Journal Article
. 2019 Nov; 20(22):.
doi: 10.3390/ijms20225740.

Hormone Receptor Expression in Multicentric/Multifocal versus Unifocal Breast Cancer: Especially the VDR Determines the Outcome Related to Focality

Alaleh Zati Zehni 1 Sven-Niclas Jacob 2 Jan-Niclas Mumm 3 Helene Hildegard Heidegger 1 Nina Ditsch 4 Sven Mahner 1 Udo Jeschke 1 Theresa Vilsmaier 1 
  • PMID: 31731733
  •     51 References
  •     6 citations


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact that hormone receptor (HR) expressions have on the two different breast cancer (BC) entities-multifocal versus unifocal BC. As the prognosis determining aspects, we investigated the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) by univariate and multivariate analysis. To underline the study's conclusions, we additionally considered the histopathological grading and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging. A retrospective analysis was performed on survival-related events in a series of 320 breast cancer patients treated at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the Ludwig Maximillian University in Munich between 2000 and 2002. All three steroid receptors analyzed by immunohistochemistry, namely, the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR), showed a significantly positive influence on the course of the disease, but only for the unifocal breast tumor patients. The prognosis of patients with multifocal breast cancer was either not affected by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor expression or even involved a worse etiopathology for the vitamin D receptor-positive patients. The estrogen receptor in unifocal breast cancer and the vitamin D receptor in multifocal breast cancer were especially identified as an independent prognostic marker for overall survival, when adjusted for age, grading, and staging. Altogether, our results strengthen the need to further investigate the behavior of the hormone receptors in breast cancer and understand why they have different effects on each focality type. Moreover, the studies for an adopted vitamin D supplementation due to breast cancer focality type must be enlarged to fully comprehend the remarkable and interesting role played by the vitamin D receptor.

Keywords: breast cancer; estrogen receptor; hormone receptor; multifocal; progesterone receptor; triple negative; unifocal; vitamin D receptor.

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