Journal Article
. 2019 Jul; 25(8):1301-1309.
doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0508-1.

Clinical-grade computational pathology using weakly supervised deep learning on whole slide images

Gabriele Campanella 1 Matthew G Hanna 1 Luke Geneslaw 1 Allen Miraflor 1 Vitor Werneck Krauss Silva 1 Klaus J Busam 1 Edi Brogi 1 Victor E Reuter 1 David S Klimstra 1 Thomas J Fuchs 2 
  • PMID: 31308507
  •     28 References
  •     169 citations


The development of decision support systems for pathology and their deployment in clinical practice have been hindered by the need for large manually annotated datasets. To overcome this problem, we present a multiple instance learning-based deep learning system that uses only the reported diagnoses as labels for training, thereby avoiding expensive and time-consuming pixel-wise manual annotations. We evaluated this framework at scale on a dataset of 44,732 whole slide images from 15,187 patients without any form of data curation. Tests on prostate cancer, basal cell carcinoma and breast cancer metastases to axillary lymph nodes resulted in areas under the curve above 0.98 for all cancer types. Its clinical application would allow pathologists to exclude 65-75% of slides while retaining 100% sensitivity. Our results show that this system has the ability to train accurate classification models at unprecedented scale, laying the foundation for the deployment of computational decision support systems in clinical practice.

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Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 10; 11(1). PMID: 33558593    Free PMC article.
Semantic segmentation of reflectance confocal microscopy mosaics of pigmented lesions using weak labels.
Marissa D'Alonzo, Alican Bozkurt, +5 authors, Jennifer G Dy.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 13; 11(1). PMID: 33574486    Free PMC article.
Deep learning in cancer pathology: a new generation of clinical biomarkers.
Amelie Echle, Niklas Timon Rindtorff, +3 authors, Jakob Nikolas Kather.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Nov 19; 124(4). PMID: 33204028    Free PMC article.
Segmentation of cellular patterns in confocal images of melanocytic lesions in vivo via a multiscale encoder-decoder network (MED-Net).
Kivanc Kose, Alican Bozkurt, +6 authors, Milind Rajadhyaksha.
Med Image Anal, 2020 Nov 04; 67. PMID: 33142135    Free PMC article.
Deep learning identifies morphological features in breast cancer predictive of cancer ERBB2 status and trastuzumab treatment efficacy.
Dmitrii Bychkov, Nina Linder, +10 authors, Johan Lundin.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 19; 11(1). PMID: 33597560    Free PMC article.
Contemporary application of artificial intelligence in prostate cancer: an i-TRUE study.
B M Zeeshan Hameed, Milap Shah, +5 authors, Bhavan Prasad Rai.
Ther Adv Urol, 2021 Feb 27; 13. PMID: 33633799    Free PMC article.
Perineural Invasion is a Better Prognostic Indicator than Lymphovascular Invasion and a Potential Adjuvant Therapy Indicator for pN0M0 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Yuan-Ning Guo, Dong-Ping Tian, +12 authors, Min Su.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2020 Jun 11; 27(11). PMID: 32519146
Performance Evaluation of Deep Learning-Based Prostate Cancer Screening Methods in Histopathological Images: Measuring the Impact of the Model's Complexity on Its Processing Speed.
Lourdes Duran-Lopez, Juan P Dominguez-Morales, +4 authors, Alejandro Linares-Barranco.
Sensors (Basel), 2021 Feb 11; 21(4). PMID: 33562753    Free PMC article.
Computer Vision in the Operating Room: Opportunities and Caveats.
Lauren R Kennedy-Metz, Pietro Mascagni, +5 authors, Marco A Zenati.
IEEE Trans Med Robot Bionics, 2021 Mar 02; 3(1). PMID: 33644703    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence assistance significantly improves Gleason grading of prostate biopsies by pathologists.
Wouter Bulten, Maschenka Balkenhol, +20 authors, Geert Litjens.
Mod Pathol, 2020 Aug 08; 34(3). PMID: 32759979    Free PMC article.
An annotation-free whole-slide training approach to pathological classification of lung cancer types using deep learning.
Chi-Long Chen, Chi-Chung Chen, +6 authors, Cheng-Yu Chen.
Nat Commun, 2021 Feb 21; 12(1). PMID: 33608558    Free PMC article.
GestAltNet: aggregation and attention to improve deep learning of gestational age from placental whole-slide images.
Pooya Mobadersany, Lee A D Cooper, Jeffery A Goldstein.
Lab Invest, 2021 Mar 07; 101(7). PMID: 33674784    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Prostate Cancer Patient Management-Current Trends and Future Perspectives.
Octavian Sabin Tătaru, Mihai Dorin Vartolomei, +12 authors, Matteo Ferro.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 11(2). PMID: 33672608    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of a Personalized Survival Prediction Model for Uterine Adenosarcoma: A Population-Based Deep Learning Study.
Wenjie Qu, Qingqing Liu, +5 authors, Baoxia Cui.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 09; 10. PMID: 33680946    Free PMC article.
Human-interpretable image features derived from densely mapped cancer pathology slides predict diverse molecular phenotypes.
James A Diao, Jason K Wang, +19 authors, Amaro Taylor-Weiner.
Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 14; 12(1). PMID: 33712588    Free PMC article.
Harnessing non-destructive 3D pathology.
Jonathan T C Liu, Adam K Glaser, +4 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2021 Feb 17; 5(3). PMID: 33589781    Free PMC article.
Deep Multi-Magnification Networks for multi-class breast cancer image segmentation.
David Joon Ho, Dig V K Yarlagadda, +6 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2021 Jan 24; 88. PMID: 33485058    Free PMC article.
A multi-resolution model for histopathology image classification and localization with multiple instance learning.
Jiayun Li, Wenyuan Li, +4 authors, Corey W Arnold.
Comput Biol Med, 2021 Feb 19; 131. PMID: 33601084    Free PMC article.
Accurate diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on histopathology images using artificial intelligence.
K S Wang, G Yu, +51 authors, H W Deng.
BMC Med, 2021 Mar 24; 19(1). PMID: 33752648    Free PMC article.
Pan-cancer image-based detection of clinically actionable genetic alterations.
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Lara R Heij, +25 authors, Tom Luedde.
Nat Cancer, 2021 Mar 26; 1(8). PMID: 33763651    Free PMC article.
Radiomic and radiogenomic modeling for radiotherapy: strategies, pitfalls, and challenges.
James T T Coates, Giacomo Pirovano, Issam El Naqa.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2021 Mar 27; 8(3). PMID: 33768134    Free PMC article.
Predicting gastric cancer outcome from resected lymph node histopathology images using deep learning.
Xiaodong Wang, Ying Chen, +15 authors, Guanzhen Yu.
Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 14; 12(1). PMID: 33712598    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based six-type classifier for lung cancer and mimics from histopathological whole slide images: a retrospective study.
Huan Yang, Lili Chen, +9 authors, Weizhong Li.
BMC Med, 2021 Mar 30; 19(1). PMID: 33775248    Free PMC article.
Decoding and Systematization of Medical Imaging Features of Multiple Human Malignancies.
Lu Wang, Zhaoyu Liu, +8 authors, Jiangdian Song.
Radiol Imaging Cancer, 2021 Mar 30; 2(5). PMID: 33778732    Free PMC article.
Development and evaluation of a deep neural network for histologic classification of renal cell carcinoma on biopsy and surgical resection slides.
Mengdan Zhu, Bing Ren, +3 authors, Saeed Hassanpour.
Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 31; 11(1). PMID: 33782535    Free PMC article.
Deep learning for computer-assisted diagnosis of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.
Sean A Rasmussen, Thomas Arnason, Weei-Yuarn Huang.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2021 Jan 22; 55(2). PMID: 33472333    Free PMC article.
The Potential of Artificial Intelligence to Detect Lymphovascular Invasion in Testicular Cancer.
Abhisek Ghosh, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, +8 authors, Clare Verrill.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33809521    Free PMC article.
Evolution of the liver biopsy and its future.
Dhanpat Jain, Richard Torres, +3 authors, Vasilis Vasiliou.
Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Apr 08; 6. PMID: 33824924    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Research and Precision Medicine.
Bhavneet Bhinder, Coryandar Gilvary, Neel S Madhukar, Olivier Elemento.
Cancer Discov, 2021 Apr 04; 11(4). PMID: 33811123    Free PMC article.
Using artificial intelligence to assist radiologists in distinguishing COVID-19 from other pulmonary infections.
Yanhong Yang, Fleming Y M Lure, +4 authors, Lin Guo.
J Xray Sci Technol, 2020 Nov 10; 29(1). PMID: 33164982    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model for the classification of indeterminate lung carcinoma in biopsy whole slide images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Gouji Toyokawa, +6 authors, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 16; 11(1). PMID: 33854137    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: 2020 Summative Review.
Barbara Kenner, Suresh T Chari, +31 authors, Brian Wolpin.
Pancreas, 2021 Apr 10; 50(3). PMID: 33835956    Free PMC article.
Computational Image Analysis Identifies Histopathological Image Features Associated With Somatic Mutations and Patient Survival in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
Jun Cheng, Yuting Liu, +7 authors, Jie Zhang.
Front Oncol, 2021 Apr 20; 11. PMID: 33869007    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model to detect pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy.
Yoshiki Naito, Masayuki Tsuneki, +25 authors, Hirohisa Yano.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 21; 11(1). PMID: 33875703    Free PMC article.
Real-time intraoperative glioma diagnosis using fluorescence imaging and deep convolutional neural networks.
Biluo Shen, Zhe Zhang, +5 authors, Jie Tian.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2021 Apr 28; 48(11). PMID: 33904984    Free PMC article.
Overcoming the limitations of patch-based learning to detect cancer in whole slide images.
Ozan Ciga, Tony Xu, +3 authors, Anne L Martel.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 28; 11(1). PMID: 33903725    Free PMC article.
ImmunoAIzer: A Deep Learning-Based Computational Framework to Characterize Cell Distribution and Gene Mutation in Tumor Microenvironment.
Chang Bian, Yu Wang, +5 authors, Jie Tian.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(7). PMID: 33916145    Free PMC article.
Role of AI and Histopathological Images in Detecting Prostate Cancer: A Survey.
Sarah M Ayyad, Mohamed Shehata, +7 authors, Ayman El-Baz.
Sensors (Basel), 2021 May 01; 21(8). PMID: 33917035    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence & Tissue Biomarkers: Advantages, Risks and Perspectives for Pathology.
Cesare Lancellotti, Pierandrea Cancian, +4 authors, Luca Di Tommaso.
Cells, 2021 May 01; 10(4). PMID: 33918173    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based predictive identification of neural stem cell differentiation.
Yanjing Zhu, Ruiqi Huang, +3 authors, Rongrong Zhu.
Nat Commun, 2021 May 12; 12(1). PMID: 33972525    Free PMC article.
Combining weakly and strongly supervised learning improves strong supervision in Gleason pattern classification.
Sebastian Otálora, Niccolò Marini, Henning Müller, Manfredo Atzori.
BMC Med Imaging, 2021 May 10; 21(1). PMID: 33964886    Free PMC article.
Deep learning in histopathology: the path to the clinic.
Jeroen van der Laak, Geert Litjens, Francesco Ciompi.
Nat Med, 2021 May 16; 27(5). PMID: 33990804
Evaluation of the Use of Single- and Multi-Magnification Convolutional Neural Networks for the Determination and Quantitation of Lesions in Nonclinical Pathology Studies.
Jogile Kuklyte, Jenny Fitzgerald, +14 authors, Donal O'Shea.
Toxicol Pathol, 2021 Feb 24; 49(4). PMID: 33618634    Free PMC article.
Machine learning of EEG spectra classifies unconsciousness during GABAergic anesthesia.
John H Abel, Marcus A Badgeley, +8 authors, Emery N Brown.
PLoS One, 2021 May 07; 16(5). PMID: 33956800    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based molecular morphometrics for kidney biopsies.
Marina Zimmermann, Martin Klaus, +16 authors, Victor G Puelles.
JCI Insight, 2021 Mar 12; 6(7). PMID: 33705360    Free PMC article.
Selection of Representative Histologic Slides in Interobserver Reproducibility Studies: Insights from Expert Review for Ovarian Carcinoma Subtype Classification.
Marios A Gavrielides, Brigitte M Ronnett, +2 authors, Jeffrey D Seidman.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 May 21; 12. PMID: 34012719    Free PMC article.
Deep learning predicts gene expression as an intermediate data modality to identify susceptibility patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected Diversity Outbred mice.
Thomas E Tavolara, M K K Niazi, +3 authors, Metin N Gurcan.
EBioMedicine, 2021 May 18; 67. PMID: 34000621    Free PMC article.
Automated gleason grading on prostate biopsy slides by statistical representations of homology profile.
Chaoyang Yan, Kazuaki Nakane, +6 authors, Jun Xu.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2020 May 30; 194. PMID: 32470903    Free PMC article.
Rise of Clinical Studies in the Field of Machine Learning: A Review of Data Registered in
Claus Zippel, Sabine Bohnet-Joschko.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021 Jun 03; 18(10). PMID: 34064827    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning for the Classification of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma on Histopathological Images.
Georg Steinbuss, Mark Kriegsmann, +5 authors, Katharina Kriegsmann.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(10). PMID: 34067726    Free PMC article.
Classification of Diffuse Glioma Subtype from Clinical-Grade Pathological Images Using Deep Transfer Learning.
Sanghyuk Im, Jonghwan Hyeon, +4 authors, Tae-Jung Kim.
Sensors (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 21(10). PMID: 34067934    Free PMC article.
Challenges and opportunities of digital health in a post-COVID19 world.
Amirreza Manteghinejad, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard.
J Res Med Sci, 2021 Jun 05; 26. PMID: 34084190    Free PMC article.
Dual attention multiple instance learning with unsupervised complementary loss for COVID-19 screening.
Philip Chikontwe, Miguel Luna, +3 authors, Sang Hyun Park.
Med Image Anal, 2021 Jun 09; 72. PMID: 34102477    Free PMC article.
Hybrid AI-assistive diagnostic model permits rapid TBS classification of cervical liquid-based thin-layer cell smears.
Xiaohui Zhu, Xiaoming Li, +31 authors, Yanqing Ding.
Nat Commun, 2021 Jun 12; 12(1). PMID: 34112790    Free PMC article.
Ensemble machine learning approach for screening of coronary heart disease based on echocardiography and risk factors.
Jingyi Zhang, Huolan Zhu, +5 authors, Fang Wang.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 2021 Jun 13; 21(1). PMID: 34116660    Free PMC article.
Yet Another Automated Gleason Grading System (YAAGGS) by weakly supervised deep learning.
Yechan Mun, Inyoung Paik, +2 authors, Hyeyoon Chang.
NPJ Digit Med, 2021 Jun 16; 4(1). PMID: 34127777    Free PMC article.
Requirements for implementation of artificial intelligence in the practice of gastrointestinal pathology.
Hiroshi Yoshida, Tomoharu Kiyuna.
World J Gastroenterol, 2021 Jun 18; 27(21). PMID: 34135556    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of an Interpretable Artificial Intelligence Model to Predict 10-Year Prostate Cancer Mortality.
Jean-Emmanuel Bibault, Steven Hancock, +4 authors, Lei Xing.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 13(12). PMID: 34205398    Free PMC article.
Independent real-world application of a clinical-grade automated prostate cancer detection system.
Leonard M da Silva, Emilio M Pereira, +18 authors, Jorge S Reis-Filho.
J Pathol, 2021 Apr 28; 254(2). PMID: 33904171    Free PMC article.
A Comprehensive Study of Data Augmentation Strategies for Prostate Cancer Detection in Diffusion-Weighted MRI Using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Ruqian Hao, Khashayar Namdar, +2 authors, Farzad Khalvati.
J Digit Imaging, 2021 Jul 14; 34(4). PMID: 34254200    Free PMC article.
CAD systems for colorectal cancer from WSI are still not ready for clinical acceptance.
Sara P Oliveira, Pedro C Neto, +7 authors, Jaime S Cardoso.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jul 15; 11(1). PMID: 34257363    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Pathology.
Sebastian Försch, Frederick Klauschen, Peter Hufnagl, Wilfried Roth.
Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2021 May 25; 118(12). PMID: 34024323    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Models for Gastric Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Classification in Whole Slide Images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Shin Ichihara, +3 authors, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Technol Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Jul 01; 20. PMID: 34191660    Free PMC article.
Integrated imaging and molecular analysis to decipher tumor microenvironment in the era of immunotherapy.
Jia Wu, Aaron T Mayer, Ruijiang Li.
Semin Cancer Biol, 2020 Dec 09;. PMID: 33290844    Free PMC article.
An independent assessment of an artificial intelligence system for prostate cancer detection shows strong diagnostic accuracy.
Sudhir Perincheri, Angelique Wolf Levi, +7 authors, John Sinard.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Mar 31; 34(8). PMID: 33782551    Free PMC article.
Integrated digital pathology at scale: A solution for clinical diagnostics and cancer research at a large academic medical center.
Peter J Schüffler, Luke Geneslaw, +29 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2021 Jul 15; 28(9). PMID: 34260720    Free PMC article.
Automated tumor proportion score analysis for PD-L1 (22C3) expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Jingxin Liu, Qiang Zheng, +14 authors, Yuan Li.
Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 07; 11(1). PMID: 34354151    Free PMC article.
A deep learning-based radiomic nomogram for prognosis and treatment decision in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A multicentre study.
Lianzhen Zhong, Di Dong, +15 authors, Jie Tian.
EBioMedicine, 2021 Aug 15; 70. PMID: 34391094    Free PMC article.
Interobserver variability between experienced and inexperienced observers in the histopathological analysis of Wilms tumors: a pilot study for future algorithmic approach.
Jikke J Rutgers, Tessa Bánki, +7 authors, Ronald R de Krijger.
Diagn Pathol, 2021 Aug 23; 16(1). PMID: 34419100    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence for the next generation of precision oncology.
Pedro J Ballester, Javier Carmona.
NPJ Precis Oncol, 2021 Aug 20; 5(1). PMID: 34408248    Free PMC article.
Detection of HER2 from Haematoxylin-Eosin Slides Through a Cascade of Deep Learning Classifiers via Multi-Instance Learning.
David La Barbera, António Polónia, +2 authors, Vincenzo Della Mea.
J Imaging, 2021 Aug 31; 6(9). PMID: 34460739    Free PMC article.
Development and evaluation of deep learning-based segmentation of histologic structures in the kidney cortex with multiple histologic stains.
Catherine P Jayapandian, Yijiang Chen, +12 authors, Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE).
Kidney Int, 2020 Aug 25; 99(1). PMID: 32835732    Free PMC article.
Best Practices for Spatial Profiling for Breast Cancer Research with the GeoMx® Digital Spatial Profiler.
Helga Bergholtz, Jodi M Carter, +30 authors, On Behalf Of The GeoMx Breast Cancer Consortium.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 11; 13(17). PMID: 34503266    Free PMC article.
Low-count whole-body PET with deep learning in a multicenter and externally validated study.
Akshay S Chaudhari, Erik Mittra, +8 authors, Hossein Jadvar.
NPJ Digit Med, 2021 Aug 25; 4(1). PMID: 34426629    Free PMC article.
Resolution-based distillation for efficient histology image classification.
Joseph DiPalma, Arief A Suriawinata, +2 authors, Saeed Hassanpour.
Artif Intell Med, 2021 Sep 18; 119. PMID: 34531005    Free PMC article.
Identification of nodal micrometastasis in colorectal cancer using deep learning on annotation-free whole-slide images.
Wen-Yu Chuang, Chi-Chung Chen, +7 authors, Chao-Yuan Yeh.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Jun 10; 34(10). PMID: 34103664    Free PMC article.
Predictive models of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer using nuclear morphology and tissue architecture.
Haoyang Mi, Trinity J Bivalacqua, +4 authors, Alexander S Baras.
Cell Rep Med, 2021 Oct 09; 2(9). PMID: 34622225    Free PMC article.
Recent advances in blood-based and artificial intelligence-enhanced approaches for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis.
Li-Shi Li, Xiang-Yu Guo, Kun Sun.
World J Gastroenterol, 2021 Oct 12; 27(34). PMID: 34629793    Free PMC article.
Harnessing multimodal data integration to advance precision oncology.
Kevin M Boehm, Pegah Khosravi, +2 authors, Sohrab P Shah.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2021 Oct 20;. PMID: 34663944
A deep learning model for gastric diffuse-type adenocarcinoma classification in whole slide images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Sci Rep, 2021 Oct 16; 11(1). PMID: 34650155    Free PMC article.
Machine Learning of Bone Marrow Histopathology Identifies Genetic and Clinical Determinants in Patients with MDS.
Oscar E Brück, Susanna E Lallukka-Brück, +8 authors, Satu M Mustjoki.
Blood Cancer Discov, 2021 Oct 19; 2(3). PMID: 34661156    Free PMC article.
Robust whole slide image analysis for cervical cancer screening using deep learning.
Shenghua Cheng, Sibo Liu, +20 authors, Xiuli Liu.
Nat Commun, 2021 Sep 26; 12(1). PMID: 34561435    Free PMC article.
Deep-learning-assisted microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histological imaging.
Zhenghui Chen, Wentao Yu, Ivy H M Wong, Terence T W Wong.
Biomed Opt Express, 2021 Oct 26; 12(9). PMID: 34692225    Free PMC article.
Qualitative Histopathological Classification of Primary Bone Tumors Using Deep Learning: A Pilot Study.
Yuzhang Tao, Xiao Huang, +16 authors, Jian Zhang.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 26; 11. PMID: 34692509    Free PMC article.
Second-Generation Digital Health Platforms: Placing the Patient at the Center and Focusing on Clinical Outcomes.
Yaron Ilan.
Front Digit Health, 2021 Oct 30; 2. PMID: 34713042    Free PMC article.
Predicting Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Early Breast Cancer Using Deep Learning on Primary Tumor Biopsy Slides.
Feng Xu, Chuang Zhu, +7 authors, Mulan Jin.
Front Oncol, 2021 Nov 02; 11. PMID: 34722313    Free PMC article.