. 2020 Jan; 21(2):.
doi: 10.3390/ijms21020597.

Immunosurveillance and Immunoediting of Lung Cancer: Current Perspectives and Challenges

Kei Kunimasa 1 Taichiro Goto 2 
  • PMID: 31963413
  •     204 References
  •     21 citations


The immune system plays a dual role in tumor evolution-it can identify and control nascent tumor cells in a process called immunosurveillance and can promote tumor progression through immunosuppression via various mechanisms. Thus, bilateral host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are integrated as cancer immunoediting. In this decade, immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway inhibitors, have changed the treatment paradigm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These agents are approved for the treatment of patients with NSCLC and demonstrate impressive clinical activity and durable responses in some patients. However, for many NSCLC patients, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors is limited. To optimize the full utility of the immune system for eradicating cancer, a broader understanding of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting is essential. In this review, we discuss the fundamental knowledge of the phenomena and provide an overview of the next-generation immunotherapies in the pipeline.

Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunoedition; immunotherapy; non-small cell lung cancer.

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Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Mar 06; 19(5). PMID: 23460535    Free PMC article.
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Deborah A Knee, Becker Hewes, Jennifer L Brogdon.
Eur J Cancer, 2016 Sep 04; 67. PMID: 27591414
Highly Cited. Review.
CCR4 Blockade Depletes Regulatory T Cells and Prolongs Survival in a Canine Model of Bladder Cancer.
Shingo Maeda, Kohei Murakami, +2 authors, Naoaki Matsuki.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2019 Jun 05; 7(7). PMID: 31160277
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Sotaro Otake, Taichiro Goto.
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Cancer immunotherapy based on mutation-specific CD4+ T cells in a patient with epithelial cancer.
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Immune response regulation in the tumor microenvironment by hypoxia.
Sara Labiano, Asis Palazon, Ignacio Melero.
Semin Oncol, 2015 May 13; 42(3). PMID: 25965356
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Lancet Oncol, 2016 Feb 10; 17(3). PMID: 26858122    Free PMC article.
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Valsamo Anagnostou, Kellie N Smith, +26 authors, Victor E Velculescu.
Cancer Discov, 2016 Dec 30; 7(3). PMID: 28031159    Free PMC article.
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Spatial heterogeneity of the T cell receptor repertoire reflects the mutational landscape in lung cancer.
Kroopa Joshi, Marc Robert de Massy, +32 authors, Benny Chain.
Nat Med, 2019 Oct 09; 25(10). PMID: 31591606    Free PMC article.
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Comparable T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8 T-cell immunity by targeting HIV gag p24 to CD8 dendritic cells within antibodies to Langerin, DEC205, and Clec9A.
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Novel Immunotherapy Combinations.
Babar Bashir, Melissa A Wilson.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2019 Nov 07; 21(11). PMID: 31696332
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Mining exomic sequencing data to identify mutated antigens recognized by adoptively transferred tumor-reactive T cells.
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Nat Med, 2013 May 07; 19(6). PMID: 23644516    Free PMC article.
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Immune recognition of somatic mutations leading to complete durable regression in metastatic breast cancer.
Nikolaos Zacharakis, Harshini Chinnasamy, +15 authors, Steven A Feldman.
Nat Med, 2018 Jun 06; 24(6). PMID: 29867227    Free PMC article.
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Secreted heat shock protein gp96-Ig: next-generation vaccines for cancer and infectious diseases.
Natasa Strbo, Arlene Garcia-Soto, Taylor H Schreiber, Eckhard R Podack.
Immunol Res, 2013 Nov 21; 57(1-3). PMID: 24254084
Evolution of Metastases in Space and Time under Immune Selection.
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Cell, 2018 Oct 16; 175(3). PMID: 30318143
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The inflammatory microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma: a pivotal role for tumor-associated macrophages.
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Biomed Res Int, 2013 Mar 28; 2013. PMID: 23533994    Free PMC article.
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Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.
Matthew D Hellmann, Tudor-Eliade Ciuleanu, +21 authors, Luis Paz-Ares.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Apr 17; 378(22). PMID: 29658845    Free PMC article.
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Cancer Evolution Constrained by the Immune Microenvironment.
Nicholas McGranahan, Charles Swanton.
Cell, 2017 Aug 26; 170(5). PMID: 28841415
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Immunity, 2002 Aug 28; 17(2). PMID: 12196291
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Five-Year Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
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Tsvetelina Pentcheva-Hoang, Emily Corse, James P Allison.
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The toxins of William B. Coley and the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.
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Valeria Quaranta, Michael C Schmid.
Cells, 2019 Jul 25; 8(7). PMID: 31331034    Free PMC article.
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David A Horwitz, Tarek M Fahmy, Ciriaco A Piccirillo, Antonio La Cava.
Trends Immunol, 2019 Oct 12; 40(10). PMID: 31601519    Free PMC article.
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Bioinformatics, 2019 Nov 23; 36(7). PMID: 31755900    Free PMC article.
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Alloactivation of Naïve CD4+CD8-CD25+T Regulatory Cells: Expression of CD8α Identifies Potent Suppressor Cells That Can Promote Transplant Tolerance Induction.
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The PD-1 pathway in tolerance and autoimmunity.
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Immunity, 2013 Oct 22; 39(4). PMID: 24138885
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The treatment of malignant tumors by bacterial toxins as developed by the late William B. Coley, M.D., reviewed in the light of modern research.
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Ira Mellman, George Coukos, Glenn Dranoff.
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Michael Croft, Wei Duan, +3 authors, Amit Mehta.
Trends Immunol, 2011 Dec 16; 33(3). PMID: 22169337    Free PMC article.
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Daniel S Chen, Ira Mellman.
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Macrophages: The Road Less Traveled, Changing Anticancer Therapy.
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J Exp Med, 2015 Aug 12; 212(9). PMID: 26261265    Free PMC article.
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J Immunol Res, 2019 Jan 22; 2018. PMID: 30662919    Free PMC article.
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BMC Cancer, 2014 Oct 08; 14. PMID: 25288198    Free PMC article.
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Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for previously untreated, PD-L1-expressing, locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-042): a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial.
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