahan.
Noncoding RNA, 2021 Jan 14; 7(1). PMID: 33435564    Free PMC article.
Mining The Cancer Genome Atlas database for tumor mutation burden and its clinical implications in gastric cancer.
Dong-Yan Zhao, Xi-Zhen Sun, Shu-Kun Yao.
World J Gastrointest Oncol, 2021 Jan 30; 13(1). PMID: 33510848    Free PMC article.
The role of FOXP3 rs3761548 and rs2294021 polymorphisms in pediatrics acute lymphoblastic leukemia: association with risk and response to therapy.
Zahra Ghasemi, Kurosh Kalantar, Zahra Amirghofran.
Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Feb 01; 48(2). PMID: 33517519
Unfavorable impact of decreased muscle quality on the efficacy of immunotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Naoya Nishioka, Tateaki Naito, +13 authors, Toshiaki Takahashi.
Cancer Med, 2020 Dec 11; 10(1). PMID: 33300678    Free PMC article.
The Therapeutic Potential of Regulatory T Cells: Challenges and Opportunities.
Fatemeh Bayati, Mahsa Mohammadi, +3 authors, Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh.
Front Immunol, 2021 Feb 02; 11. PMID: 33519807    Free PMC article.
Tumour heterogeneity and intercellular networks of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at single cell resolution.
Yang Liu, Shuai He, +18 authors, Jin-Xin Bei.
Nat Commun, 2021 Feb 04; 12(1). PMID: 33531485    Free PMC article.
Metabolic reprogramming of T regulatory cells in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.
Varun Sasidharan Nair, Reem Saleh, +2 authors, Eyad Elkord.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Feb 04; 70(8). PMID: 33532902    Free PMC article.
Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity-Induced Acceleration of Tumor Growth, and Protein Kinases-Related Novel Therapeutics Regimens.
Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2021 Feb 05; 1275. PMID: 33539022
B7-H3×4-1BB bispecific antibody augments antitumor immunity by enhancing terminally differentiated CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Gihoon You, Yangsoon Lee, +18 authors, Seung-Woo Lee.
Sci Adv, 2021 Feb 02; 7(3). PMID: 33523913    Free PMC article.
The potential role of tumor-derived exosomes in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy in cancer.
Malgorzata Czystowska-Kuzmicz, Theresa L Whiteside.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2020 Aug 20; 21(2). PMID: 32813990    Free PMC article.
Smad7 suppresses melanoma lung metastasis by impairing Tregs migration to the tumor microenvironment.
Deliang Ma, Li Qiao, Bingnan Guo.
Am J Transl Res, 2021 Feb 18; 13(2). PMID: 33594321    Free PMC article.
Advantages of targeting the tumor immune microenvironment over blocking immune checkpoint in cancer immunotherapy.
Tianyu Tang, Xing Huang, +3 authors, Tingbo Liang.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Feb 21; 6(1). PMID: 33608497    Free PMC article.
Tumor microenvironment and immune-related therapies of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Yixiao Qin, Xiwang Zheng, +2 authors, Yongyan Wu.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2021 Feb 23; 20. PMID: 33614915    Free PMC article.
The Distinctive Serum Metabolomes of Gastric, Esophageal and Colorectal Cancers.
Zhenxing Ren, Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 14; 13(4). PMID: 33578739    Free PMC article.
Mycomedicine: A Unique Class of Natural Products with Potent Anti-tumour Bioactivities.
Rongchen Dai, Mengfan Liu, +2 authors, Hongxi Xu.
Molecules, 2021 Mar 07; 26(4). PMID: 33669877    Free PMC article.
Accelerating target deconvolution for therapeutic antibody candidates using highly parallelized genome editing.
Jenny Mattsson, Ludvig Ekdahl, +7 authors, Björn Nilsson.
Nat Commun, 2021 Feb 26; 12(1). PMID: 33627649    Free PMC article.
Proteolysis-targeting chimera against BCL-XL destroys tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells.
Ryan Kolb, Umasankar De, +16 authors, Weizhou Zhang.
Nat Commun, 2021 Feb 26; 12(1). PMID: 33627663    Free PMC article.
CCR4, CCR8, and P2RY14 as Prognostic Factors in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Are Involved in the Remodeling of the Tumor Microenvironment.
Liangliang Meng, Xiaoxi He, +8 authors, Yueyong Xiao.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 12; 11. PMID: 33692955    Free PMC article.
Changes in the Peripheral Blood Treg Cell Proportion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients After Transarterial Chemoembolization With Microparticles.
Zhizhong Ren, Yuanxun Yue, +8 authors, Tianxiao Wang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 16; 12. PMID: 33717135    Free PMC article.
Metabolism of Dendritic Cells in Tumor Microenvironment: For Immunotherapy.
Xin Peng, Youe He, +2 authors, Shuang Liu.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 19; 12. PMID: 33732237    Free PMC article.
Critical Roles of Balanced T Helper 9 Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Allergic Airway Inflammation and Tumor Immunity.
Muhua Huang, Jingcheng Dong.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Mar 23; 2021. PMID: 33748292    Free PMC article.
Safety and activity of the TGFβ receptor I kinase inhibitor galunisertib plus the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab in metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Davide Melisi, Do-Youn Oh, +16 authors, Rocio Garcia-Carbonero.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Mar 11; 9(3). PMID: 33688022    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Immune-Related Analysis Based on Differentially Expressed Genes in Left- and Right-Sided Colon Adenocarcinoma.
Jun-Nan Guo, Ming-Qi Li, +4 authors, Yan-Long Liu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 26; 11. PMID: 33763372    Free PMC article.
Co-inhibitor expression on tumor infiltrating and splenic lymphocytes after dual checkpoint inhibition in a microsatellite stable model of colorectal cancer.
Ryan J Slovak, Hong-Jai Park, +3 authors, Hyun S Kim.
Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 28; 11(1). PMID: 33772035    Free PMC article.
Type I and II Interferons in the Anti-Tumor Immune Response.
Sarah E Fenton, Diana Saleiro, Leonidas C Platanias.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33801234    Free PMC article.
IL17A Depletion Affects the Metabolism of Macrophages Treated with Gemcitabine.
Cecilia Roux, Gianluca Mucciolo, +3 authors, Paola Cappello.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 10(3). PMID: 33802061    Free PMC article.
Recent Advancements on Immunomodulatory Mechanisms of Resveratrol in Tumor Microenvironment.
Gagan Chhabra, Chandra K Singh, +2 authors, Nihal Ahmad.
Molecules, 2021 Apr 04; 26(5). PMID: 33802331    Free PMC article.
Immune System Alterations in Multiple Myeloma: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies to Reverse Immunosuppression.
Andrea Díaz-Tejedor, Mauro Lorenzo-Mohamed, +4 authors, Teresa Paíno.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33802806    Free PMC article.
The Role of CXCL16 in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Other Diseases.
Jan Korbecki, Karolina Bajdak-Rusinek, +4 authors, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 04; 22(7). PMID: 33800554    Free PMC article.
Bacteria-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.
Xuehui Huang, Jingmei Pan, +4 authors, Shaobing Zhou.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2021 Apr 16; 8(7). PMID: 33854892    Free PMC article.
Identification of an Immune Gene Signature Based on Tumor Microenvironment Characteristics in Colon Adenocarcinoma.
Ying Chen, Jia Zhao.
Cell Transplant, 2021 Apr 01; 30. PMID: 33787354    Free PMC article.
Immuno-profiling and cellular spatial analysis using five immune oncology multiplex immunofluorescence panels for paraffin tumor tissue.
Edwin Roger Parra, Maria C Ferrufino-Schmidt, +8 authors, Ignacio Ivan Wistuba.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 21; 11(1). PMID: 33875760    Free PMC article.
Enhanced anti-melanoma efficacy through a combination of the armed oncolytic adenovirus ZD55-IL-24 and immune checkpoint blockade in B16-bearing immunocompetent mouse model.
Hai-Jun Hu, Xiu Liang, +7 authors, Xin-Yuan Liu.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Apr 28; 70(12). PMID: 33903973    Free PMC article.
Adoptive T Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors: Pathway to Personalized Standard of Care.
Shuyang S Qin, Alexa D Melucci, Alexander C Chacon, Peter A Prieto.
Cells, 2021 May 01; 10(4). PMID: 33916369    Free PMC article.
Combined Effects of Myeloid Cells in the Neuroblastoma Tumor Microenvironment.
Jennifer Frosch, Ilia Leontari, John Anderson.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(7). PMID: 33917501    Free PMC article.
CD80 Expression on Tumor Cells Alters Tumor Microenvironment and Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy by CTLA-4 Blockade.
Julie Vackova, Ingrid Polakova, Shweta Dilip Johari, Michal Smahel.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(8). PMID: 33923750    Free PMC article.
Metabolites in the Tumor Microenvironment Reprogram Functions of Immune Effector Cells Through Epigenetic Modifications.
Yijia Li, Yangzhe Wu, Yi Hu.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 01; 12. PMID: 33927716    Free PMC article.
Two weeks of hydrogen inhalation can significantly reverse adaptive and innate immune system senescence patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a self-controlled study.
Ji-Bing Chen, Xiao-Feng Kong, +4 authors, Ke-Cheng Xu.
Med Gas Res, 2021 Jan 01; 10(4). PMID: 33380580    Free PMC article.
Lenalidomide triggers T-cell effector functions in vivo in patients with follicular lymphoma.
Cédric Ménard, Delphine Rossille, +10 authors, Karin Tarte.
Blood Adv, 2021 Apr 21; 5(8). PMID: 33877296    Free PMC article.
Prognostic and therapeutic role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subtypes in breast cancer.
Molly A Nelson, Worapol Ngamcherdtrakul, Shiuh-Wen Luoh, Wassana Yantasee.
Cancer Metastasis Rev, 2021 May 09; 40(2). PMID: 33963482    Free PMC article.
Reprogramming Immune Cells for Enhanced Cancer Immunotherapy: Targets and Strategies.
Yan Dong, Zhuo Wan, +2 authors, Li Liu.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 11; 12. PMID: 33968014    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cells and Regulatory T Cells Cross Talk in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Exploring Therapeutic Options for the Next Decade.
Amber G Bozward, Frazer Warricker, Ye H Oo, Salim I Khakoo.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 18; 12. PMID: 33995362    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cell Interactions With Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment and Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Cristina Zalfa, Silke Paust.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 25; 12. PMID: 34025641    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Immune Escape and Resistance to Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies in Mismatch Repair Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancers.
Vito Amodio, Gianluca Mauri, +4 authors, Giovanni Germano.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(11). PMID: 34072037    Free PMC article.
A new biological triangle in cancer: intestinal microbiota, immune checkpoint inhibitors and antibiotics.
Jie Zhang, Zhujiang Dai, +3 authors, Dong Tang.
Clin Transl Oncol, 2021 Jun 15; 23(12). PMID: 34125407    Free PMC article.
METTL14 Acts as a Potential Regulator of Tumor Immune and Progression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Tianbo Xu, Su Gao, +8 authors, Xiaoping Zhang.
Front Genet, 2021 Jun 15; 12. PMID: 34122497    Free PMC article.
Combination Strategies to Augment Immune Check Point Inhibitors Efficacy - Implications for Translational Research.
Hrishi Varayathu, Vinu Sarathy, +2 authors, Radheshyam Naik.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 15; 11. PMID: 34123767    Free PMC article.
Inflammation and tumor progression: signaling pathways and targeted intervention.
Huakan Zhao, Lei Wu, +4 authors, Yongsheng Li.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Jul 13; 6(1). PMID: 34248142    Free PMC article.
Identification of LIPH as an unfavorable biomarkers correlated with immune suppression or evasion in pancreatic cancer based on RNA-seq.
Hongkai Zhuang, Xinming Chen, +4 authors, Baohua Hou.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Jul 20; 71(3). PMID: 34279685
Identification of NOTCH4 mutation as a response biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
Junyu Long, Dongxu Wang, +8 authors, Haitao Zhao.
BMC Med, 2021 Jul 22; 19(1). PMID: 34284787    Free PMC article.
Long Non-Coding RNAs in the Tumor Immune Microenvironment: Biological Properties and Therapeutic Potential.
Ya-Nan Pi, Wen-Cai Qi, +2 authors, Wei-Lin Jin.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jul 24; 12. PMID: 34295338    Free PMC article.
Stimulation of Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells with Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Affect Cancer Progression.
Muhammad Amir Yunus, Muhammad Mahyiddin Ramli, Nurul Huda Osman, Rafeezul Mohamed.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz), 2021 Jul 31; 69(1). PMID: 34327598
Local Anti-PD-1 Delivery Prevents Progression of Premalignant Lesions in a 4NQO-Oral Carcinogenesis Mouse Model.
Yewen Shi, Tong-Xin Xie, +8 authors, Roberto Rangel.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2021 May 23; 14(8). PMID: 34021022    Free PMC article.
Are Changes in the Percentage of Specific Leukocyte Subpopulations Associated with Endogenous DNA Damage Levels in Testicular Cancer Patients?
Katarina Kalavska, Zuzana Sestakova, +13 authors, Michal Mego.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Aug 08; 22(15). PMID: 34361047    Free PMC article.
Tumor growth suppression by implantation of an anti-CD25 antibody-immobilized material near the tumor via regulatory T cell capture.
Tsuyoshi Kimura, Rino Tokunaga, +2 authors, Akio Kishida.
Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2021 Aug 12; 22(1). PMID: 34377087    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-10: A double-edged sword in breast cancer.
Chun-Ming Chang, Ho Yin Pekkle Lam, Hao-Jen Hsu, Shinn-Jong Jiang.
Tzu Chi Med J, 2021 Aug 14; 33(3). PMID: 34386356    Free PMC article.
Peptides that immunoactivate the tumor microenvironment.
Natsuki Furukawa, Aleksander S Popel.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer, 2020 Dec 05; 1875(1). PMID: 33276025    Free PMC article.
Hyperprogression under immunotherapy: a new form of immunotherapy response?-a narrative literature review.
Miaozhen Lin, Ben G L Vanneste, +3 authors, Xiuyu Cai.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2021 Aug 26; 10(7). PMID: 34430364    Free PMC article.
Novel Insights into the Immunotherapy of Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Do We Need a Change of Perspective?
Andrej Ozaniak, Jiri Vachtenheim, +2 authors, Zuzana Strizova.
Biomedicines, 2021 Aug 28; 9(8). PMID: 34440139    Free PMC article.
Roles of CCL2-CCR2 Axis in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Suguru Kadomoto, Kouji Izumi, Atsushi Mizokami.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Aug 28; 22(16). PMID: 34445235    Free PMC article.
Failure of Immunotherapy-The Molecular and Immunological Origin of Immunotherapy Resistance in Lung Cancer.
Justyna Błach, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Marcin Nicoś, Paweł Krawczyk.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Aug 28; 22(16). PMID: 34445735    Free PMC article.
Aptamer-mediated transcriptional gene silencing of Fox p 3 inhibits regulatory T cells and potentiates antitumor response.
Andrea J Manrique-Rincón, Luciana P Ruas, +6 authors, Marcio C Bajgelman.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 2021 Aug 31; 25. PMID: 34457999    Free PMC article.
The state of the art of bispecific antibodies for treating human malignancies.
Shuhang Wang, Kun Chen, +16 authors, Ning Li.
EMBO Mol Med, 2021 Aug 26; 13(9). PMID: 34431224    Free PMC article.
Endometriotic Peritoneal Fluid Stimulates Recruitment of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Treg Cells.
Joanna Olkowska-Truchanowicz, Alicja Sztokfisz-Ignasiak, +6 authors, Jacek Malejczyk.
J Clin Med, 2021 Sep 11; 10(17). PMID: 34501240    Free PMC article.
Peripheral Blood-Based Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Ho Jung An, Hong Jae Chon, Chan Kim.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Sep 11; 22(17). PMID: 34502325    Free PMC article.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Challenge and Improvement of Immune Drug Resistance.
Fanming Kong, Ziwei Wang, +4 authors, Yingjie Jia.
Front Oncol, 2021 Sep 18; 11. PMID: 34532293    Free PMC article.
Inhibitory Effect of Dihydroartemisinin on the Proliferation and Migration of Melanoma Cells and Experimental Lung Metastasis From Melanoma in Mice.
Qi Zhang, Linbo Jin, +8 authors, Guihua Jin.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Sep 21; 12. PMID: 34539408    Free PMC article.
The antitumor mechanisms of aerobic exercise: A review of recent preclinical studies.
Ningxin Jia, Yanan Zhou, Xiaosheng Dong, Meng Ding.
Cancer Med, 2021 Aug 14; 10(18). PMID: 34387383    Free PMC article.
Annexin A1 as a Regulator of Immune Response in Cancer.
Thaise Gonçalves Araújo, Sara Teixeira Soares Mota, +3 authors, Lara Vecchi.
Cells, 2021 Sep 29; 10(9). PMID: 34571894    Free PMC article.
Glucocorticoid and PD-1 Cross-Talk: Does the Immune System Become Confused?
Sabrina Adorisio, Lorenza Cannarile, Domenico V Delfino, Emira Ayroldi.
Cells, 2021 Sep 29; 10(9). PMID: 34571982    Free PMC article.
Lower Survival and Increased Circulating Suppressor Cells in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Deficit of Vitamin D Levels Using R-GDP Plus Lenalidomide (R2-GDP): Results from the R2-GDP-GOTEL Trial.
Carlos Jiménez-Cortegana, Pilar M Sánchez-Martínez, +7 authors, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 13(18). PMID: 34572849    Free PMC article.
Downregulated TNF-α Levels after Cryo-Thermal Therapy Drive Tregs Fragility to Promote Long-Term Antitumor Immunity.
Yue Lou, Junjun Wang, +3 authors, Lisa X Xu.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Sep 29; 22(18). PMID: 34576115    Free PMC article.
Fluorescent Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Coupled With Other State-Of-The-Art Techniques to Systematically Characterize the Tumor Immune Microenvironment.
Anaïs Boisson, Grégory Noël, +12 authors, Soizic Garaud.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Oct 09; 8. PMID: 34621785    Free PMC article.
Trans-arterial chemoembolization as a loco-regional inducer of immunogenic cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma: implications for immunotherapy.
David J Pinato, Sam M Murray, +18 authors, Vincenzo Mazzaferro.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Oct 02; 9(9). PMID: 34593621    Free PMC article.
Low Levels of TRIM28-Interacting KRAB-ZNF Genes Associate with Cancer Stemness and Predict Poor Prognosis of Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma Patients.
Patrycja Czerwinska, Andrzej Adam Mackiewicz.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Oct 14; 13(19). PMID: 34638319    Free PMC article.
Potential Therapeutic and Prognostic Values of LSM Family Genes in Breast Cancer.
Hoang Dang Khoa Ta, Wei-Jan Wang, +6 authors, Kuen-Haur Lee.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Oct 14; 13(19). PMID: 34638387    Free PMC article.
Hijacking Sexual Immuno-Privilege in GBM-An Immuno-Evasion Strategy.
Martyn A Sharpe, David S Baskin, Amanda V Jenson, Alexandra M Baskin.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 24; 22(20). PMID: 34681642    Free PMC article.
Dihydroartemisinin: A Potential Drug for the Treatment of Malignancies and Inflammatory Diseases.
Ran Yu, Guihua Jin, Manabu Fujimoto.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 26; 11. PMID: 34692496    Free PMC article.
A Novel S100 Family-Based Signature Associated with Prognosis and Immune Microenvironment in Glioma.
Yifang Hu, Jiahang Song, +6 authors, Yun Liu.
J Oncol, 2021 Oct 30; 2021. PMID: 34712325    Free PMC article.
Screening and Prognostic Analysis of Immune-Related Genes in Pancreatic Cancer.
Xin Wu, Yichao Liang.
Front Genet, 2021 Nov 06; 12. PMID: 34737763    Free PMC article.
Role of FoxP3-positive regulatory T-cells in regressive and progressive cervical dysplasia.
Aurelia Vattai, Nadine Kremer, +11 authors, Thomas Kolben.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2021 Nov 06; 148(2). PMID: 34739585
Distinct roles but cooperative effect of TLR3/9 agonists and PD-1 blockade in converting the immunotolerant microenvironment of irreversible electroporation-ablated tumors.
Fatma Babikr, Jiangbo Wan, +10 authors, Jim Xiang.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2021 Nov 17; 18(12). PMID: 34782757    Free PMC article.
Immune Microenvironment and Response in Prostate Cancer Using Large Population Cohorts.
Xiaohan Ren, Xinglin Chen, +7 authors, Chao Qin.
Front Immunol, 2021 Nov 16; 12. PMID: 34777331    Free PMC article.
Postoperative Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction: The Prime Suspect in the Case of Metastasis Following Curative Cancer Surgery.
Marisa Market, Gayashan Tennakoon, Rebecca C Auer.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Nov 14; 22(21). PMID: 34768810    Free PMC article.
CCR4 as a Therapeutic Target for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Osamu Yoshie.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 14; 13(21). PMID: 34771703    Free PMC article.
Targeting regulatory T cells for immunotherapy in melanoma.
Lili Huang, Yeye Guo, +4 authors, Xiaowei Xu.
Mol Biomed, 2021 Nov 23; 2(1). PMID: 34806028    Free PMC article.
Exposure to Tobacco Smoking Induces a subset of Activated Tumor-resident Tregs in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Yudi Hu, Chaoqun Xu, +6 authors, Qiyuan Li.
Transl Oncol, 2021 Nov 13; 15(1). PMID: 34768099    Free PMC article.
Sirtuins as Metabolic Regulators of Immune Cells Phenotype and Function.
Lídia Fortuny, Carlos Sebastián.
Genes (Basel), 2021 Nov 28; 12(11). PMID: 34828304    Free PMC article.
Combined Assessment of the Tumor-Stroma Ratio and Tumor Immune Cell Infiltrate for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Response Prediction in Colon Cancer.
Cor J Ravensbergen, Meaghan Polack, +5 authors, Wilma E Mesker.
Cells, 2021 Nov 28; 10(11). PMID: 34831157    Free PMC article.
Chemokine Pathways in Cutaneous Melanoma: Their Modulation by Cancer and Exploitation by the Clinician.
Rebecca Adams, Bernhard Moser, Sophia N Karagiannis, Katie E Lacy.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 28; 13(22). PMID: 34830780    Free PMC article.
Current Strategies for Tumor Photodynamic Therapy Combined With Immunotherapy.
Jianfeng Hua, Pan Wu, +5 authors, Yong Huang.
Front Oncol, 2021 Dec 07; 11. PMID: 34868932    Free PMC article.
Integrative Analysis of Immune-Related Genes in the Tumor Microenvironment of Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma.
Bin Zheng, Fang Xie, +4 authors, Zhihong Niu.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Dec 11; 8. PMID: 34888353    Free PMC article.
Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy for Esophageal Cancer: A Literature Review.
Luchang Cao, Xinmiao Wang, +5 authors, Jie Li.
Integr Cancer Ther, 2021 Nov 27; 20. PMID: 34825600    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T Cell as a Biomarker of Treatment-Free Remission in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Yuki Fujioka, Daisuke Sugiyama, +8 authors, Naoto Takahashi.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Dec 11; 13(23). PMID: 34885012    Free PMC article.
Multifaceted Roles of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Tumor Immunity.
Kazuhiko Matsuo, Osamu Yoshie, Takashi Nakayama.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Dec 11; 13(23). PMID: 34885241    Free PMC article.
Computational Identification of Immune- and Ferroptosis-Related LncRNA Signature for Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anmin Huang, Ting Li, Xueting Xie, Jinglin Xia.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Dec 14; 8. PMID: 34901153    Free PMC article.
A radioenhancing nanoparticle mediated immunoradiation improves survival and generates long-term antitumor immune memory in an anti-PD1-resistant murine lung cancer model.
Yun Hu, Sébastien Paris, +12 authors, James W Welsh.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2021 Dec 14; 19(1). PMID: 34895262    Free PMC article.
Effective Disease Control After Combinatorial Treatment with a PD-1 Antibody and an mTOR Inhibitor for Recurrent Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinomas: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Yue Li, Wentao Liu, +8 authors, Dalin Li.
Onco Targets Ther, 2021 Dec 18; 14. PMID: 34916808    Free PMC article.
The Immune Regulatory Role of Protein Kinase CK2 and Its Implications for Treatment of Cancer.
Huixian Hong, Etty N Benveniste.
Biomedicines, 2021 Dec 25; 9(12). PMID: 34944749    Free PMC article.
The attenuation effect of low piperine Piper nigrum extract on doxorubicin-induced toxicity of blood chemical and immunological properties in mammary tumour rats.
Jirakrit Saetang, Aman Tedasen, +5 authors, Potchanapond Graidist.
Pharm Biol, 2021 Dec 29; 60(1). PMID: 34962450    Free PMC article.
AMP-activated protein kinase alpha1 promotes tumor development via FOXP3 elevation in tumor-infiltrating Treg cells.
Junqing An, Ye Ding, +5 authors, Ming-Hui Zou.
iScience, 2022 Jan 07; 25(1). PMID: 34988407    Free PMC article.

;. PMID: 35006459
Identification of the JNK-Active Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cluster Associated With an Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment.
Takashi Semba, Xiaoping Wang, +7 authors, Naoto T Ueno.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2021 Jul 13; 114(1). PMID: 34250544    Free PMC article.
Harnessing Antitumor CD4+ T Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Myriam Ben Khelil, Yann Godet, +3 authors, Romain Loyon.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Jan 12; 14(1). PMID: 35008422    Free PMC article.
Macrophage Polarity and Disease Control.
Suguru Kadomoto, Kouji Izumi, Atsushi Mizokami.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Jan 12; 23(1). PMID: 35008577    Free PMC article.
Alteration of the immune environment in bone marrow from children with recurrent B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Takashi Mikami, Itaru Kato, +22 authors, Junko Takita.
Cancer Sci, 2021 Oct 31; 113(1). PMID: 34716967    Free PMC article.
miR-4759 suppresses breast cancer through immune checkpoint blockade.
You-Zhe Lin, Shu-Hsuan Liu, +8 authors, Shao-Chun Wang.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2022 Jan 14; 20. PMID: 35024096    Free PMC article.
Autophagy and tumorigenesis.
Michael Rangel, Jerry Kong, +2 authors, Jessie Yanxiang Guo.
FEBS J, 2021 Jul 17;. PMID: 34270851    Free PMC article.
The Crossroads of Periodontitis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Immune Implications and Tumor Promoting Capacities.
Omnia Elebyary, Abdelahhad Barbour, +2 authors, Michael Glogauer.
Front Oral Health, 2022 Jan 21; 1. PMID: 35047982    Free PMC article.
A Comparative and Comprehensive Review of Antibody Applications in the Treatment of Lung Disease.
Yuefeng Wu, Hai Song.
Life (Basel), 2022 Jan 22; 12(1). PMID: 35054524    Free PMC article.
Back to the Future: Spatiotemporal Determinants of NK Cell Antitumor Function.
Joey H Li, Timothy E O'Sullivan.
Front Immunol, 2022 Jan 28; 12. PMID: 35082797    Free PMC article.
Metabolic Reprogramming in Gastric Cancer: Trojan Horse Effect.
Yu-Ling Bin, Hong-Sai Hu, +6 authors, De-Feng Li.
Front Oncol, 2022 Feb 01; 11. PMID: 35096565    Free PMC article.
Agrin Promotes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression and Stimulates Regulatory T Cells via Increasing IL-6 Secretion Through PI3K/AKT Pathway.
Linzhi Han, Hongjie Shi, +9 authors, Yan Gong.
Front Oncol, 2022 Feb 04; 11. PMID: 35111682    Free PMC article.
The therapeutic effect of IL-21 combined with IFN-γ inducing CD4+CXCR5+CD57+T cells differentiation on hepatocellular carcinoma.
Changlin Zhao, Xianlin Wu, Jia Chen, Guoqiang Qian.
J Adv Res, 2022 Feb 08; 36. PMID: 35127167    Free PMC article.
Genetic Changes Driving Immunosuppressive Microenvironments in Oral Premalignancy.
Roberto Rangel, Curtis R Pickering, Andrew G Sikora, Michael T Spiotto.
Front Immunol, 2022 Feb 15; 13. PMID: 35154165    Free PMC article.
Characterization of Immunoactive and Immunotolerant CD4+ T Cells in Breast Cancer by Measuring Activity of Signaling Pathways That Determine Immune Cell Function.
Yvonne Wesseling-Rozendaal, Arie van Doorn, Karen Willard-Gallo, Anja van de Stolpe.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Feb 16; 14(3). PMID: 35158758    Free PMC article.
Chemokine Receptor-Targeted Therapies: Special Case for CCR8.
Bernhard Moser.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Feb 16; 14(3). PMID: 35158783    Free PMC article.
Identification and Quantification of Necroptosis Landscape on Therapy and Prognosis in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma.
Sheng Xin, Jiaquan Mao, +11 authors, Xiaodong Song.
Front Genet, 2022 Mar 04; 13. PMID: 35237304    Free PMC article.
Anti-Tumor Potency of Short-Term Interleukin-15 Dendritic Cells Is Potentiated by In Situ Silencing of Programmed-Death Ligands.
Maarten Versteven, Donovan Flumens, +10 authors, Eva Lion.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 08; 13. PMID: 35250967    Free PMC article.
Antagonistic Antibody Targeting TNFR2 Inhibits Regulatory T Cell Function to Promote Anti-Tumor Activity.
Yonglin Chen, Manxue Jia, +2 authors, Nanhai He.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 08; 13. PMID: 35251028    Free PMC article.
Targeting TNFR2 in Cancer: All Roads Lead to Rome.
Jingchao Bai, Bowen Ding, Hui Li.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 08; 13. PMID: 35251045    Free PMC article.
Immune Status and Chemokine C Receptor 7 Expression in Primary in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia
Lin Zhang, Guo-zhong Zhou, Wei-ying Feng, Dan Li.
Turk J Haematol, 2021 Aug 28; 39(1). PMID: 34445858    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmune Vasculitis.
Ke Jin, Simon Parreau, +4 authors, Cornelia M Weyand.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 18; 13. PMID: 35296082    Free PMC article.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Its Microenvironment: Past, Current, and Future Perspectives.
Zhi Yi Su, Pui Yan Siak, Chee-Onn Leong, Shiau-Chuen Cheah.
Front Oncol, 2022 Mar 22; 12. PMID: 35311066    Free PMC article.
Vitiligo-specific soluble biomarkers as early indicators of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma patients.
Maria Luigia Carbone, Gabriele Madonna, +10 authors, Cristina Maria Failla.
Sci Rep, 2022 Apr 02; 12(1). PMID: 35361879    Free PMC article.
The impact of CCR8+ regulatory T cells on cytotoxic T cell function in human lung cancer.
Miya Haruna, Azumi Ueyama, +13 authors, Hisashi Wada.
Sci Rep, 2022 Apr 01; 12(1). PMID: 35354899    Free PMC article.
CIMT 2021: report on the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Arne Billmeier, Krutika Khinvasara, +5 authors, Mustafa Diken.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2022 Feb 08; 18(1). PMID: 35130105    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their therapeutic potential against autoimmune disorders - Advances and challenges.
Tapas Kumar Goswami, Mithilesh Singh, +7 authors, Kuldeep Dhama.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2022 Mar 05; 18(1). PMID: 35240914    Free PMC article.
Association of Elevated Expression Levels of COL4A1 in Stromal Cells with an Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment in Low-Grade Glioma, Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Skin Cutaneous Melanoma, and Stomach Adenocarcinoma.
Hyo-Jae Shin, Minchan Gil, Im-Soon Lee.
J Pers Med, 2022 Apr 24; 12(4). PMID: 35455650    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy Mechanism of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with the Effect of STK11/AMPK Signaling Pathway.
Yang Xia, Peng Wang, +4 authors, Gaohua Han.
Biomed Res Int, 2022 Apr 26; 2022. PMID: 35463992    Free PMC article.
Neutrophils and polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells: an emerging battleground in cancer therapy.
Hans Raskov, Adile Orhan, Shruti Gaggar, Ismail Gögenur.
Oncogenesis, 2022 May 04; 11(1). PMID: 35504900    Free PMC article.
Immune effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer: Relief from immunosuppression is associated with clinical response.
Fabio Scirocchi, Simone Scagnoli, +9 authors, Marianna Nuti.
EBioMedicine, 2022 Apr 28; 79. PMID: 35477069    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Analysis of 5-Methylcytosine (m5C) Regulators and the Immune Microenvironment in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma to Aid Immunotherapy.
Ronglin Wang, Yongdong Guo, +12 authors, Haichuan Su.
Front Oncol, 2022 Apr 19; 12. PMID: 35433474    Free PMC article.
The Role of NRF2/KEAP1 Pathway in Glioblastoma: Pharmacological Implications.
Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi, Fateme Salemi, +4 authors, Marzieh Lotfi.
Med Oncol, 2022 May 15; 39(5). PMID: 35568790
Hypoxia as a Modulator of Inflammation and Immune Response in Cancer.
Rosa A Castillo-Rodríguez, Cristina Trejo-Solís, +2 authors, Víctor Manuel Dávila-Borja.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 May 15; 14(9). PMID: 35565420    Free PMC article.
Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate as a Potent IDO1/TDO2 Dual Inhibitor Enhances Anti-PD1 Therapy for Colorectal Cancer in Mice.
Rongjie Zhang, Yuanfeiyi Wang, +4 authors, Wenshuang Wu.
Front Pharmacol, 2022 May 17; 13. PMID: 35571116    Free PMC article.
The dark side of immunotherapy: pancreatic cancer.
Gianluca Mucciolo, Cecilia Roux, +3 authors, Paola Cappello.
Cancer Drug Resist, 2020 May 11; 3(3). PMID: 35582441    Free PMC article.