Review
. 2019 Aug;16(11).
doi: 10.1038/s41571-019-0252-y.

Artificial intelligence in digital pathology - new tools for diagnosis and precision oncology

Kaustav Bera 1 Kurt A Schalper 2 David L Rimm 2 Vamsidhar Velcheti 3 Anant Madabhushi 4 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 31399699
  •     125 References
  •     67 citations

Abstract

In the past decade, advances in precision oncology have resulted in an increased demand for predictive assays that enable the selection and stratification of patients for treatment. The enormous divergence of signalling and transcriptional networks mediating the crosstalk between cancer, stromal and immune cells complicates the development of functionally relevant biomarkers based on a single gene or protein. However, the result of these complex processes can be uniquely captured in the morphometric features of stained tissue specimens. The possibility of digitizing whole-slide images of tissue has led to the advent of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning tools in digital pathology, which enable mining of subvisual morphometric phenotypes and might, ultimately, improve patient management. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate various AI-based computational approaches for digital pathology, focusing on deep neural networks and 'hand-crafted' feature-based methodologies. We aim to provide a broad framework for incorporating AI and machine learning tools into clinical oncology, with an emphasis on biomarker development. We discuss some of the challenges relating to the use of AI, including the need for well-curated validation datasets, regulatory approval and fair reimbursement strategies. Finally, we present potential future opportunities for precision oncology.

Classification and mutation prediction from non-small cell lung cancer histopathology images using deep learning.
Nicolas Coudray, Paolo Santiago Ocampo, +6 authors, Aristotelis Tsirigos.
Nat Med, 2018 Sep 19; 24(10). PMID: 30224757
Highly Cited.
Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Gong Tang, +11 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 May 25; 24(23). PMID: 16720680
Highly Cited.
Systematic analysis of breast cancer morphology uncovers stromal features associated with survival.
Andrew H Beck, Ankur R Sangoi, +6 authors, Daphne Koller.
Sci Transl Med, 2011 Nov 11; 3(108). PMID: 22072638
Highly Cited.
Validating whole slide imaging for diagnostic purposes in pathology: guideline from the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center.
Liron Pantanowitz, John H Sinard, +8 authors, College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2013 May 03; 137(12). PMID: 23634907    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Norman Wolmark.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Dec 14; 351(27). PMID: 15591335
Highly Cited.
Automated image analysis system for detecting boundaries of live prostate cancer cells.
I Simon, C R Pound, +2 authors, W A Christens-Barry.
Cytometry, 1998 Apr 29; 31(4). PMID: 9551604
Artificial Intelligence and Digital Pathology: Challenges and Opportunities.
Hamid Reza Tizhoosh, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607305    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
PD-L1 biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer: truth or fiction?
Claud Grigg, Naiyer A Rizvi.
J Immunother Cancer, 2016 Aug 18; 4. PMID: 27532023    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Interobserver variability between expert urologic pathologists for extraprostatic extension and surgical margin status in radical prostatectomy specimens.
Andrew J Evans, Pauline C Henry, +19 authors, John R Srigley.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2008 Aug 19; 32(10). PMID: 18708939
Image Analysis of the Tumor Microenvironment.
Mark C Lloyd, Joseph O Johnson, Agnieszka Kasprzak, Marilyn M Bui.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2016 Oct 16; 936. PMID: 27739040
Review.
Computer-assisted measurement of primary tumor area is prognostic of recurrence-free survival in stage IB melanoma patients.
Brooke E Rosenbaum, Christine N Schafer, +3 authors, Nooshin Brinster.
Mod Pathol, 2017 Jul 22; 30(10). PMID: 28731044    Free PMC article.
Machine-based morphologic analysis of glioblastoma using whole-slide pathology images uncovers clinically relevant molecular correlates.
Jun Kong, Lee A D Cooper, +8 authors, Daniel J Brat.
PLoS One, 2013 Nov 16; 8(11). PMID: 24236209    Free PMC article.
NCCN Guidelines Insights: Breast Cancer, Version 3.2018.
Matthew P Goetz, William J Gradishar, +30 authors, Rashmi Kumar.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 2019 Feb 23; 17(2). PMID: 30787125
Highly Cited.
Stain Normalization using Sparse AutoEncoders (StaNoSA): Application to digital pathology.
Andrew Janowczyk, Ajay Basavanhally, Anant Madabhushi.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2016 Jul 05; 57. PMID: 27373749    Free PMC article.
An industry perspective: An update on the adoption of whole slide imaging.
Michael C Montalto.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 May 04; 7. PMID: 27141323    Free PMC article.
The origins and implications of intratumor heterogeneity.
Franziska Michor, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2010 Oct 21; 3(11). PMID: 20959519    Free PMC article.
Multi-Pass Adaptive Voting for Nuclei Detection in Histopathological Images.
Cheng Lu, Hongming Xu, +3 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Sci Rep, 2016 Oct 04; 6. PMID: 27694950    Free PMC article.
Computer-aided prognosis: predicting patient and disease outcome via quantitative fusion of multi-scale, multi-modal data.
Anant Madabhushi, Shannon Agner, +2 authors, George Lee.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2011 Feb 22; 35(7-8). PMID: 21333490
Routine Digital Pathology Workflow: The Catania Experience.
Filippo Fraggetta, Salvatore Garozzo, +2 authors, Esther Diana Rossi.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Feb 09; 8. PMID: 29416914    Free PMC article.
Tumour heterogeneity poses a significant challenge to cancer biomarker research.
Karolina Cyll, Elin Ersvær, +12 authors, Håvard E Danielsen.
Br J Cancer, 2017 Jun 16; 117(3). PMID: 28618431    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Applications of machine learning in drug discovery and development.
Jessica Vamathevan, Dominic Clark, +8 authors, Shanrong Zhao.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2019 Apr 13; 18(6). PMID: 30976107    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Pan-cancer analysis of intratumor heterogeneity as a prognostic determinant of survival.
Luc G T Morris, Nadeem Riaz, +5 authors, Timothy A Chan.
Oncotarget, 2016 Feb 04; 7(9). PMID: 26840267    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Spatial Architecture and Arrangement of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Predicting Likelihood of Recurrence in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Germán Corredor, Xiangxue Wang, +9 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 12; 25(5). PMID: 30201760    Free PMC article.
An oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma quantitative histomorphometric-based image classifier of nuclear morphology can risk stratify patients for disease-specific survival.
Cheng Lu, James S Lewis, +3 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Mod Pathol, 2017 Aug 05; 30(12). PMID: 28776575    Free PMC article.
Computer aided quantification of intratumoral stroma yields an independent prognosticator in rectal cancer.
Oscar G F Geessink, Alexi Baidoshvili, +7 authors, Jeroen A W M van der Laak.
Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2019 Mar 03; 42(3). PMID: 30825182
Predicting non-small cell lung cancer prognosis by fully automated microscopic pathology image features.
Kun-Hsing Yu, Ce Zhang, +4 authors, Michael Snyder.
Nat Commun, 2016 Aug 17; 7. PMID: 27527408    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Digital pathology and image analysis in tissue biomarker research.
Peter W Hamilton, Peter Bankhead, +5 authors, Manuel Salto-Tellez.
Methods, 2014 Jul 19; 70(1). PMID: 25034370
Review.
New European Union Regulations Related to Whole Slide Image Scanners and Image Analysis Software.
Marcial García-Rojo, David De Mena, +3 authors, Gloria Bueno.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Feb 21; 10. PMID: 30783546    Free PMC article.
Spatially aware cell cluster(spACC1) graphs: predicting outcome in oropharyngeal pl6+ tumors.
Sahirzeeshan Ali, James Lewis, Anant Madabhushi.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv, 2014 Feb 08; 16(Pt 1). PMID: 24505693
Nuclear shape and orientation features from H&E images predict survival in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers.
Cheng Lu, David Romo-Bucheli, +5 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Lab Invest, 2018 Jul 01; 98(11). PMID: 29959421    Free PMC article.
Deep learning.
Yann LeCun, Yoshua Bengio, Geoffrey Hinton.
Nature, 2015 May 29; 521(7553). PMID: 26017442
Highly Cited. Review.
The current and future state of companion diagnostics.
Amit Agarwal, Dan Ressler, Glenn Snyder.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med, 2015 Apr 22; 8. PMID: 25897259    Free PMC article.
Review.
Interobserver Variation Among Pathologists in Evaluating Perineural Invasion for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Angela C Chi, Nora Katabi, Huey-Shys Chen, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng.
Head Neck Pathol, 2016 Oct 28; 10(4). PMID: 27140176    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of automatically extracted nuclear morphometric features in whole slide images of male breast cancer.
Mitko Veta, Robert Kornegoor, +4 authors, Paul J van Diest.
Mod Pathol, 2012 Aug 18; 25(12). PMID: 22899294
Digital pathology image analysis: opportunities and challenges.
Anant Madabhushi.
Imaging Med, 2009 Jan 01; 1(1). PMID: 30147749    Free PMC article.
Applications and challenges of digital pathology and whole slide imaging.
C Higgins.
Biotech Histochem, 2015 May 16; 90(5). PMID: 25978139
Review.
Interobserver variability in the pathologic interpretation of endomyocardial biopsy results.
J G Shanes, J Ghali, +7 authors, S Furner.
Circulation, 1987 Feb 01; 75(2). PMID: 3802444
A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for segmenting and classifying epithelial and stromal regions in histopathological images.
Jun Xu, Xiaofei Luo, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Neurocomputing, 2017 Feb 06; 191. PMID: 28154470    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Image analysis and machine learning in digital pathology: Challenges and opportunities.
Anant Madabhushi, George Lee.
Med Image Anal, 2016 Jul 18; 33. PMID: 27423409    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Automated Classification of Lung Cancer Types from Cytological Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.
Atsushi Teramoto, Tetsuya Tsukamoto, Yuka Kiriyama, Hiroshi Fujita.
Biomed Res Int, 2017 Sep 09; 2017. PMID: 28884120    Free PMC article.
Automated classification of brain tumor type in whole-slide digital pathology images using local representative tiles.
Jocelyn Barker, Assaf Hoogi, Adrien Depeursinge, Daniel L Rubin.
Med Image Anal, 2016 Feb 09; 30. PMID: 26854941
Opportunities and obstacles for deep learning in biology and medicine.
Travers Ching, Daniel S Himmelstein, +33 authors, Casey S Greene.
J R Soc Interface, 2018 Apr 06; 15(141). PMID: 29618526    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The value of mandatory second opinion pathology review of prostate needle biopsy interpretation before radical prostatectomy.
Fadi Brimo, Luciana Schultz, Jonathan I Epstein.
J Urol, 2010 May 19; 184(1). PMID: 20478583
Intra-tumor heterogeneity in head and neck cancer and its clinical implications.
Edmund A Mroz, James W Rocco.
World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2017 Jun 24; 2(2). PMID: 28642939    Free PMC article.
Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks.
Andre Esteva, Brett Kuprel, +4 authors, Sebastian Thrun.
Nature, 2017 Jan 25; 542(7639). PMID: 28117445
Highly Cited.
Relevance of Spatial Heterogeneity of Immune Infiltration for Predicting Risk of Recurrence After Endocrine Therapy of ER+ Breast Cancer.
Andreas Heindl, Ivana Sestak, +3 authors, Yinyin Yuan.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2017 Sep 02; 110(2). PMID: 28859291    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic Assessment of Deep Learning Algorithms for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Women With Breast Cancer.
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Mitko Veta, +67 authors, Rui Venâncio.
JAMA, 2017 Dec 14; 318(22). PMID: 29234806    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
70-Gene Signature as an Aid to Treatment Decisions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.
Fatima Cardoso, Laura J van't Veer, +32 authors, MINDACT Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2016 Aug 25; 375(8). PMID: 27557300
Highly Cited.
Cancer biomarkers: knowing the present and predicting the future.
Sabarni K Chatterjee, Bruce R Zetter.
Future Oncol, 2006 Mar 25; 1(1). PMID: 16555974
Review.
Using deep convolutional neural networks to identify and classify tumor-associated stroma in diagnostic breast biopsies.
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Maeve Mullooly, +11 authors, Mark E Sherman.
Mod Pathol, 2018 Jun 15; 31(10). PMID: 29899550    Free PMC article.
Gland segmentation in colon histology images: The glas challenge contest.
Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Josien P W Pluim, +16 authors, Nasir M Rajpoot.
Med Image Anal, 2016 Sep 12; 35. PMID: 27614792
Review.
Drug costs and out-of-pocket spending in cancer clinical trials.
Meredith L Kilgore, Dana P Goldman.
Contemp Clin Trials, 2007 Jun 05; 29(1). PMID: 17544339
Deep Semi Supervised Generative Learning for Automated Tumor Proportion Scoring on NSCLC Tissue Needle Biopsies.
Ansh Kapil, Armin Meier, +4 authors, Nicolas Brieu.
Sci Rep, 2018 Nov 28; 8(1). PMID: 30478349    Free PMC article.
Chromatin organisation and cancer prognosis: a pan-cancer study.
Andreas Kleppe, Fritz Albregtsen, +13 authors, Håvard E Danielsen.
Lancet Oncol, 2018 Feb 07; 19(3). PMID: 29402700    Free PMC article.
Use of archived specimens in evaluation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers.
Richard M Simon, Soonmyung Paik, Daniel F Hayes.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2009 Oct 10; 101(21). PMID: 19815849    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert J Gray, +27 authors, George W Sledge.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Jun 05; 379(2). PMID: 29860917    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Histo-genomics: digital pathology at the forefront of precision medicine.
Ivraym Barsoum, Eriny Tawedrous, Hala Faragalla, George M Yousef.
Diagnosis (Berl), 2019 Mar 05; 6(3). PMID: 30827078
Review.
Long short-term memory.
S Hochreiter, J Schmidhuber.
Neural Comput, 1997 Oct 23; 9(8). PMID: 9377276
Highly Cited.
Predicting cancer outcomes from histology and genomics using convolutional networks.
Pooya Mobadersany, Safoora Yousefi, +5 authors, Lee A D Cooper.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Mar 14; 115(13). PMID: 29531073    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Structure-Preserving Color Normalization and Sparse Stain Separation for Histological Images.
Abhishek Vahadane, Tingying Peng, +7 authors, Nassir Navab.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2016 May 11; 35(8). PMID: 27164577
Mitosis detection in breast cancer pathology images by combining handcrafted and convolutional neural network features.
Haibo Wang, Angel Cruz-Roa, +6 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2015 Jul 15; 1(3). PMID: 26158062    Free PMC article.
Why oral histopathology suffers inter-observer variability on grading oral epithelial dysplasia: an attempt to understand the sources of variation.
Omar Kujan, Ammar Khattab, +3 authors, Philip Sloan.
Oral Oncol, 2006 Aug 26; 43(3). PMID: 16931119
Intratumor heterogeneity in human glioblastoma reflects cancer evolutionary dynamics.
Andrea Sottoriva, Inmaculada Spiteri, +6 authors, Simon Tavaré.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013 Feb 16; 110(10). PMID: 23412337    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Comparison of the accuracy of human readers versus machine-learning algorithms for pigmented skin lesion classification: an open, web-based, international, diagnostic study.
Philipp Tschandl, Noel Codella, +25 authors, Harald Kittler.
Lancet Oncol, 2019 Jun 16; 20(7). PMID: 31201137
Highly Cited.
A nonlinear mapping approach to stain normalization in digital histopathology images using image-specific color deconvolution.
Adnan Mujahid Khan, Nasir Rajpoot, Darren Treanor, Derek Magee.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2014 May 23; 61(6). PMID: 24845283
NCCN Guidelines Updates: Prostate Cancer and Prostate Cancer Early Detection.
Peter H Carroll, James L Mohler.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 2018 May 23; 16(5S). PMID: 29784740
Highly Cited.
Feature Importance in Nonlinear Embeddings (FINE): Applications in Digital Pathology.
Shoshana B Ginsburg, George Lee, Sahirzeeshan Ali, Anant Madabhushi.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2015 Jul 18; 35(1). PMID: 26186772
Variable generalization performance of a deep learning model to detect pneumonia in chest radiographs: A cross-sectional study.
John R Zech, Marcus A Badgeley, +3 authors, Eric Karl Oermann.
PLoS Med, 2018 Nov 07; 15(11). PMID: 30399157    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Multi-field-of-view framework for distinguishing tumor grade in ER+ breast cancer from entire histopathology slides.
Ajay Basavanhally, Shridar Ganesan, +4 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2013 Feb 09; 60(8). PMID: 23392336    Free PMC article.
Computerized image-based detection and grading of lymphocytic infiltration in HER2+ breast cancer histopathology.
Ajay Nagesh Basavanhally, Shridar Ganesan, +5 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2009 Nov 04; 57(3). PMID: 19884074
Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.
Rohit Bhargava, Anant Madabhushi.
Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 2016 Jul 16; 18. PMID: 27420575    Free PMC article.
Review.
Artificial intelligence as a medical device in radiology: ethical and regulatory issues in Europe and the United States.
Filippo Pesapane, Caterina Volonté, Marina Codari, Francesco Sardanelli.
Insights Imaging, 2018 Aug 17; 9(5). PMID: 30112675    Free PMC article.
Review.
Accurate and reproducible invasive breast cancer detection in whole-slide images: A Deep Learning approach for quantifying tumor extent.
Angel Cruz-Roa, Hannah Gilmore, +6 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Sci Rep, 2017 Apr 19; 7. PMID: 28418027    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Deep learning based tissue analysis predicts outcome in colorectal cancer.
Dmitrii Bychkov, Nina Linder, +7 authors, Johan Lundin.
Sci Rep, 2018 Feb 23; 8(1). PMID: 29467373    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Enabling digital pathology in the diagnostic setting: navigating through the implementation journey in an academic medical centre.
Chee Leong Cheng, Rafay Azhar, +7 authors, Puay Hoon Tan.
J Clin Pathol, 2016 Feb 14; 69(9). PMID: 26873939
DeepFocus: Detection of out-of-focus regions in whole slide digital images using deep learning.
Caglar Senaras, M Khalid Khan Niazi, Gerard Lozanski, Metin N Gurcan.
PLoS One, 2018 Oct 26; 13(10). PMID: 30359393    Free PMC article.
Evaluating stability of histomorphometric features across scanner and staining variations: prostate cancer diagnosis from whole slide images.
Patrick Leo, George Lee, +3 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2016 Nov 03; 3(4). PMID: 27803941    Free PMC article.
Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation for rapid slide-free histology.
Farzad Fereidouni, Zachary T Harmany, +8 authors, Richard Levenson.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2017 Jan 01; 1. PMID: 30416866    Free PMC article.
A boosted Bayesian multiresolution classifier for prostate cancer detection from digitized needle biopsies.
Scott Doyle, Michael Feldman, John Tomaszewski, Anant Madabhushi.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2010 Jun 24; 59(5). PMID: 20570758
Automatic classification of ovarian cancer types from cytological images using deep convolutional neural networks.
Miao Wu, Chuanbo Yan, Huiqiang Liu, Qian Liu.
Biosci Rep, 2018 Mar 25; 38(3). PMID: 29572387    Free PMC article.
Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks.
G E Hinton, R R Salakhutdinov.
Science, 2006 Jul 29; 313(5786). PMID: 16873662
Highly Cited.
Image analysis with deep learning to predict breast cancer grade, ER status, histologic subtype, and intrinsic subtype.
Heather D Couture, Lindsay A Williams, +6 authors, Marc Niethammer.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Sep 06; 4. PMID: 30182055    Free PMC article.
Classification of mitotic figures with convolutional neural networks and seeded blob features.
Christopher D Malon, Eric Cosatto.
J Pathol Inform, 2013 Jul 17; 4. PMID: 23858384    Free PMC article.
Quantitative nuclear histomorphometry predicts oncotype DX risk categories for early stage ER+ breast cancer.
Jon Whitney, German Corredor, +6 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Jun 01; 18(1). PMID: 29848291    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic concordance among pathologists interpreting breast biopsy specimens.
Joann G Elmore, Gary M Longton, +9 authors, Donald L Weaver.
JAMA, 2015 Mar 18; 313(11). PMID: 25781441    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Deep Learning Nuclei Detection in Digitized Histology Images by Superpixels.
Sudhir Sornapudi, Ronald Joe Stanley, +6 authors, Shelliane R Frazier.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Apr 06; 9. PMID: 29619277    Free PMC article.
Co-occurring gland angularity in localized subgraphs: predicting biochemical recurrence in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients.
George Lee, Rachel Sparks, +6 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
PLoS One, 2014 May 31; 9(5). PMID: 24875018    Free PMC article.
Automatic batch-invariant color segmentation of histological cancer images.
Sonal Kothari, John H Phan, +5 authors, May D Wang.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging, 2011 Mar 01; 2011. PMID: 27532016    Free PMC article.
Whole Slide Imaging Versus Microscopy for Primary Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology: A Multicenter Blinded Randomized Noninferiority Study of 1992 Cases (Pivotal Study).
Sanjay Mukhopadhyay, Michael D Feldman, +31 authors, Clive R Taylor.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2017 Sep 30; 42(1). PMID: 28961557    Free PMC article.
Modelling the spatial heterogeneity and molecular correlates of lymphocytic infiltration in triple-negative breast cancer.
Yinyin Yuan.
J R Soc Interface, 2014 Dec 17; 12(103). PMID: 25505134    Free PMC article.
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA): an immeasurable source of knowledge.
Katarzyna Tomczak, Patrycja Czerwińska, Maciej Wiznerowicz.
Contemp Oncol (Pozn), 2015 Feb 19; 19(1A). PMID: 25691825    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A quantitative histomorphometric classifier (QuHbIC) identifies aggressive versus indolent p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
James S Lewis, Sahirzeeshan Ali, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2013 Oct 23; 38(1). PMID: 24145650    Free PMC article.
Novel genotype-phenotype associations in human cancers enabled by advanced molecular platforms and computational analysis of whole slide images.
Lee A D Cooper, Jun Kong, +3 authors, Daniel J Brat.
Lab Invest, 2015 Jan 20; 95(4). PMID: 25599536    Free PMC article.
Review.
Artificial Intelligence-Based Breast Cancer Nodal Metastasis Detection: Insights Into the Black Box for Pathologists.
Yun Liu, Timo Kohlberger, +7 authors, Martin C Stumpe.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2018 Oct 09; 143(7). PMID: 30295070
Highly Cited.
Automatic labeling of molecular biomarkers of immunohistochemistry images using fully convolutional networks.
Fahime Sheikhzadeh, Rabab K Ward, Dirk van Niekerk, Martial Guillaud.
PLoS One, 2018 Jan 20; 13(1). PMID: 29351281    Free PMC article.
Stable and discriminating features are predictive of cancer presence and Gleason grade in radical prostatectomy specimens: a multi-site study.
Patrick Leo, Robin Elliott, +3 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Sci Rep, 2018 Oct 10; 8(1). PMID: 30297720    Free PMC article.
MRF-ANN: a machine learning approach for automated ER scoring of breast cancer immunohistochemical images.
T Mungle, S Tewary, +6 authors, C Chakraborty.
J Microsc, 2017 Mar 21; 267(2). PMID: 28319275
Abnormal nuclear shape in solid tumors reflects mitotic instability.
D Gisselsson, J Björk, +4 authors, N Mandahl.
Am J Pathol, 2001 Jan 06; 158(1). PMID: 11141493    Free PMC article.
Nuclear Shape and Architecture in Benign Fields Predict Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients Following Radical Prostatectomy: Preliminary Findings.
George Lee, Robert W Veltri, +3 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Eur Urol Focus, 2017 Jul 30; 3(4-5). PMID: 28753763    Free PMC article.
Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases.
Andrew Janowczyk, Anant Madabhushi.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 Aug 27; 7. PMID: 27563488    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
1399 H&E-stained sentinel lymph node sections of breast cancer patients: the CAMELYON dataset.
Geert Litjens, Peter Bandi, +14 authors, Jeroen van der Laak.
Gigascience, 2018 Jun 04; 7(6). PMID: 29860392    Free PMC article.
The path to routine use of genomic biomarkers in the cancer clinic.
Paul C Boutros.
Genome Res, 2015 Oct 03; 25(10). PMID: 26430161    Free PMC article.
Review.
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.
Bo Huang, Mark Bates, Xiaowei Zhuang.
Annu Rev Biochem, 2009 Jun 06; 78. PMID: 19489737    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Deep learning nuclei detection: A simple approach can deliver state-of-the-art results.
Henning Höfener, André Homeyer, +3 authors, Horst K Hahn.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2018 Oct 05; 70. PMID: 30286333
Fully convolutional networks in multimodal nonlinear microscopy images for automated detection of head and neck carcinoma: Pilot study.
Erik Rodner, Thomas Bocklitz, +5 authors, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius.
Head Neck, 2018 Dec 15; 41(1). PMID: 30548511
Discovery and validation of a prostate cancer genomic classifier that predicts early metastasis following radical prostatectomy.
Nicholas Erho, Anamaria Crisan, +16 authors, Robert B Jenkins.
PLoS One, 2013 Jul 05; 8(6). PMID: 23826159    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Predicting survival from colorectal cancer histology slides using deep learning: A retrospective multicenter study.
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Johannes Krisam, +15 authors, Niels Halama.
PLoS Med, 2019 Jan 25; 16(1). PMID: 30677016    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Histopathology: ditch the slides, because digital and 3D are on show.
Ilaria Jansen, Marit Lucas, +4 authors, Patricia J Zondervan.
World J Urol, 2018 Feb 06; 36(4). PMID: 29396786    Free PMC article.
Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Teresa Araújo, Guilherme Aresta, +5 authors, Aurélio Campilho.
PLoS One, 2017 Jun 02; 12(6). PMID: 28570557    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Impact of Deep Learning Assistance on the Histopathologic Review of Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Breast Cancer.
David F Steiner, Robert MacDonald, +6 authors, Martin C Stumpe.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2018 Oct 13; 42(12). PMID: 30312179    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Man against machine: diagnostic performance of a deep learning convolutional neural network for dermoscopic melanoma recognition in comparison to 58 dermatologists.
H A Haenssle, C Fink, +64 authors, Iris Zalaudek.
Ann Oncol, 2018 May 31; 29(8). PMID: 29846502
Highly Cited.
HistoQC: An Open-Source Quality Control Tool for Digital Pathology Slides.
Andrew Janowczyk, Ren Zuo, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2019 Apr 17; 3. PMID: 30990737    Free PMC article.
Development and validation of a deep learning algorithm for improving Gleason scoring of prostate cancer.
Kunal Nagpal, Davis Foote, +16 authors, Martin C Stumpe.
NPJ Digit Med, 2019 Jul 16; 2. PMID: 31304394    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images.
Joel Saltz, Rajarsi Gupta, +14 authors, Vésteinn Thorsson.
Cell Rep, 2018 Apr 05; 23(1). PMID: 29617659    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A deep learning based strategy for identifying and associating mitotic activity with gene expression derived risk categories in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.
David Romo-Bucheli, Andrew Janowczyk, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Cytometry A, 2017 Feb 14; 91(6). PMID: 28192639    Free PMC article.
Tumor marker utility grading system: a framework to evaluate clinical utility of tumor markers.
D F Hayes, R C Bast, +10 authors, R J Winn.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 1996 Oct 16; 88(20). PMID: 8841020
Highly Cited. Review.
Improved automatic detection and segmentation of cell nuclei in histopathology images.
Yousef Al-Kofahi, Wiem Lassoued, William Lee, Badrinath Roysam.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 2009 Nov 04; 57(4). PMID: 19884070
Highly Cited.
Cancer Digital Slide Archive: an informatics resource to support integrated in silico analysis of TCGA pathology data.
David A Gutman, Jake Cobb, +6 authors, Lee A D Cooper.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2013 Jul 31; 20(6). PMID: 23893318    Free PMC article.
High-throughput adaptive sampling for whole-slide histopathology image analysis (HASHI) via convolutional neural networks: Application to invasive breast cancer detection.
Angel Cruz-Roa, Hannah Gilmore, +6 authors, Fabio González.
PLoS One, 2018 May 26; 13(5). PMID: 29795581    Free PMC article.
Accuracy of computer diagnosis of melanoma: a quantitative meta-analysis.
Barbara Rosado, Scott Menzies, +4 authors, Harald Kittler.
Arch Dermatol, 2003 Mar 08; 139(3). PMID: 12622631
The analysis of cell images.
J M Prewitt, M L Mendelsohn.
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1966 Jan 31; 128(3). PMID: 5220765
Highly Cited.
Prediction of recurrence in early stage non-small cell lung cancer using computer extracted nuclear features from digital H&E images.
Xiangxue Wang, Andrew Janowczyk, +5 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Sci Rep, 2017 Oct 21; 7(1). PMID: 29051570    Free PMC article.
Light-sheet microscopy for slide-free non-destructive pathology of large clinical specimens.
Adam K Glaser, Nicholas P Reder, +6 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2018 May 12; 1(7). PMID: 29750130    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Computational pathology analysis of tissue microarrays predicts survival of renal clear cell carcinoma patients.
Thomas J Fuchs, Peter J Wild, Holger Moch, Joachim M Buhmann.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv, 2008 Nov 06; 11(Pt 2). PMID: 18982583
New Trends of Emerging Technologies in Digital Pathology.
Gloria Bueno, M Milagro Fernández-Carrobles, Oscar Deniz, Marcial García-Rojo.
Pathobiology, 2016 Apr 23; 83(2-3). PMID: 27100343
Review.
Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence in Advancing Precision Medicine.
Fabian V Filipp.
Curr Genet Med Rep, 2019 Dec 25; 7(4). PMID: 31871830    Free PMC article.
Spatially multiplexed RNA in situ hybridization to reveal tumor heterogeneity.
Lena Voith von Voithenberg, Anna Fomitcheva Khartchenko, +2 authors, Govind V Kaigala.
Nucleic Acids Res, 2019 Dec 20; 48(3). PMID: 31853536    Free PMC article.
Editorial: Digital Interventions in Mental Health: Current Status and Future Directions.
Elias Aboujaoude, Lina Gega, Michelle B Parish, Donald M Hilty.
Front Psychiatry, 2020 Mar 17; 11. PMID: 32174858    Free PMC article.
Deep learning pathological microscopic features in endemic nasopharyngeal cancer: Prognostic value and protentional role for individual induction chemotherapy.
Kuiyuan Liu, Weixiong Xia, +4 authors, Xing Lv.
Cancer Med, 2019 Dec 21; 9(4). PMID: 31860791    Free PMC article.
Introduction to digital pathology and computer-aided pathology.
Soojeong Nam, Yosep Chong, +5 authors, Heounjeong Go.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2020 Feb 13; 54(2). PMID: 32045965    Free PMC article.
Review.
Glioma Grading via Analysis of Digital Pathology Images Using Machine Learning.
Saima Rathore, Tamim Niazi, Muhammad Aksam Iftikhar, Ahmad Chaddad.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Mar 07; 12(3). PMID: 32131409    Free PMC article.
Computationally Derived Image Signature of Stromal Morphology Is Prognostic of Prostate Cancer Recurrence Following Prostatectomy in African American Patients.
Hersh K Bhargava, Patrick Leo, +11 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Mar 07; 26(8). PMID: 32139401    Free PMC article.
Emerging role of deep learning-based artificial intelligence in tumor pathology.
Yahui Jiang, Meng Yang, +2 authors, Yan Sun.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2020 Apr 12; 40(4). PMID: 32277744    Free PMC article.
Review.
Artificial intelligence driven next-generation renal histomorphometry.
Briana A Santo, Avi Z Rosenberg, Pinaki Sarder.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, 2020 Mar 25; 29(3). PMID: 32205581    Free PMC article.
Review.
Multiresolution Application of Artificial Intelligence in Digital Pathology for Prediction of Positive Lymph Nodes From Primary Tumors in Bladder Cancer.
Stephanie A Harmon, Thomas H Sanford, +8 authors, Baris Turkbey.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Apr 25; 4. PMID: 32330067    Free PMC article.
Classification and mutation prediction based on histopathology H&E images in liver cancer using deep learning.
Mingyu Chen, Bin Zhang, +6 authors, Xiujun Cai.
NPJ Precis Oncol, 2020 Jun 19; 4. PMID: 32550270    Free PMC article.
From Patient-Controlled Analgesia to Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Patient-Controlled Analgesia: Practices and Perspectives.
Rui Wang, Shaoshuang Wang, Na Duan, Qiang Wang.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Jul 17; 7. PMID: 32671076    Free PMC article.
Non-disruptive collagen characterization in clinical histopathology using cross-modality image synthesis.
Adib Keikhosravi, Bin Li, +3 authors, Kevin W Eliceiri.
Commun Biol, 2020 Aug 02; 3(1). PMID: 32737412    Free PMC article.
Deep HT: A deep neural network for diagnose on MR images of tumors of the hand.
Xianliang Hu, Zongyu Liu, +2 authors, Hui Lu.
PLoS One, 2020 Aug 17; 15(8). PMID: 32797089    Free PMC article.
Digital pathology and computational image analysis in nephropathology.
Laura Barisoni, Kyle J Lafata, +2 authors, Ulysses G J Balis.
Nat Rev Nephrol, 2020 Aug 28; 16(11). PMID: 32848206    Free PMC article.
Review.
Clinically applicable histopathological diagnosis system for gastric cancer detection using deep learning.
Zhigang Song, Shuangmei Zou, +21 authors, Huaiyin Shi.
Nat Commun, 2020 Aug 29; 11(1). PMID: 32855423    Free PMC article.
Multiparametric MRI and Whole Slide Image-Based Pretreatment Prediction of Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer: A Multicenter Radiopathomic Study.
Lizhi Shao, Zhenyu Liu, +13 authors, Jie Tian.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2020 Jul 31; 27(11). PMID: 32729045    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of histopathological DCIS features in a large-scale international interrater reliability study.
Emma J Groen, Jan Hudecek, +29 authors, Grand Challenge PRECISION consortium.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Aug 01; 183(3). PMID: 32734520    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data in cancer and precision oncology.
Zodwa Dlamini, Flavia Zita Francies, Rodney Hull, Rahaba Marima.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2020 Oct 01; 18. PMID: 32994889    Free PMC article.
Review.
A bird's-eye view of deep learning in bioimage analysis.
Erik Meijering.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2020 Oct 01; 18. PMID: 32994890    Free PMC article.
Review.
Use of Steroid Profiling Combined With Machine Learning for Identification and Subtype Classification in Primary Aldosteronism.
Graeme Eisenhofer, Claudio Durán, +11 authors, Martin Reincke.
JAMA Netw Open, 2020 Sep 30; 3(9). PMID: 32990741    Free PMC article.
A Regulatory Science Initiative to Harmonize and Standardize Digital Pathology and Machine Learning Processes to Speed up Clinical Innovation to Patients.
Hetal Desai Marble, Richard Huang, +14 authors, Jochen K Lennerz.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042601    Free PMC article.
In the literature: October 2020.
Valentina Gambardella, Gema Bruixola, Clara Alfaro, Andrés Cervantes.
ESMO Open, 2020 Oct 11; 5(5). PMID: 33037034    Free PMC article.
Integration of geoscience frameworks into digital pathology analysis permits quantification of microarchitectural relationships in histological landscapes.
Timothy J Kendall, Catherine M Duff, Andrew M Thomson, John P Iredale.
Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 18; 10(1). PMID: 33067578    Free PMC article.
Multiple Primary Lung Cancers: A New Challenge in the Era of Precision Medicine.
Lishu Zhao, Chaoyuan Liu, +2 authors, Chunhong Hu.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Oct 30; 12. PMID: 33116891    Free PMC article.
Review.
A prognostic model for overall survival of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a multicentre, retrospective study.
Cheng Lu, Kaustav Bera, +14 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Lancet Digit Health, 2020 Nov 10; 2(11). PMID: 33163952    Free PMC article.
Exploring the Limits of Combined Image/'omics Analysis for Non-cancer Histological Phenotypes.
Paul Gallins, Ehsan Saghapour, Yi-Hui Zhou.
Front Genet, 2020 Nov 17; 11. PMID: 33193632    Free PMC article.
A novel deep learning-based point-of-care diagnostic method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum with fluorescence digital microscopy.
Oscar Holmström, Sebastian Stenman, +10 authors, Johan Lundin.
PLoS One, 2020 Nov 18; 15(11). PMID: 33201905    Free PMC article.
New insights into the interaction of the immune system with non-small cell lung carcinomas.
Paul Hofman.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 20; 9(5). PMID: 33209644    Free PMC article.
Review.
A narrative review of digital pathology and artificial intelligence: focusing on lung cancer.
Taro Sakamoto, Tomoi Furukawa, +8 authors, Junya Fukuoka.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 20; 9(5). PMID: 33209648    Free PMC article.
Review.
Experimental Assessment of Color Deconvolution and Color Normalization for Automated Classification of Histology Images Stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin.
Francesco Bianconi, Jakob N Kather, Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 15; 12(11). PMID: 33187299    Free PMC article.
Deep neural network models for computational histopathology: A survey.
Chetan L Srinidhi, Ozan Ciga, Anne L Martel.
Med Image Anal, 2020 Oct 14; 67. PMID: 33049577    Free PMC article.
The importance of introducing artificial intelligence to the medical curriculum - assessing practitioners' perspectives.
Ivo Dumić-Čule, Tin Orešković, +2 authors, Stjepan Orešković.
Croat Med J, 2020 Nov 06; 61(5). PMID: 33150764    Free PMC article.
Reimagining T Staging Through Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Image Processing Approaches in Digital Pathology.
Kaustav Bera, Ian Katz, Anant Madabhushi.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Nov 10; 4. PMID: 33166198    Free PMC article.
SITC cancer immunotherapy resource document: a compass in the land of biomarker discovery.
Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Srabani Bhaumik, +14 authors, Holden T Maecker.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Dec 04; 8(2). PMID: 33268350    Free PMC article.
The Application of Artificial Intelligence in the Genetic Study of Alzheimer's Disease.
Rohan Mishra, Bin Li.
Aging Dis, 2020 Dec 04; 11(6). PMID: 33269107    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparing Deep Learning and Immunohistochemistry in Determining the Site of Origin for Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Jordan Redemann, Fred A Schultz, +4 authors, Joshua A Hanson.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Dec 22; 11. PMID: 33343993    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Spatial Analysis of Tumor and Immune Microenvironment on Whole-Slide Image Reveals Hepatocellular Carcinoma Subtypes.
Haiyue Wang, Yuming Jiang, +3 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 03; 12(12). PMID: 33260561    Free PMC article.
Identifying Cross-Scale Associations between Radiomic and Pathomic Signatures of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Subtypes: Preliminary Results.
Charlems Alvarez-Jimenez, Alvaro A Sandino, +3 authors, Eduardo Romero.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 11; 12(12). PMID: 33297357    Free PMC article.
A 'Real-Life' Experience on Automated Digital Image Analysis of FGFR2 Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer.
Marcin Braun, Dominika Piasecka, +3 authors, Hanna M Romanska.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2020 Dec 11; 10(12). PMID: 33297384    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-enabled medical computer vision.
Andre Esteva, Katherine Chou, +7 authors, Richard Socher.
NPJ Digit Med, 2021 Jan 10; 4(1). PMID: 33420381    Free PMC article.
Review.
A deep-learning-based prognostic nomogram integrating microscopic digital pathology and macroscopic magnetic resonance images in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-cohort study.
Fan Zhang, Lian-Zhen Zhong, +12 authors, Hong Shan.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2021 Jan 07; 12. PMID: 33403013    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence and computational pathology.
Miao Cui, David Y Zhang.
Lab Invest, 2021 Jan 18; 101(4). PMID: 33454724    Free PMC article.
Review.
Machine Learning in Rheumatic Diseases.
Mengdi Jiang, Yueting Li, +3 authors, Peter E Lipsky.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2020 Jul 19; 60(1). PMID: 32681407
Review.
Machine learning analysis using 77,044 genomic and transcriptomic profiles to accurately predict tumor type.
Jim Abraham, Amy B Heimberger, +12 authors, David Spetzler.
Transl Oncol, 2021 Jan 20; 14(3). PMID: 33465745    Free PMC article.
Designing deep learning studies in cancer diagnostics.
Andreas Kleppe, Ole-Johan Skrede, +3 authors, Håvard E Danielsen.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2021 Jan 31; 21(3). PMID: 33514930
Review.
Pathway-Based Drug-Repurposing Schemes in Cancer: The Role of Translational Bioinformatics.
Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Mireya Martínez-García.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 02; 10. PMID: 33520715    Free PMC article.
Review.
Feature-driven local cell graph (FLocK): New computational pathology-based descriptors for prognosis of lung cancer and HPV status of oropharyngeal cancers.
Cheng Lu, Can Koyuncu, +8 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Med Image Anal, 2020 Dec 23; 68. PMID: 33352373    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence for Histology-Based Detection of Microsatellite Instability and Prediction of Response to Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer.
Lindsey A Hildebrand, Colin J Pierce, +2 authors, Asaf Maoz.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 27; 13(3). PMID: 33494280    Free PMC article.
Review.
Dual energy imaging in cardiothoracic pathologies: A primer for radiologists and clinicians.
Amit Gupta, Elias G Kikano, +7 authors, Kai R Laukamp.
Eur J Radiol Open, 2021 Feb 04; 8. PMID: 33532519    Free PMC article.
Review.
PD-L1 as a biomarker of response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors.
Deborah Blythe Doroshow, Sheena Bhalla, +7 authors, Fred R Hirsch.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2021 Feb 14;. PMID: 33580222
Review.
Transpathology: molecular imaging-based pathology.
Mei Tian, Xuexin He, +8 authors, Hong Zhang.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2021 Feb 16;. PMID: 33585964
Review.
Gut microbiome, big data and machine learning to promote precision medicine for cancer.
Giovanni Cammarota, Gianluca Ianiro, +5 authors, Giampaolo Tortora.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 Jul 11; 17(10). PMID: 32647386
Review.
Harnessing non-destructive 3D pathology.
Jonathan T C Liu, Adam K Glaser, +4 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2021 Feb 17; 5(3). PMID: 33589781
Review.
Protein-based immune profiles of basal-like vs. luminal breast cancers.
Andrea Walens, Linnea T Olsson, +11 authors, Benjamin C Calhoun.
Lab Invest, 2021 Feb 25;. PMID: 33623115
Deep learning powers cancer diagnosis in digital pathology.
Yunjie He, Hong Zhao, Stephen T C Wong.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2021 Jan 17; 88. PMID: 33453648    Free PMC article.
Review.
The Role of the Pathologist in the Next-Generation Era of Tumor Molecular Characterization.
Valentina Angerilli, Francesca Galuppini, +3 authors, Matteo Fassan.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 11(2). PMID: 33670699    Free PMC article.
Review.
Hidden Variables in Deep Learning Digital Pathology and Their Potential to Cause Batch Effects: Prediction Model Study.
Max Schmitt, Roman Christoph Maron, +14 authors, Titus Josef Brinker.
J Med Internet Res, 2021 Feb 03; 23(2). PMID: 33528370    Free PMC article.
Human-interpretable image features derived from densely mapped cancer pathology slides predict diverse molecular phenotypes.
James A Diao, Jason K Wang, +19 authors, Amaro Taylor-Weiner.
Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 14; 12(1). PMID: 33712588    Free PMC article.
Establishment and Clinical Application of an Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic Platform for Identifying Rectal Cancer Tumor Budding.
Shanglong Liu, Yuejuan Zhang, +6 authors, Yun Lu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 26; 11. PMID: 33763362    Free PMC article.
Point-of-Care Digital Cytology With Artificial Intelligence for Cervical Cancer Screening in a Resource-Limited Setting.
Oscar Holmström, Nina Linder, +9 authors, Johan Lundin.
JAMA Netw Open, 2021 Mar 18; 4(3). PMID: 33729503    Free PMC article.
Can artificial intelligence overtake human intelligence on the bumpy road towards glioma therapy?
Precilla S Daisy, T S Anitha.
Med Oncol, 2021 Apr 04; 38(5). PMID: 33811540
Review.
A review and comparison of breast tumor cell nuclei segmentation performances using deep convolutional neural networks.
Andrew Lagree, Majidreza Mohebpour, +8 authors, William T Tran.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 15; 11(1). PMID: 33850222    Free PMC article.
Computerized spermatogenesis staging (CSS) of mouse testis sections via quantitative histomorphological analysis.
Jun Xu, Haoda Lu, +6 authors, Eugene Yujun Xu.
Med Image Anal, 2021 Mar 07; 70. PMID: 33676102    Free PMC article.
Interpretable survival prediction for colorectal cancer using deep learning.
Ellery Wulczyn, David F Steiner, +20 authors, Craig H Mermel.
NPJ Digit Med, 2021 Apr 21; 4(1). PMID: 33875798
Artificial Intelligence-based methods in head and neck cancer diagnosis: an overview.
Hanya Mahmood, Muhammad Shaban, Nasir Rajpoot, Syed A Khurram.
Br J Cancer, 2021 Apr 21;. PMID: 33875821
Histopathological Classification of Canine Cutaneous Round Cell Tumors Using Deep Learning: A Multi-Center Study.
Massimo Salvi, Filippo Molinari, +7 authors, Luca Aresu.
Front Vet Sci, 2021 Apr 20; 8. PMID: 33869320    Free PMC article.