Review
. 2019 Dec; 2019:7247238.
doi: 10.1155/2019/7247238.

A Comprehensive Review and Update on the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Qingdong Guan 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 31886308
  •     197 References
  •     75 citations

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and life-threating inflammatory disease of gastroenteric tissue characterized by episodes of intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex. Recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the pathophysiology of IBD, leading to great advances in the treatment as well as diagnosis of IBD. In this review, we have systemically reviewed the pathogenesis of IBD and highlighted recent advances in host genetic factors, gut microbiota, and environmental factors and, especially, in abnormal innate and adaptive immune responses and their interactions, which may hold the keys to identify novel predictive or prognostic biomarkers and develop new therapies.

Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution.
Hailiang Huang, Ming Fang, +44 authors, Jeffrey C Barrett.
Nature, 2017 Jun 29; 547(7662). PMID: 28658209    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunologic and molecular mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease.
M Nedim Ince, David E Elliott.
Surg Clin North Am, 2007 Jun 15; 87(3). PMID: 17560420
Review.
An Overview of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2016 Oct 26; 23(1). PMID: 27779499
Review.
Effects and Mechanism of Constitutive TL1A Expression on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier in DSS-Induced Colitis.
Mingyue Yang, Wenxiu Jia, +5 authors, Xiaolan Zhang.
Dig Dis Sci, 2019 Apr 06; 64(7). PMID: 30949903
Dendritic cells in intestinal homeostasis and disease.
Maria Rescigno, Antonio Di Sabatino.
J Clin Invest, 2009 Sep 05; 119(9). PMID: 19729841    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Evolving knowledge and therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.
Joshua R Korzenik, Daniel K Podolsky.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2006 Mar 07; 5(3). PMID: 16518373
Review.
Critical role of IL-17 receptor signaling in acute TNBS-induced colitis.
Zili Zhang, Mingquan Zheng, +2 authors, Jay K Kolls.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2006 May 04; 12(5). PMID: 16670527
Highly Cited.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand rosiglitazone delays the onset of inflammatory bowel disease in mice with interleukin 10 deficiency.
Christian Lytle, Tara J Tod, +3 authors, Daniel S Straus.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2005 Mar 01; 11(3). PMID: 15735429
CD14(hi)HLA-DR(dim) macrophages, with a resemblance to classical blood monocytes, dominate inflamed mucosa in Crohn's disease.
Susanne Thiesen, Sabina Janciauskiene, +5 authors, Olof Grip.
J Leukoc Biol, 2013 Nov 12; 95(3). PMID: 24212097
Roles of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the intestine.
Jolanda M van Dieren, C Janneke van der Woude, +4 authors, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2007 May 04; 13(9). PMID: 17476670
Review.
Soluble interleukin-6 receptors in inflammatory bowel disease: relation to circulating interleukin-6.
K Mitsuyama, A Toyonaga, +7 authors, K Tanikawa.
Gut, 1995 Jan 01; 36(1). PMID: 7890234    Free PMC article.
The impact of the microbiota on the pathogenesis of IBD: lessons from mouse infection models.
Sandra Nell, Sebastian Suerbaum, Christine Josenhans.
Nat Rev Microbiol, 2010 Jul 14; 8(8). PMID: 20622892
Highly Cited. Review.
The fundamental basis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Warren Strober, Ivan Fuss, Peter Mannon.
J Clin Invest, 2007 Mar 03; 117(3). PMID: 17332878    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Recent Advances: The Imbalance of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Qingdong Guan, Jiguo Zhang.
Mediators Inflamm, 2017 Apr 20; 2017. PMID: 28420941    Free PMC article.
Review.
Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.
Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi Porro.
Drugs, 2005 Nov 04; 65(16). PMID: 16266194
Review.
Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?
Peter Laszlo Lakatos.
Dig Dis, 2009 Sep 30; 27(3). PMID: 19786744
Review.
Proinflammatory cytokines disrupt epithelial barrier function by apoptosis-independent mechanisms.
Matthias Bruewer, Andreas Luegering, +4 authors, Asma Nusrat.
J Immunol, 2003 Nov 25; 171(11). PMID: 14634132
Highly Cited.
Clustering of colonic lamina propria CD4(+) T cells to subepithelial dendritic cell aggregates precedes the development of colitis in a murine adoptive transfer model.
F Leithäuser, Z Trobonjaca, P Möller, J Reimann.
Lab Invest, 2001 Oct 13; 81(10). PMID: 11598147
Free radical-producing myeloid-derived regulatory cells: potent activators and suppressors of lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.
J Deshane, J W Zmijewski, +10 authors, D D Chaplin.
Mucosal Immunol, 2011 Apr 08; 4(5). PMID: 21471960    Free PMC article.
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, Th17 effector cells, and cytokine environment in inflammatory bowel disease.
Nicola Eastaff-Leung, Nicholas Mabarrack, +2 authors, Simon Barry.
J Clin Immunol, 2009 Nov 26; 30(1). PMID: 19936899
Highly Cited.
Intestinal macrophages: unique effector cells of the innate immune system.
Phillip D Smith, Christina Ochsenbauer-Jambor, Lesley E Smythies.
Immunol Rev, 2005 Jul 29; 206. PMID: 16048547
Review.
Clinical relevance of serum interleukin-6 in Crohn's disease: single point measurements, therapy monitoring, and prediction of clinical relapse.
W Reinisch, C Gasché, +9 authors, H Lochs.
Am J Gastroenterol, 1999 Aug 13; 94(8). PMID: 10445543
Cytokine therapy for Crohn's disease: advances in translational research.
Theresa T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli.
Annu Rev Med, 2007 Jan 16; 58. PMID: 17217333
Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Eva Szigethy, Laura McLafferty, Alka Goyal.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am, 2010 May 19; 19(2). PMID: 20478501
Review.
Peripheral CD4+ T-cell differentiation regulated by networks of cytokines and transcription factors.
Jinfang Zhu, William E Paul.
Immunol Rev, 2010 Oct 26; 238(1). PMID: 20969597    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Differential distribution of B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) costimulatory molecules on mucosal macrophage subsets in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
J Rugtveit, A Bakka, P Brandtzaeg.
Clin Exp Immunol, 1997 Nov 14; 110(1). PMID: 9353156    Free PMC article.
Intestinal macrophages - specialised adaptation to a unique environment.
Calum C Bain, Allan McI Mowat.
Eur J Immunol, 2011 Sep 29; 41(9). PMID: 21952804
Review.
Urbanization and the gut microbiota in health and inflammatory bowel disease.
Tao Zuo, Michael A Kamm, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Siew C Ng.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2018 Apr 20; 15(7). PMID: 29670252
Highly Cited. Review.
Novel pathophysiological concepts of inflammatory bowel disease.
Toshifumi Hibi, Haruhiko Ogata.
J Gastroenterol, 2006 Feb 28; 41(1). PMID: 16501852
Review.
Dendritic cells and the control of immunity.
J Banchereau, R M Steinman.
Nature, 1998 Apr 01; 392(6673). PMID: 9521319
Highly Cited. Review.
New pathophysiological insights and modern treatment of IBD.
Matthias A Engel, Markus F Neurath.
J Gastroenterol, 2010 Mar 10; 45(6). PMID: 20213337
Review.
Diet Rich in Animal Protein Promotes Pro-inflammatory Macrophage Response and Exacerbates Colitis in Mice.
Klara Kostovcikova, Stepan Coufal, +10 authors, Miloslav Kverka.
Front Immunol, 2019 May 21; 10. PMID: 31105710    Free PMC article.
Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: beyond NOD2.
Maša Umićević Mirkov, Bram Verstockt, Isabelle Cleynen.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2017 Apr 14; 2(3). PMID: 28404137
Review.
Non-classical monocyte homing to the gut via α4β7 integrin mediates macrophage-dependent intestinal wound healing.
Lena Schleier, Maximilian Wiendl, +16 authors, Sebastian Zundler.
Gut, 2019 May 17; 69(2). PMID: 31092589
Downregulation of hematopoietic MUC1 during experimental colitis increases tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Tze Wei Poh, Cathy S Madsen, +4 authors, Sandra J Gendler.
Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Jul 23; 19(18). PMID: 23873692    Free PMC article.
Unique CD14 intestinal macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn disease via IL-23/IFN-gamma axis.
Nobuhiko Kamada, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, +9 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
J Clin Invest, 2008 May 24; 118(6). PMID: 18497880    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Myeloid derived suppressor cells in human diseases.
Tim F Greten, Michael P Manns, Firouzeh Korangy.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2011 Jan 18; 11(7). PMID: 21237299    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Mucosal macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation.
Allan McI Mowat, Calum C Bain.
J Innate Immun, 2011 Oct 26; 3(6). PMID: 22025201    Free PMC article.
Review.
Diet, gut microbes, and the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Kyle T Dolan, Eugene B Chang.
Mol Nutr Food Res, 2016 Jun 28; 61(1). PMID: 27346644    Free PMC article.
Review.
IL-9 and its receptor are predominantly involved in the pathogenesis of UC.
Nancy Nalleweg, Mircea Teodor Chiriac, +9 authors, Jonas Mudter.
Gut, 2014 Jun 25; 64(5). PMID: 24957265
Highly Cited.
Targeting TGF-beta1 by employing a vaccine ameliorates fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic colitis.
Yanbing Ma, Qingdong Guan, +6 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2009 Nov 20; 16(6). PMID: 19924805
Functional Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Subsets Recover Rapidly after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation.
Qingdong Guan, Anna R Blankstein, +8 authors, Donna A Wall.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant, 2015 May 13; 21(7). PMID: 25963921
IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6.
David Yen, Jeanne Cheung, +12 authors, Donna Rennick.
J Clin Invest, 2006 May 04; 116(5). PMID: 16670770    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Oxazolone colitis, a Th2 colitis model resembling ulcerative colitis, is mediated by IL-13-producing NK-T cells.
Frank Heller, Ivan J Fuss, +2 authors, Warren Strober.
Immunity, 2002 Nov 16; 17(5). PMID: 12433369
Highly Cited.
Association analyses identify 38 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and highlight shared genetic risk across populations.
Jimmy Z Liu, Suzanne van Sommeren, +39 authors, Rinse K Weersma.
Nat Genet, 2015 Jul 21; 47(9). PMID: 26192919    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Antibody-mediated antigen sampling across intestinal epithelial barriers.
M Cecilia Berin, Hongxing Li, Kirk Sperber.
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2006 Oct 24; 1072. PMID: 17057205
Review.
Frequently relapsing Crohn's disease is characterized by persistent elevation in interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor serum levels during remission.
C Van Kemseke, J Belaiche, E Louis.
Int J Colorectal Dis, 2000 Sep 29; 15(4). PMID: 11008719
Resident and pro-inflammatory macrophages in the colon represent alternative context-dependent fates of the same Ly6Chi monocyte precursors.
C C Bain, C L Scott, +7 authors, A McI Mowat.
Mucosal Immunol, 2012 Sep 20; 6(3). PMID: 22990622    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Natural and adaptive foxp3+ regulatory T cells: more of the same or a division of labor?
Maria A Curotto de Lafaille, Juan J Lafaille.
Immunity, 2009 May 26; 30(5). PMID: 19464985
Highly Cited. Review.
Autophagy, microbial sensing, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease.
Arthur Kaser, Richard S Blumberg.
Gastroenterology, 2011 May 03; 140(6). PMID: 21530740    Free PMC article.
Review.
The TNF-family cytokine TL1A drives IL-13-dependent small intestinal inflammation.
F Meylan, Y-J Song, +11 authors, R M Siegel.
Mucosal Immunol, 2010 Oct 29; 4(2). PMID: 20980995    Free PMC article.
IL-6-dependent spontaneous proliferation is required for the induction of colitogenic IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells.
Masaki Tajima, Daiko Wakita, +7 authors, Takashi Nishimura.
J Exp Med, 2008 Apr 23; 205(5). PMID: 18426983    Free PMC article.
New concepts in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease.
Giorgos Bamias, Mark R Nyce, +3 authors, American Physiological Society.
Ann Intern Med, 2005 Dec 21; 143(12). PMID: 16365470
Review.
Increased expression of DC-SIGN+IL-12+IL-18+ and CD83+IL-12-IL-18- dendritic cell populations in the colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease.
Anje A te Velde, Yvette van Kooyk, +5 authors, Florry A Vyth-Dreese.
Eur J Immunol, 2003 Feb 21; 33(1). PMID: 12594843
Characterization of FOXP3+CD4+ regulatory T cells in Crohn's disease.
Masayuki Saruta, Qi T Yu, +4 authors, Konstantinos A Papadakis.
Clin Immunol, 2007 Sep 28; 125(3). PMID: 17897887
Clinical and molecular profile of a new series of patients with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome: inconsistent correlation between forkhead box protein 3 expression and disease severity.
Eleonora Gambineri, Lucia Perroni, +22 authors, Rosa Bacchetta.
J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2008 Oct 28; 122(6). PMID: 18951619
The immune response in inflammatory bowel disease.
Steven J Brown, Lloyd Mayer.
Am J Gastroenterol, 2007 Jun 15; 102(9). PMID: 17561966
Review.
IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population.
Lauren W Collison, Vandana Chaturvedi, +13 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Nat Immunol, 2010 Oct 19; 11(12). PMID: 20953201    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
TL1A (TNFSF15) regulates the development of chronic colitis by modulating both T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 activation.
Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Kathrin S Michelsen, +5 authors, Stephan R Targan.
Gastroenterology, 2008 Jul 05; 135(2). PMID: 18598698    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nonclassical CD1d-restricted NK T cells that produce IL-13 characterize an atypical Th2 response in ulcerative colitis.
Ivan J Fuss, Frank Heller, +9 authors, Warren Strober.
J Clin Invest, 2004 May 18; 113(10). PMID: 15146247    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more.
T R Mosmann, S Sad.
Immunol Today, 1996 Mar 01; 17(3). PMID: 8820272
Highly Cited. Review.
Peripheral and intestinal regulatory CD4+ CD25(high) T cells in inflammatory bowel disease.
Jochen Maul, Christoph Loddenkemper, +5 authors, Rainer Duchmann.
Gastroenterology, 2005 Jun 09; 128(7). PMID: 15940622
Highly Cited.
New mediators of immunity and inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease.
Giovanni Monteleone, Daniele Fina, Roberta Caruso, Francesco Pallone.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 2006 Jun 09; 22(4). PMID: 16760750
Review.
Comparison of experimental mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease.
Soo Youn Oh, Kyung-Ah Cho, +2 authors, So-Youn Woo.
Int J Mol Med, 2013 Nov 29; 33(2). PMID: 24285285
Aberrant function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in experimental colitis and in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) immune responses.
Eleni Kontaki, Dimitrios T Boumpas, +3 authors, Panayotis Verginis.
Autoimmunity, 2017 Mar 10; 50(3). PMID: 28276713
Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by dendritic cells.
Hiroyuki Tezuka, Toshiaki Ohteki.
Immunol Rev, 2010 Mar 03; 234(1). PMID: 20193023
Review.
TLR4/MyD88-induced CD11b+Gr-1 int F4/80+ non-migratory myeloid cells suppress Th2 effector function in the lung.
M Arora, S L Poe, +6 authors, P Ray.
Mucosal Immunol, 2010 Jul 29; 3(6). PMID: 20664577    Free PMC article.
The role of T-regulatory cells and Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease.
Megan E Himmel, Gijs Hardenberg, +2 authors, Megan K Levings.
Immunology, 2008 Sep 19; 125(2). PMID: 18798918    Free PMC article.
Review.
Reduced monocyte and macrophage TNFSF15/TL1A expression is associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease.
Arianne C Richard, James E Peters, +6 authors, Kenneth G C Smith.
PLoS Genet, 2018 Sep 11; 14(9). PMID: 30199539    Free PMC article.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system.
Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Srinivas Nagaraj.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2009 Feb 07; 9(3). PMID: 19197294    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Are Largely Dispensable for the Pathogenesis of Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Catherine M Sawai, Lee Serpas, +6 authors, Vanja Sisirak.
Front Immunol, 2018 Nov 10; 9. PMID: 30410494    Free PMC article.
Tumor necrosis factor blockade for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: efficacy and safety.
Benjamin Ngo, Christopher P Farrell, +4 authors, James J Thornton.
Curr Mol Pharmacol, 2010 Aug 31; 3(3). PMID: 20799925
Review.
Human RORγt+ TH17 cells preferentially differentiate from naive FOXP3+Treg in the presence of lineage-specific polarizing factors.
Danila Valmori, Caroline Raffin, Isabelle Raimbaud, Maha Ayyoub.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Oct 22; 107(45). PMID: 20962281    Free PMC article.
The molecular basis of NOD2 susceptibility mutations in Crohn's disease.
W Strober, A Kitani, +2 authors, T Watanabe.
Mucosal Immunol, 2008 Dec 23; 1 Suppl 1. PMID: 19079230    Free PMC article.
Review.
Monoclonal anti-interleukin 23 reverses active colitis in a T cell-mediated model in mice.
Charles O Elson, Yingzi Cong, +4 authors, Robert A Kastelein.
Gastroenterology, 2007 Jun 16; 132(7). PMID: 17570211
Highly Cited.
Th9 cells: differentiation and disease.
Mark H Kaplan.
Immunol Rev, 2013 Feb 15; 252(1). PMID: 23405898    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Small intestine lamina propria dendritic cells promote de novo generation of Foxp3 T reg cells via retinoic acid.
Cheng-Ming Sun, Jason A Hall, +4 authors, Yasmine Belkaid.
J Exp Med, 2007 Jul 11; 204(8). PMID: 17620362    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Lung Transplantation.
Tobias Heigl, Anurag Singh, +11 authors, Robin Vos.
Front Immunol, 2019 May 14; 10. PMID: 31080450    Free PMC article.
Environmental influences on T regulatory cells in inflammatory bowel disease.
Gijs Hardenberg, Theodore S Steiner, Megan K Levings.
Semin Immunol, 2011 Feb 08; 23(2). PMID: 21295492
Review.
The role of macrophages and dendritic cells in the initiation of inflammation in IBD.
Erin C Steinbach, Scott E Plevy.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2013 Aug 27; 20(1). PMID: 23974993    Free PMC article.
Review.
CD96 expression determines the inflammatory potential of IL-9-producing Th9 cells.
Katarina Stanko, Christina Iwert, +11 authors, Birgit Sawitzki.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Mar 14; 115(13). PMID: 29531070    Free PMC article.
Enhancement of IL-10 bioactivity using an IL-10 peptide-based vaccine exacerbates Leishmania major infection and improves airway inflammation in mice.
Gang Zhou, Yanbing Ma, +3 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Vaccine, 2009 Dec 17; 28(7). PMID: 20005853
Mucosal T-cell immunoregulation varies in early and late inflammatory bowel disease.
S Kugathasan, L J Saubermann, +6 authors, C Fiocchi.
Gut, 2007 Aug 08; 56(12). PMID: 17682002    Free PMC article.
Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells.
Monica Rimoldi, Marcello Chieppa, +7 authors, Maria Rescigno.
Nat Immunol, 2005 Apr 12; 6(5). PMID: 15821737
Highly Cited.
TL1A-DR3 interaction regulates Th17 cell function and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease.
Bhanu P Pappu, Anna Borodovsky, +13 authors, Linda C Burkly.
J Exp Med, 2008 Apr 16; 205(5). PMID: 18411337    Free PMC article.
IL23 induces IL23R recycling and amplifies innate receptor-induced signalling and cytokines in human macrophages, and the IBD-protective IL23R R381Q variant modulates these outcomes.
Rui Sun, Matija Hedl, Clara Abraham.
Gut, 2019 May 18; 69(2). PMID: 31097538    Free PMC article.
Experimental inflammatory bowel disease: insights into the host-microbiota dialog.
Maya Saleh, Charles O Elson.
Immunity, 2011 Mar 26; 34(3). PMID: 21435584    Free PMC article.
Review.
Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
R J Xavier, D K Podolsky.
Nature, 2007 Jul 27; 448(7152). PMID: 17653185
Highly Cited. Review.
IL-23/IL-17 axis in IBD.
Massimiliano Sarra, Francesco Pallone, Thomas T Macdonald, Giovanni Monteleone.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010 Mar 12; 16(10). PMID: 20222127
Highly Cited. Review.
Permeability of human HT-29/B6 colonic epithelium as a function of apoptosis.
C Bojarski, A H Gitter, +5 authors, J D Schulzke.
J Physiol, 2001 Sep 05; 535(Pt 2). PMID: 11533143    Free PMC article.
CD134L expression on dendritic cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes drives colitis in T cell-restored SCID mice.
V Malmström, D Shipton, +4 authors, F Powrie.
J Immunol, 2001 May 22; 166(11). PMID: 11359859
IL-1beta and IL-2 convert human Treg into T(H)17 cells.
Florence Deknuydt, Gilles Bioley, Danila Valmori, Maha Ayyoub.
Clin Immunol, 2009 Feb 13; 131(2). PMID: 19211307
Development of recombinant vaccines against IL-12/IL-23 p40 and in vivo evaluation of their effects in the downregulation of intestinal inflammation in murine colitis.
Qingdong Guan, Yanbing Ma, +4 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Vaccine, 2009 Sep 30; 27(50). PMID: 19786142
Exosomes released by granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice.
Yungang Wang, Jie Tian, +7 authors, Shengjun Wang.
Oncotarget, 2016 Feb 18; 7(13). PMID: 26885611    Free PMC article.
Phenotypic and functional features of human Th17 cells.
Francesco Annunziato, Lorenzo Cosmi, +13 authors, Sergio Romagnani.
J Exp Med, 2007 Jul 20; 204(8). PMID: 17635957    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting IL-23 by employing a p40 peptide-based vaccine ameliorates murine allergic skin and airway inflammation.
Q Guan, Y Ma, +4 authors, Z Peng.
Clin Exp Allergy, 2012 Aug 29; 42(9). PMID: 22925326
Gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Atsushi Nishida, Ryo Inoue, +3 authors, Akira Andoh.
Clin J Gastroenterol, 2017 Dec 30; 11(1). PMID: 29285689
Highly Cited. Review.
Identification of IL-17-producing FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in humans.
Kui Shin Voo, Yui-Hsi Wang, +10 authors, Yong-Jun Liu.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 Mar 11; 106(12). PMID: 19273860    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
TL1A blocking ameliorates intestinal fibrosis in the T cell transfer model of chronic colitis in mice.
Hui Li, Jia Song, +5 authors, Xiaolan Zhang.
Pathol Res Pract, 2017 Dec 20; 214(2). PMID: 29254800
Identification of an autophagy defect in smokers' alveolar macrophages.
Martha M Monick, Linda S Powers, +5 authors, Gary W Hunninghake.
J Immunol, 2010 Oct 06; 185(9). PMID: 20921532    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-13 is the key effector Th2 cytokine in ulcerative colitis that affects epithelial tight junctions, apoptosis, and cell restitution.
Frank Heller, Peter Florian, +11 authors, Jörg D Schulzke.
Gastroenterology, 2005 Aug 09; 129(2). PMID: 16083712
Highly Cited.
Treatment of Crohn's disease with anti-IL-6 receptor antibody.
Hiroaki Ito.
J Gastroenterol, 2005 May 21; 40 Suppl 16. PMID: 15902961
Insights into TL1A and IBD pathogenesis.
David Q Shih, Kathrin S Michelsen, +4 authors, Stephan R Targan.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2010 Dec 15; 691. PMID: 21153332
Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Clara Abraham, Judy H Cho.
N Engl J Med, 2009 Nov 20; 361(21). PMID: 19923578    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunopathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease: how genetics link barrier dysfunction and innate immunity to inflammation.
Minesh Mehta, Shifat Ahmed, Gerald Dryden.
Innate Immun, 2017 Aug 05; 23(6). PMID: 28770665
Review.
Colonic epithelial cell diversity in health and inflammatory bowel disease.
Kaushal Parikh, Agne Antanaviciute, +19 authors, Alison Simmons.
Nature, 2019 Mar 01; 567(7746). PMID: 30814735
Highly Cited.
Inflammatory bowel disease—from mechanisms to treatment strategies.
Silvia Melgar, Fergus Shanahan.
Autoimmunity, 2010 Apr 15; 43(7). PMID: 20388058
Review.
Retinoic acid-dependent regulation of immune responses by dendritic cells and macrophages.
Santhakumar Manicassamy, Bali Pulendran.
Semin Immunol, 2008 Sep 10; 21(1). PMID: 18778953    Free PMC article.
Review.
Microbiota-Induced TNF-like Ligand 1A Drives Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell-Mediated Barrier Protection and Intestinal T Cell Activation during Colitis.
Jim G Castellanos, Viola Woo, +11 authors, Randy S Longman.
Immunity, 2018 Dec 16; 49(6). PMID: 30552020    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease.
S Fujino, A Andoh, +5 authors, Y Fujiyama.
Gut, 2002 Dec 13; 52(1). PMID: 12477762    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune and nonimmune components orchestrate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Silvio Danese.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2011 Jan 15; 300(5). PMID: 21233277
Review.
Genetic Factors and the Intestinal Microbiome Guide Development of Microbe-Based Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Louis J Cohen, Judy H Cho, Dirk Gevers, Hiutung Chu.
Gastroenterology, 2019 Mar 19; 156(8). PMID: 30880022    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Intestinal macrophages and their interaction with the enteric nervous system in health and inflammatory bowel disease.
Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Maria Francesca Viola, Guy E Boeckxstaens.
Acta Physiol (Oxf), 2018 Jul 13; 225(3). PMID: 29998613    Free PMC article.
Review.
Interleukin-23 drives intestinal inflammation through direct activity on T cells.
Philip P Ahern, Chris Schiering, +4 authors, Fiona Powrie.
Immunity, 2010 Aug 25; 33(2). PMID: 20732640    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F.
Xuexian O Yang, Seon Hee Chang, +8 authors, Chen Dong.
J Exp Med, 2008 Apr 16; 205(5). PMID: 18411338    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species.
Koji Atarashi, Takeshi Tanoue, +14 authors, Kenya Honda.
Science, 2011 Jan 06; 331(6015). PMID: 21205640    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Human CD25highFoxp3pos regulatory T cells differentiate into IL-17-producing cells.
Hans J P M Koenen, Ruben L Smeets, +3 authors, Irma Joosten.
Blood, 2008 Jul 12; 112(6). PMID: 18617638
Highly Cited.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Arthur Kaser, Sebastian Zeissig, Richard S Blumberg.
Annu Rev Immunol, 2010 Mar 03; 28. PMID: 20192811    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A functional genomics predictive network model identifies regulators of inflammatory bowel disease.
Lauren A Peters, Jacqueline Perrigoue, +35 authors, Eric E Schadt.
Nat Genet, 2017 Sep 12; 49(10). PMID: 28892060    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
NOD2, an intracellular innate immune sensor involved in host defense and Crohn's disease.
W Strober, T Watanabe.
Mucosal Immunol, 2011 Jul 14; 4(5). PMID: 21750585    Free PMC article.
Review.
The autophagy gene Atg16l1 differentially regulates Treg and TH2 cells to control intestinal inflammation.
Agnieszka M Kabat, Oliver J Harrison, +10 authors, Kevin J Maloy.
Elife, 2016 Feb 26; 5. PMID: 26910010    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
New therapeutic strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
R Atreya, M F Neurath.
Mucosal Immunol, 2008 Dec 17; 1(3). PMID: 19079177
Review.
A Crohn's disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3.
Aditya Murthy, Yun Li, +8 authors, Menno van Lookeren Campagne.
Nature, 2014 Feb 21; 506(7489). PMID: 24553140
Highly Cited.
Evidence for continuous stimulation of interleukin-6 production in Crohn's disease.
V Gross, T Andus, +2 authors, J Schölmerich.
Gastroenterology, 1992 Feb 01; 102(2). PMID: 1370661
Highly Cited.
Th17: the third member of the effector T cell trilogy.
Estelle Bettelli, Thomas Korn, Vijay K Kuchroo.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2007 Sep 04; 19(6). PMID: 17766098    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
TH9 cells that express the transcription factor PU.1 drive T cell-mediated colitis via IL-9 receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells.
Katharina Gerlach, YouYi Hwang, +11 authors, Markus F Neurath.
Nat Immunol, 2014 Jun 09; 15(7). PMID: 24908389
Highly Cited.
Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis.
Seth Rakoff-Nahoum, Justin Paglino, +2 authors, Ruslan Medzhitov.
Cell, 2004 Jul 21; 118(2). PMID: 15260992
Highly Cited.
Intestinal macrophages lack CD14 and CD89 and consequently are down-regulated for LPS- and IgA-mediated activities.
P D Smith, L E Smythies, +8 authors, H Kubagawa.
J Immunol, 2001 Aug 18; 167(5). PMID: 11509607
Anti-TNF therapy: safety aspects of taking the risk.
Hemda Rosenblum, Howard Amital.
Autoimmun Rev, 2011 May 17; 10(9). PMID: 21570495
Review.
Cutting edge: cure of colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
Christian Mottet, Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie.
J Immunol, 2003 Apr 12; 170(8). PMID: 12682220
Highly Cited.
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress Th17-responses in an experimental colitis model.
Haruei Ogino, Kazuhiko Nakamura, +2 authors, Ryoichi Takayanagi.
Dig Dis Sci, 2010 Jun 04; 56(2). PMID: 20521112
Th17 plasticity and its relevance to inflammatory bowel disease.
Aito Ueno, Louisa Jeffery, +3 authors, Humberto Jijon.
J Autoimmun, 2018 Jan 02; 87. PMID: 29290521
Highly Cited. Review.
Human intestinal macrophages display profound inflammatory anergy despite avid phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity.
Lesley E Smythies, Marty Sellers, +5 authors, Phillip D Smith.
J Clin Invest, 2005 Jan 05; 115(1). PMID: 15630445    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Medium-chain triglyceride-rich enteral nutrition is more effective than low-fat enteral nutrition in rat colitis, but is equal in enteritis.
T Tsujikawa, N Ohta, +10 authors, T Bamba.
J Gastroenterol, 2001 Nov 01; 36(10). PMID: 11686477
IL-9 regulates intestinal barrier function in experimental T cell-mediated colitis.
Katharina Gerlach, Andrew N McKenzie, Markus F Neurath, Benno Weigmann.
Tissue Barriers, 2015 Apr 04; 3(1-2). PMID: 25838986    Free PMC article.
Recent understanding of IBD pathogenesis: implications for future therapies.
Torsten Kucharzik, Christian Maaser, +4 authors, Wolfram Domschke.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2006 Nov 01; 12(11). PMID: 17075348
Review.
Gut microbiota and IBD: causation or correlation?
Josephine Ni, Gary D Wu, Lindsey Albenberg, Vesselin T Tomov.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2017 Jul 27; 14(10). PMID: 28743984    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
New cytokine therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease.
P C F Stokkers, D W Hommes.
Cytokine, 2004 Dec 14; 28(4-5). PMID: 15588691
Review.
Functional relevance of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and the IL-17 cytokine family in inflammatory bowel disease.
Gheorghe Hundorfean, Markus F Neurath, Jonas Mudter.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2011 Mar 08; 18(1). PMID: 21381156
Review.
Th1/Th17 immune response is induced by mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells in Crohn's disease.
Atsushi Sakuraba, Toshiro Sato, +3 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
Gastroenterology, 2009 Jul 28; 137(5). PMID: 19632232
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from Crohn patients show differential NOD2/CARD15-dependent immune responses to bacteria.
Valentina Salucci, Monica Rimoldi, +8 authors, Maria Rescigno.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2008 Feb 02; 14(6). PMID: 18240302
Colonic lamina propria dendritic cells in mice with CD4+ T cell-induced colitis.
Tamara Krajina, Frank Leithäuser, +2 authors, Jörg Reimann.
Eur J Immunol, 2003 Apr 03; 33(4). PMID: 12672074
Characterization of Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ and IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25+ T cells during cure of colitis.
Holm H Uhlig, Janine Coombes, +7 authors, Fiona Powrie.
J Immunol, 2006 Oct 24; 177(9). PMID: 17056509    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Recent advances in cytokines: therapeutic implications for inflammatory bowel diseases.
Guillaume Bouguen, Jean-Baptiste Chevaux, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet.
World J Gastroenterol, 2011 Feb 26; 17(5). PMID: 21350703    Free PMC article.
Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities.
Stephen B Hanauer.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2005 Dec 27; 12 Suppl 1. PMID: 16378007
Highly Cited. Review.
Phenotypic and Functional Diversities of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Autoimmune Diseases.
Huijuan Ma, Chang-Qing Xia.
Mediators Inflamm, 2019 Jan 24; 2018. PMID: 30670926    Free PMC article.
Review.
Differential Levels of Tl1a Affect the Expansion and Function of Regulatory T Cells in Modulating Murine Colitis.
Maninder Sidhu-Varma, David Q Shih, Stephan R Targan.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2016 Jan 29; 22(3). PMID: 26818423    Free PMC article.
Regulation of gut inflammation and th17 cell response by interleukin-21.
Daniele Fina, Massimiliano Sarra, +10 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Gastroenterology, 2008 Apr 09; 134(4). PMID: 18395085
The transcription factor T-bet regulates mucosal T cell activation in experimental colitis and Crohn's disease.
M F Neurath, B Weigmann, +13 authors, R S Blumberg.
J Exp Med, 2002 May 08; 195(9). PMID: 11994418    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-35 mediates mucosal immune responses that protect against T-cell-dependent colitis.
Stefan Wirtz, Ulrike Billmeier, +2 authors, Markus F Neurath.
Gastroenterology, 2011 Aug 09; 141(5). PMID: 21820391    Free PMC article.
Abnormally differentiated subsets of intestinal macrophage play a key role in Th1-dominant chronic colitis through excess production of IL-12 and IL-23 in response to bacteria.
Nobuhiko Kamada, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, +9 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
J Immunol, 2005 Nov 08; 175(10). PMID: 16272349
Therapeutic targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
Stefano Ugel, Federica Delpozzo, +5 authors, Vincenzo Bronte.
Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2009 Jul 21; 9(4). PMID: 19616475
Review.
TL1A produced by lamina propria macrophages induces Th1 and Th17 immune responses in cooperation with IL-23 in patients with Crohn's disease.
Nobuhiko Kamada, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, +9 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2009 Oct 17; 16(4). PMID: 19834969
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Roles and relations with Th2, Th17, and Treg cells in asthma.
Qingdong Guan, Bin Yang, +5 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Allergy, 2019 Apr 22; 74(11). PMID: 31006124
Targeting IL-12/IL-23 by employing a p40 peptide-based vaccine ameliorates TNBS-induced acute and chronic murine colitis.
Qingdong Guan, Yanbing Ma, +8 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Mol Med, 2011 Mar 23; 17(7-8). PMID: 21424108    Free PMC article.
TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 inhibits T(H)17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORgammat function.
Liang Zhou, Jared E Lopes, +9 authors, Dan R Littman.
Nature, 2008 Mar 28; 453(7192). PMID: 18368049    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
IBD-associated TL1A gene (TNFSF15) haplotypes determine increased expression of TL1A protein.
Kathrin S Michelsen, Lisa S Thomas, +7 authors, Stephan R Targan.
PLoS One, 2009 Mar 06; 4(3). PMID: 19262684    Free PMC article.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in inflammatory bowel disease: a new immunoregulatory pathway.
Lydia A Haile, Reinhard von Wasielewski, +8 authors, Tim F Greten.
Gastroenterology, 2008 Aug 05; 135(3). PMID: 18674538
Highly Cited.
Secukinumab, a human anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody, for moderate to severe Crohn's disease: unexpected results of a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Wolfgang Hueber, Bruce E Sands, +18 authors, Secukinumab in Crohn's Disease Study Group.
Gut, 2012 May 19; 61(12). PMID: 22595313    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The association of tissue anti-TNF drug levels with serological and endoscopic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: the ATLAS study.
Andres J Yarur, Anjali Jain, +7 authors, Maria T Abreu.
Gut, 2015 Feb 12; 65(2). PMID: 25670812
The role and potential therapeutic application of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in TNBS-induced colitis.
Qingdong Guan, Sem Moreno, +6 authors, Zhikang Peng.
J Leukoc Biol, 2013 Aug 01; 94(4). PMID: 23901119
Sustained suppression of IL-18 by employing a vaccine ameliorates intestinal inflammation in TNBS-induced murine colitis.
Qingdong Guan, Richard Warrington, +3 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Future Sci OA, 2019 Aug 21; 5(7). PMID: 31428451    Free PMC article.
TL1A modulates the severity of colitis by promoting Th9 differentiation and IL-9 secretion.
Dong Wang, Hui Li, +8 authors, Xiao-Lan Zhang.
Life Sci, 2019 Jun 10; 231. PMID: 31176785
Role of Nod2 in the development of Crohn's disease.
Soichiro Yamamoto, Xiaojing Ma.
Microbes Infect, 2009 Jul 04; 11(12). PMID: 19573617    Free PMC article.
Review.
Intestinal dendritic cells: their role in bacterial recognition, lymphocyte homing, and intestinal inflammation.
S C Ng, M A Kamm, A J Stagg, S C Knight.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010 Mar 12; 16(10). PMID: 20222140
Review.
Ex vivo IL-1 receptor type I expression in human CD4+ T cells identifies an early intermediate in the differentiation of Th17 from FOXP3+ naive regulatory T cells.
Caroline Raffin, Isabelle Raimbaud, Danila Valmori, Maha Ayyoub.
J Immunol, 2011 Oct 15; 187(10). PMID: 21998454
What is new with Nods?
Joao G Magalhaes, Matthew T Sorbara, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2010 Dec 31; 23(1). PMID: 21190821
Review.
Elevation of interleukin-6 in inflammatory bowel disease is macrophage- and epithelial cell-dependent.
K Kusugami, A Fukatsu, +7 authors, T Matsuura.
Dig Dis Sci, 1995 May 01; 40(5). PMID: 7729284
Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Bernard Khor, Agnès Gardet, Ramnik J Xavier.
Nature, 2011 Jun 17; 474(7351). PMID: 21677747    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
MDSCs are involved in the protumorigenic potentials of GM-CSF in colitis-associated cancer.
Ning Ma, Qilin Liu, +2 authors, Ziling Liu.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol, 2017 May 24; 30(2). PMID: 28534709    Free PMC article.
Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity.
Siamon Gordon, Philip R Taylor.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2005 Dec 03; 5(12). PMID: 16322748
Highly Cited. Review.
The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.
Lauren W Collison, Creg J Workman, +7 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Nature, 2007 Nov 23; 450(7169). PMID: 18033300
Highly Cited.
Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies.
Siew C Ng, Hai Yun Shi, +9 authors, Gilaad G Kaplan.
Lancet, 2017 Oct 21; 390(10114). PMID: 29050646
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
David Q Shih, Stephan R Targan.
World J Gastroenterol, 2008 Jan 18; 14(3). PMID: 18200661    Free PMC article.
Review.
Proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Warren Strober, Ivan J Fuss.
Gastroenterology, 2011 May 03; 140(6). PMID: 21530742    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A genome-wide association study identifies IL23R as an inflammatory bowel disease gene.
Richard H Duerr, Kent D Taylor, +20 authors, Judy H Cho.
Science, 2006 Oct 28; 314(5804). PMID: 17068223    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Anti-TNF strategies in Crohn's disease: mechanisms, clinical effects, indications.
F J Baert, P R Rutgeerts.
Int J Colorectal Dis, 1999 Apr 20; 14(1). PMID: 10207730
Review.
Differential regulation of interleukin 17 and interferon gamma production in inflammatory bowel disease.
L Rovedatti, T Kudo, +7 authors, T T Macdonald.
Gut, 2009 Sep 11; 58(12). PMID: 19740775
Highly Cited.
Smad7 controls resistance of colitogenic T cells to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression.
Massimo C Fantini, Angelamaria Rizzo, +8 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Gastroenterology, 2009 Feb 05; 136(4). PMID: 19192480
Genetics and Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Ta-Chiang Liu, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck.
Annu Rev Pathol, 2016 Feb 26; 11. PMID: 26907531    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution.
R M Steinman, Z A Cohn.
J Exp Med, 1973 May 01; 137(5). PMID: 4573839    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Reversing Ongoing Chronic Intestinal Inflammation and Fibrosis by Sustained Block of IL-12 and IL-23 Using a Vaccine in Mice.
Qingdong Guan, Carolyn R Weiss, +5 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2018 May 23; 24(9). PMID: 29788053    Free PMC article.
A comprehensive review and update on Crohn's disease.
Mahesh Gajendran, Priyadarshini Loganathan, Anthony P Catinella, Jana G Hashash.
Dis Mon, 2017 Aug 23; 64(2). PMID: 28826742
Review.
The gut mycobiota: insights into analysis, environmental interactions and role in gastrointestinal diseases.
Mathias L Richard, Harry Sokol.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019 Mar 03; 16(6). PMID: 30824884
Highly Cited. Review.
Challenges in IBD Research: Environmental Triggers.
Shuk-Mei Ho, James D Lewis, +16 authors, Gary D Wu.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019 May 17; 25(Suppl 2). PMID: 31095702    Free PMC article.
Review.
The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Gerd Bouma, Warren Strober.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Jul 24; 3(7). PMID: 12876555
Highly Cited. Review.
The unique role of natural killer T cells in the response to microorganisms.
Emmanuel Tupin, Yuki Kinjo, Mitchell Kronenberg.
Nat Rev Microbiol, 2007 May 10; 5(6). PMID: 17487145
Highly Cited. Review.
Human memory FOXP3+ Tregs secrete IL-17 ex vivo and constitutively express the T(H)17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORgamma t.
Maha Ayyoub, Florence Deknuydt, +4 authors, Danila Valmori.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 May 15; 106(21). PMID: 19439651    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Employing an IL-23 p19 vaccine to block IL-23 ameliorates chronic murine colitis.
Qingdong Guan, Helen A Burtnick, +5 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Immunotherapy, 2013 Nov 29; 5(12). PMID: 24283842
Dendritic cells: unique leukocyte populations which control the primary immune response.
D N Hart.
Blood, 1997 Nov 14; 90(9). PMID: 9345009
Highly Cited. Review.
Cytokines and growth factor modulators in intestinal inflammation and repair.
R J Playford, S Ghosh.
J Pathol, 2005 Feb 17; 205(4). PMID: 15714466
Review.
Blockade of interleukin 6 trans signaling suppresses T-cell resistance against apoptosis in chronic intestinal inflammation: evidence in crohn disease and experimental colitis in vivo.
R Atreya, J Mudter, +20 authors, M F Neurath.
Nat Med, 2000 May 10; 6(5). PMID: 10802717
Highly Cited.
Crohn's disease: Th1, Th17 or both? The change of a paradigm: new immunological and genetic insights implicate Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.
S Brand.
Gut, 2009 Jul 14; 58(8). PMID: 19592695
Highly Cited. Review.
Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours.
Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg, Vincenzo Bronte.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2012 Mar 23; 12(4). PMID: 22437938    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
An IL-17 peptide-based and virus-like particle vaccine enhances the bioactivity of IL-17 in vitro and in vivo.
Qingdong Guan, Carolyn R Weiss, +2 authors, Zhikang Peng.
Immunotherapy, 2012 Dec 18; 4(12). PMID: 23240747
Molecular physiology and pathophysiology of tight junctions. IV. Regulation of tight junctions by extracellular stimuli: nutrients, cytokines, and immune cells.
A Nusrat, J R Turner, J L Madara.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2000 Oct 29; 279(5). PMID: 11052980
Highly Cited. Review.
Molecular mechanisms regulating myeloid-derived suppressor cell differentiation and function.
Thomas Condamine, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
Trends Immunol, 2010 Nov 12; 32(1). PMID: 21067974    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Cannabidiol and Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: Useful Nutraceuticals?
Vicente Martínez, Amaia Iriondo De-Hond, +3 authors, Raquel Abalo.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 May 03; 21(9). PMID: 32357565    Free PMC article.
Review.
Connecting the Dots Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Metabolic Syndrome: A Focus on Gut-Derived Metabolites.
Andrea Verdugo-Meza, Jiayu Ye, +2 authors, Deanna L Gibson.
Nutrients, 2020 May 21; 12(5). PMID: 32429195    Free PMC article.
Review.
Methane Alleviates Inflammation and Apoptosis of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Diseases by Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways in Mice.
Naiying Shen, Zhixiang Wang, +2 authors, Chang Liu.
Med Sci Monit, 2020 Jun 06; 26. PMID: 32500859    Free PMC article.
Lessons on the Sigma-1 Receptor in TNBS-Induced Rat Colitis: Modulation of the UCHL-1, IL-6 Pathway.
Nikoletta Almási, Szilvia Török, +8 authors, Krisztina Kupai.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 11; 21(11). PMID: 32516975    Free PMC article.
Extracts and Marine Algae Polysaccharides in Therapy and Prevention of Inflammatory Diseases of the Intestine.
Natalya N Besednova, Tatyana S Zaporozhets, +4 authors, Svetlana P Ermakova.
Mar Drugs, 2020 Jun 04; 18(6). PMID: 32486405    Free PMC article.
Review.
Serum interleukin 17A and interleukin 17F in children with inflammatory bowel disease.
Paulina Krawiec, Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jul 30; 10(1). PMID: 32724117    Free PMC article.
Role of Inflammation in Pathophysiology of Colonic Disease: An Update.
Noha Ahmed Nasef, Sunali Mehta.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jul 09; 21(13). PMID: 32635383    Free PMC article.
Review.
Phenolic and Non-Polar Fractions of the Extracts from Fruits, Leaves, and Twigs of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson-The Implications for Human Barrier Cells.
Beata Sadowska, Joanna Rywaniak, +5 authors, Barbara Różalska.
Molecules, 2020 May 14; 25(9). PMID: 32397559    Free PMC article.
Probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Strains Counteract Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) Virulence and Hamper IL-23/Th17 Axis in Ulcerative Colitis, but Not in Crohn's Disease.
Gabriella Leccese, Alessia Bibi, +4 authors, Moira Paroni.
Cells, 2020 Aug 06; 9(8). PMID: 32752244    Free PMC article.
Interactions between Gut Microbiota and Immunomodulatory Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Huihui Xu, Hongyan Zhao, +6 authors, Qingdong Guan.
Mediators Inflamm, 2020 Sep 24; 2020. PMID: 32963490    Free PMC article.
Review.
Clearing of the Clouds in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management.
Nicholas V Costrini.
Dig Dis Sci, 2020 Oct 04; 65(12). PMID: 33009978    Free PMC article.
Cell Therapy With Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces an Innate Immune Memory Response That Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Long Term.
Mercedes Lopez-Santalla, Rosario Hervas-Salcedo, +2 authors, Marina Inmaculada Garin.
J Crohns Colitis, 2020 Apr 23; 14(10). PMID: 32318720    Free PMC article.
Roles of Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Autophagy and Inflammation.
Antonio Recchiuti, Elisa Isopi, Mario Romano, Domenico Mattoscio.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 16; 21(18). PMID: 32927853    Free PMC article.
Review.
Increasing newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and improving prognosis in China: a 30-year retrospective study from a single centre.
Hong Lv, Meng Jin, +7 authors, Jiaming Qian.
BMC Gastroenterol, 2020 Nov 14; 20(1). PMID: 33183228    Free PMC article.
Sigma-1 Receptor Engages an Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Feedback Loop Mediated by Peroxiredoxin in Experimental Colitis.
Nikoletta Almási, Szilvia Török, +6 authors, Krisztina Kupai.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Nov 08; 9(11). PMID: 33158023    Free PMC article.
Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Dietary Attitudes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Josip Vrdoljak, Marino Vilović, +5 authors, Joško Božić.
Nutrients, 2020 Nov 12; 12(11). PMID: 33171662    Free PMC article.
The role of in utero endotoxin exposure in the development of inflammatory bowel disease in mice.
Emilyn Banfield, William Fulton, +3 authors, David J Hackam.
Am J Reprod Immunol, 2020 Jul 15; 84(4). PMID: 32662549    Free PMC article.
CD38: An Immunomodulatory Molecule in Inflammation and Autoimmunity.
Zayda L Piedra-Quintero, Zachary Wilson, Porfirio Nava, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano.
Front Immunol, 2020 Dec 18; 11. PMID: 33329591    Free PMC article.
Review.
Heme Oxygenase-1 in Gastrointestinal Tract Health and Disease.
Jose D Puentes-Pardo, Sara Moreno-SanJuan, Ángel Carazo, Josefa León.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Dec 06; 9(12). PMID: 33276470    Free PMC article.
Review.
The Usefulness of Microencapsulated Sodium Butyrate Add-On Therapy in Maintaining Remission in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Observational Study.
Marta Vernero, Federico De Blasio, +5 authors, Gian Paolo Caviglia.
J Clin Med, 2020 Dec 10; 9(12). PMID: 33291846    Free PMC article.
Lactoferrin in the Prevention and Treatment of Intestinal Inflammatory Pathologies Associated with Colorectal Cancer Development.
Antimo Cutone, Giusi Ianiro, +4 authors, Giovanni Musci.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 23; 12(12). PMID: 33348646    Free PMC article.
Review.
Chlamydia muridarum Alleviates Colitis via the IL-22/Occludin Signal Pathway.
Xin Wang, Huai-Cai Zeng, Yan-Ru Huang, Qing-Zhi He.
Biomed Res Int, 2021 Jan 01; 2020. PMID: 33381598    Free PMC article.
Impact of Digital Health Monitoring in the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Jamie Zhen, John K Marshall, +2 authors, Neeraj Narula.
J Med Syst, 2021 Jan 16; 45(2). PMID: 33449213    Free PMC article.
Role and mechanisms of exosomal miRNAs in IBD pathophysiology.
Sameena Wani, Ivy Ka Man Law, Charalabos Pothoulakis.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2020 Oct 08; 319(6). PMID: 33026230    Free PMC article.
Review.
Inflammatory responses of C57BL/6NKorl mice to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis: comparison between three C57BL/6 N sub-strains.
Sou Hyun Kim, Doyoung Kwon, +8 authors, Young-Suk Jung.
Lab Anim Res, 2021 Jan 30; 37(1). PMID: 33509279    Free PMC article.
Vedolizumab: Potential Mechanisms of Action for Reducing Pathological Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Matthew Luzentales-Simpson, Yvonne C F Pang, +2 authors, Laura M Sly.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Feb 23; 9. PMID: 33614645    Free PMC article.
Review.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinic Acid-Loaded Nanovesicles in Acute Colitis through Modulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome.
Sonia Marinho, Matilde Illanes, +2 authors, Elena Talero.
Biomolecules, 2021 Feb 04; 11(2). PMID: 33530569    Free PMC article.
Bioinformatis analysis reveals possible molecular mechanism of PXR on regulating ulcerative colitis.
Hanze Guo, Yan Chi, Naiyu Chi.
Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 10; 11(1). PMID: 33686088    Free PMC article.
Role of HCA2 in Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis and Suppressing Colon Carcinogenesis.
Zhuoyue Li, Kayleen J McCafferty, Robert L Judd.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 13; 12. PMID: 33708203    Free PMC article.
Review.
Gut microbiota-mediated lysophosphatidylcholine generation promotes colitis in intestinal epithelium-specific Fut2 deficiency.
Xuelian Tang, Weijun Wang, +7 authors, Xiaohua Hou.
J Biomed Sci, 2021 Mar 17; 28(1). PMID: 33722220    Free PMC article.
ZINC40099027 activates human focal adhesion kinase by accelerating the enzymatic activity of the FAK kinase domain.
Rashmi, Shyam K More, +3 authors, Marc D Basson.
Pharmacol Res Perspect, 2021 Mar 15; 9(2). PMID: 33715263    Free PMC article.
What Do Influenza and COVID-19 Represent for Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Julia Novaes Matias, +7 authors, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart.
Gastroenterology Res, 2021 Mar 20; 14(1). PMID: 33737994    Free PMC article.
Review.
Emerging Perspectives of RNA N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) Modification on Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases.
Lipeng Tang, Xingyan Wei, +4 authors, Guangjuan Zheng.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 23; 12. PMID: 33746967    Free PMC article.
Review.
Nicotinamide Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in Mice through Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Modulates the Gut Microbiota.
Kai Kang, Yue Sun, +2 authors, Li-Xuan Sang.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Mar 23; 2021. PMID: 33748287    Free PMC article.
The Multifunctional Sactipeptide Ruminococcin C1 Displays Potent Antibacterial Activity In Vivo as Well as Other Beneficial Properties for Human Health.
Clarisse Roblin, Steve Chiumento, +16 authors, Mickael Lafond.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 04; 22(6). PMID: 33806791    Free PMC article.
Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing and Barrier Integrity in IBD-Crosstalk and Trafficking of Cellular Players.
Katrin Sommer, Maximilian Wiendl, +4 authors, Sebastian Zundler.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 Apr 10; 8. PMID: 33834033    Free PMC article.
Review.
CircRNAs as promising biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease and its associated-colorectal cancer.
Yuting Xu, Xinwei Xu, +4 authors, Fei Mao.
Am J Transl Res, 2021 Apr 13; 13(3). PMID: 33841681    Free PMC article.
Role of the IL23/IL17 Pathway in Crohn's Disease.
Heike Schmitt, Markus F Neurath, Raja Atreya.
Front Immunol, 2021 Apr 17; 12. PMID: 33859636    Free PMC article.
Review.
Prenatal Immunity and Influences on Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Associated Neonatal Disorders.
Maame Efua S Sampah, David J Hackam.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 11; 12. PMID: 33968047    Free PMC article.
Review.
Natural-Derived Polysaccharides From Plants, Mushrooms, and Seaweeds for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Cailan Li, Guosong Wu, +4 authors, Qiang Lu.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 May 14; 12. PMID: 33981232    Free PMC article.
Review.
An MSCT-based radiomics nomogram combined with clinical factors can identify Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Hui Li, Yan Mo, +5 authors, Xiangshui Meng.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 May 15; 9(7). PMID: 33987270    Free PMC article.
The Relationship between Mucins and Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review.
Esther Bankole, Emily Read, +2 authors, James A Garnett.
J Clin Med, 2021 May 06; 10(9). PMID: 33946184    Free PMC article.
Review.
Roles of microRNAs in inflammatory bowel disease.
HyunTaek Jung, Jae Seok Kim, +15 authors, Andreas Kronbichler.
Int J Biol Sci, 2021 Jun 17; 17(8). PMID: 34131410    Free PMC article.
Review.
Modeling Gastrointestinal Diseases Using Organoids to Understand Healing and Regenerative Processes.
Alexane Ollivier, Maxime M Mahe, Géraldine Guasch.
Cells, 2021 Jun 03; 10(6). PMID: 34072095    Free PMC article.
Review.
Potential Modulatory Microbiome Therapies for Prevention or Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Daan V Bunt, Adriaan J Minnaard, Sahar El Aidy.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 14(6). PMID: 34073220    Free PMC article.
Review.
Current Strategies and Potential Prospects of Nanomedicine-Mediated Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Fengqian Chen, Qi Liu, Yang Xiong, Li Xu.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2021 Jul 01; 16. PMID: 34188471    Free PMC article.
Review.
Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Katarzyna Akutko, Andrzej Stawarski.
J Clin Med, 2021 Jul 03; 10(11). PMID: 34199428    Free PMC article.
Review.
Colostrum Therapy for Human Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.
Kanta Chandwe, Paul Kelly.
Nutrients, 2021 Jul 03; 13(6). PMID: 34200282    Free PMC article.
Review.
Risk Factors of Venous Thromboembolism in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Hua Zhang, Xuehong Wang.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 Jul 16; 8. PMID: 34262920    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Translation and validation of the inflammatory bowel disease fatigue (IBD-F) patient self-assessment questionnaire.
Ariel Liebert, Aleksandra Wileńska, Władysława Czuber-Dochan, Maria Kłopocka.
Prz Gastroenterol, 2021 Jul 20; 16(2). PMID: 34276841    Free PMC article.
Colon epithelial cell TGFβ signaling modulates the expression of tight junction proteins and barrier function in mice.
Paula Marincola Smith, Yash A Choksi, +10 authors, R Daniel Beauchamp.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2021 Mar 25; 320(6). PMID: 33759564    Free PMC article.
The Role of Cyclophilins in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer.
Lifang Liang, Rongxiao Lin, +4 authors, Hongyuan Chen.
Int J Biol Sci, 2021 Jul 31; 17(10). PMID: 34326693    Free PMC article.
Review.
The onset of ulcerative colitis upon Helicobacter pylori eradication in a 72-year-old woman: report of a rare case with a 3-year follow-up.
J Homolak, M Nikolić, +7 authors, D Vražić.
BMC Gastroenterol, 2021 Aug 02; 21(1). PMID: 34332529    Free PMC article.
Fermented and Germinated Processing Improved the Protective Effects of Foxtail Millet Whole Grain Against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in C57BL/6 Mice.
Yuhan Zhang, Wei Liu, +3 authors, Lingfei Li.
Front Nutr, 2021 Aug 17; 8. PMID: 34395495    Free PMC article.
Bortezomib: a proteasome inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Naeemeh Khalesi, Shahla Korani, +2 authors, Amirhossein Sahebkar.
Inflammopharmacology, 2021 Aug 24; 29(5). PMID: 34424482
Review.
Translating Treg Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humanized Mice.
Sushmita Negi, Sheetal Saini, +3 authors, Rajeev K Tyagi.
Cells, 2021 Aug 28; 10(8). PMID: 34440615    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Immunosuppressive Targets of Mesalazine in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis.
Rong Li, Lin Cheng, Qi Wang, Liming Zhou.
Front Genet, 2021 Aug 31; 12. PMID: 34456974    Free PMC article.
Glycosylation in Autoimmune Diseases.
Marta Ząbczyńska, Paweł Link-Lenczowski, Ewa Pocheć.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2021 Sep 09; 1325. PMID: 34495537
Role of exercise in preventing and restoring gut dysbiosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: A review.
Tilemachos Koutouratsas, Anastassios Philippou, +2 authors, Maria Gazouli.
World J Gastroenterol, 2021 Sep 10; 27(30). PMID: 34497433    Free PMC article.
Review.
Crohn's Disease Susceptibility and Onset Are Strongly Related to Three NOD2 Gene Haplotypes.
Marta Kaczmarek-Ryś, Szymon Tytus Hryhorowicz, +12 authors, Andrzej Pławski.
J Clin Med, 2021 Sep 11; 10(17). PMID: 34501225    Free PMC article.
Transcriptomic and Proteomic Study on the High-Fat Diet Combined With AOM/DSS-Induced Adenomatous Polyps in Mice.
Cui Guo, Yimin Xu, +4 authors, Xiaoling Fu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Sep 14; 11. PMID: 34513713    Free PMC article.
In vivo visualization and characterization of inflamed intestinal wall: the exploration of targeted microbubbles in assessing NF-κB expression.
Chenyang Zhao, Li Ma, +4 authors, Yuxin Jiang.
J Cell Mol Med, 2021 Aug 20; 25(18). PMID: 34409723    Free PMC article.
C3435T Polymorphism of the ABCB1 Gene in Polish Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.
Paweł Petryszyn, Robert Dudkowiak, +5 authors, Krystyna Głowacka.
Genes (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 12(9). PMID: 34573401    Free PMC article.
Receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery systems for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: Opportunities and emerging strategies.
Peng Liu, Caifang Gao, +5 authors, Yitao Wang.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2021 Oct 01; 11(9). PMID: 34589398    Free PMC article.
Review.
Tumor Necrosis Factor's Pathway in Crohn's Disease: Potential for Intervention.
Cristiano Pagnini, Fabio Cominelli.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 14; 22(19). PMID: 34638616    Free PMC article.
Review.
Effects of Wine Components in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Josip Vrdoljak, Marko Kumric, +4 authors, Josko Bozic.
Molecules, 2021 Oct 14; 26(19). PMID: 34641434    Free PMC article.
Review.
Ding's herbal enema treats dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by regulating the gut microbiota and maintaining the Treg/Th17 cell balance.
Yan-Yan Tan, Yang Ding, +14 authors, Yi-Jiang Ding.
Exp Ther Med, 2021 Oct 19; 22(6). PMID: 34659514    Free PMC article.
Role of Digital Health and Artificial Intelligence in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Scoping Review.
Kamila Majidova, Julia Handfield, +2 authors, Ryszard Kubinski.
Genes (Basel), 2021 Oct 24; 12(10). PMID: 34680860    Free PMC article.
Review.
Emerging roles of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in inflammatory bowel disease.
Zhuo Xie, Mudan Zhang, +8 authors, Shenghong Zhang.
Cell Death Discov, 2021 Oct 28; 7(1). PMID: 34702800    Free PMC article.
Review.
[What is confirmed in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].
Carolin F Manthey, Dominik Reher, Samuel Huber.
Internist (Berl), 2021 Nov 03;. PMID: 34727190    Free PMC article.
Review.
Magnetic resonance colonography assessment of acute trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis in pre-pubertal rats.
Claire Dupont-Lucas, Rachel Marion-Letellier, +8 authors, Guillaume Savoye.
PLoS One, 2021 Nov 05; 16(11). PMID: 34735489    Free PMC article.
Gut microbiota: sculptors of the intestinal stem cell niche in health and inflammatory bowel disease.
Manasvini Markandey, Aditya Bajaj, +4 authors, Vineet Ahuja.
Gut Microbes, 2021 Nov 09; 13(1). PMID: 34747326    Free PMC article.
Review.
Efficacy of a Preparation Based on Calcium Butyrate, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Fructooligosaccharides in the Prevention of Relapse in Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Observational Study.
Gian Paolo Caviglia, Federico De Blasio, +6 authors, Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone.
J Clin Med, 2021 Nov 14; 10(21). PMID: 34768480    Free PMC article.
Risk Factors for Malnutrition among IBD Patients.
Larisa Einav, Ayal Hirsch, +6 authors, Naomi Fliss-Isakov.
Nutrients, 2021 Nov 28; 13(11). PMID: 34836353    Free PMC article.
Interaction Between Commensal Bacteria, Immune Response and the Intestinal Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Yongyan Chen, Wenwen Cui, Xiao Li, Huan Yang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Dec 04; 12. PMID: 34858414    Free PMC article.
Review.