. 2020 Jan;20(3).
doi: 10.1038/s41568-019-0238-1.

A framework for advancing our understanding of cancer-associated fibroblasts

Erik Sahai 1 Igor Astsaturov 2 Edna Cukierman 3 David G DeNardo 4 Mikala Egeblad 5 Ronald M Evans 6 Douglas Fearon 5 Florian R Greten 7 Sunil R Hingorani 8 Tony Hunter 9 Richard O Hynes 10 Rakesh K Jain 11 Tobias Janowitz 5 Claus Jorgensen 12 Alec C Kimmelman 13 Mikhail G Kolonin 14 Robert G Maki 5 R Scott Powers 15 Ellen Puré 16 Daniel C Ramirez 17 Ruth Scherz-Shouval 18 Mara H Sherman 19 Sheila Stewart 20 Thea D Tlsty 21 David A Tuveson 5 Fiona M Watt 22 Valerie Weaver 23 Ashani T Weeraratna 24 Zena Werb 25 
  • PMID: 31980749
  •     186 References
  •     186 citations


Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumour microenvironment with diverse functions, including matrix deposition and remodelling, extensive reciprocal signalling interactions with cancer cells and crosstalk with infiltrating leukocytes. As such, they are a potential target for optimizing therapeutic strategies against cancer. However, many challenges are present in ongoing attempts to modulate CAFs for therapeutic benefit. These include limitations in our understanding of the origin of CAFs and heterogeneity in CAF function, with it being desirable to retain some antitumorigenic functions. On the basis of a meeting of experts in the field of CAF biology, we summarize in this Consensus Statement our current knowledge and present a framework for advancing our understanding of this critical cell type within the tumour microenvironment.

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The Dark Side of Fibroblasts: Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts as Mediators of Immunosuppression in the Tumor Microenvironment.
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Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Apr 30; 2(3). PMID: 24778314
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Cancer Discov, 2019 Jun 15; 9(8). PMID: 31197017    Free PMC article.
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Cancer Cell, 2018 Feb 20; 33(3). PMID: 29455927
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Cell Metab, 2016 Nov 10; 24(5). PMID: 27829137    Free PMC article.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Feb 01; 116(10). PMID: 30700545    Free PMC article.
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Nat Med, 2016 Jul 05; 22(8). PMID: 27376576    Free PMC article.
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Oncogene, 2017 Feb 07; 36(25). PMID: 28166193    Free PMC article.
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Cell Metab, 2018 Oct 09; 29(1). PMID: 30293773    Free PMC article.
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Cancer Cell, 2014 Jul 09; 26(1). PMID: 25002027    Free PMC article.
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Semin Cancer Biol, 2014 Feb 04; 25. PMID: 24486645
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Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.
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Nature, 2016 Aug 12; 536(7617). PMID: 27509858    Free PMC article.
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Cell, 2015 Sep 01; 162(6). PMID: 26321679    Free PMC article.
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Nat Med, 2018 Jul 11; 24(8). PMID: 29988129
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Cancer Res, 2015 May 17; 75(14). PMID: 25979873    Free PMC article.
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Cell, 2018 Feb 06; 172(4). PMID: 29395328
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Nat Genet, 2015 Feb 24; 47(4). PMID: 25706628
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Top Notch Targeting Strategies in Cancer: A Detailed Overview of Recent Insights and Current Perspectives.
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The Tumor Suppressor PTEN as Molecular Switch Node Regulating Cell Metabolism and Autophagy: Implications in Immune System and Tumor Microenvironment.
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Extracellular Vesicle-Based Communication May Contribute to the Co-Evolution of Cancer Stem Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Anti-Cancer Therapy.
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Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2020 Oct 31; 5(1). PMID: 33122631    Free PMC article.
Stiff stroma increases breast cancer risk by inducing the oncogene ZNF217.
Jason J Northey, Alexander S Barrett, +19 authors, Valerie M Weaver.
J Clin Invest, 2020 Jul 30; 130(11). PMID: 32721948    Free PMC article.
New Insights into Therapy-Induced Progression of Cancer.
Polina V Shnaider, Olga M Ivanova, +6 authors, Victoria O Shender.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 30; 21(21). PMID: 33114182    Free PMC article.
Nicotinamide combined with gemcitabine is an immunomodulatory therapy that restrains pancreatic cancer in mice.
Benson Chellakkan Selvanesan, Kiran Meena, +4 authors, Claudia Gravekamp.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Nov 07; 8(2). PMID: 33154149    Free PMC article.
CD63+ Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Confer Tamoxifen Resistance to Breast Cancer Cells through Exosomal miR-22.
Yuan Gao, Xiaoju Li, +12 authors, Cun Zhang.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2020 Nov 12; 7(21). PMID: 33173749    Free PMC article.
The actin modulator hMENA regulates GAS6-AXL axis and pro-tumor cancer/stromal cell cooperation.
Roberta Melchionna, Sheila Spada, +16 authors, Paola Nisticò.
EMBO Rep, 2020 Sep 11; 21(11). PMID: 32909687    Free PMC article.
High-Throughput Tumor-on-a-Chip Platform to Study Tumor-Stroma Interactions and Drug Pharmacokinetics.
Chun-Wei Chi, Yeh-Hsing Lao, +6 authors, Sihong Wang.
Adv Healthc Mater, 2020 Sep 24; 9(21). PMID: 32965088    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-6: Molecule in the Intersection of Cancer, Ageing and COVID-19.
Jan Brábek, Milan Jakubek, +8 authors, Karel Smetana.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 30; 21(21). PMID: 33114676    Free PMC article.
Expression of EMT-Related Genes in Hybrid E/M Colorectal Cancer Cells Determines Fibroblast Activation and Collagen Remodeling.
Irina Druzhkova, Marina Shirmanova, +11 authors, Eugene Sverdlov.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 05; 21(21). PMID: 33143259    Free PMC article.
Extracellular Vesicles in Head and Neck Cancer: A Potential New Trend in Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment.
Xinyu Qu, Jing-Woei Li, Jason Chan, Katie Meehan.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 08; 21(21). PMID: 33158181    Free PMC article.
Depleting RhoA/Stress Fiber-Organized Fibronectin Matrices on Tumor Cells Non-Autonomously Aggravates Fibroblast-Driven Tumor Cell Growth.
Li-Tzu Huang, Chen-Lung Tsai, +4 authors, Hung-Chi Cheng.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 08; 21(21). PMID: 33158289    Free PMC article.
Cancer stem cells and their niche in the progression of squamous cell carcinoma.
Naoki Oshimori.
Cancer Sci, 2020 Sep 06; 111(11). PMID: 32888236    Free PMC article.
Therapy-Induced Modulation of the Tumor Microenvironment: New Opportunities for Cancer Therapies.
Sergi Benavente, Almudena Sánchez-García, +2 authors, Juan Lorente.
Front Oncol, 2020 Nov 17; 10. PMID: 33194719    Free PMC article.
SMARCD3 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in CAFs.
Ming Jiang, Huiju Wang, Hong Chen, Yong Han.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Oct 31; 12(20). PMID: 33125346    Free PMC article.
Comments on Boddy et al. 2020: Available data suggest positive relationship between placental invasion and malignancy.
Günter P Wagner, Kshitiz, Andre Levchenko.
Evol Med Public Health, 2020 Nov 21; 2020(1). PMID: 33214901    Free PMC article.
Engineering the Extracellular Matrix to Model the Evolving Tumor Microenvironment.
Hannah M Micek, Mike R Visetsouk, Kristyn S Masters, Pamela K Kreeger.
iScience, 2020 Nov 24; 23(11). PMID: 33225247    Free PMC article.
CD38 in cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes pro-tumoral activity.
Bar Ben Baruch, Einav Mantsur, +3 authors, Reuven Stein.
Lab Invest, 2020 Jul 03; 100(12). PMID: 32612286    Free PMC article.
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Understanding Their Heterogeneity.
Kévin Louault, Rong-Rong Li, Yves A DeClerck.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 30; 12(11). PMID: 33114328    Free PMC article.
Modulation of Immune Infiltration of Ovarian Cancer Tumor Microenvironment by Specific Subpopulations of Fibroblasts.
Ji Wang, Frank H C Cheng, +3 authors, Anirban K Mitra.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 04; 12(11). PMID: 33138184    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Interactions between FAP+ Fibroblasts and CD8a+ T Cells in Colon Cancer.
Mercedes Herrera, Artur Mezheyeuski, +8 authors, Arne Östman.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 07; 12(11). PMID: 33153037    Free PMC article.
Simultaneous Tumor and Stroma Targeting by Oncolytic Viruses.
Anne Everts, Melissa Bergeman, Grant McFadden, Vera Kemp.
Biomedicines, 2020 Nov 11; 8(11). PMID: 33167307    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Unravels Heterogeneity of the Stromal Niche in Cutaneous Melanoma Heterogeneous Spheroids.
Jiří Novotný, Karolína Strnadová, +7 authors, Lukáš Lacina.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 14; 12(11). PMID: 33182777    Free PMC article.
Targets (Metabolic Mediators) of Therapeutic Importance in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Vikrant Rai, Swati Agrawal.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 18; 21(22). PMID: 33198082    Free PMC article.
Dysregulation of Transcription Factor Activity During Formation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Przemysław Kapusta, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, +4 authors, Michał T Seweryn.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 25; 21(22). PMID: 33228208    Free PMC article.
Technical Advancements for Studying Immune Regulation of Disseminated Dormant Cancer Cells.
Luigi Ombrato, Marco Montagner.
Front Oncol, 2020 Dec 01; 10. PMID: 33251149    Free PMC article.
CXCR4 inhibition in human pancreatic and colorectal cancers induces an integrated immune response.
Daniele Biasci, Martin Smoragiewicz, +23 authors, Duncan I Jodrell.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020 Nov 01; 117(46). PMID: 33127761    Free PMC article.
Novel miRNA Targets and Therapies in the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Microenvironment: An Emerging Hope for a Challenging Disease.
Amal Qattan.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Dec 02; 21(23). PMID: 33255471    Free PMC article.
Heat Shock Factor 1-dependent extracellular matrix remodeling mediates the transition from chronic intestinal inflammation to colon cancer.
Oshrat Levi-Galibov, Hagar Lavon, +17 authors, Ruth Scherz-Shouval.
Nat Commun, 2020 Dec 09; 11(1). PMID: 33288768    Free PMC article.
Biomarkers for cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Chencheng Han, Tongyan Liu, Rong Yin.
Biomark Res, 2020 Dec 10; 8(1). PMID: 33292666    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Derived Myeloid Cell Chemoattractants and T Cell Exclusion in Pancreatic Cancer.
Robert H Vonderheide, Adham S Bear.
Front Immunol, 2020 Dec 12; 11. PMID: 33304355    Free PMC article.
Nanomedicines modulating tumor immunosuppressive cells to enhance cancer immunotherapy.
Yuefei Zhu, Xiangrong Yu, +2 authors, Zhiqing Pang.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2020 Dec 12; 10(11). PMID: 33304779    Free PMC article.
Nanomedicine-based drug delivery towards tumor biological and immunological microenvironment.
Jin Li, Diane J Burgess.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2020 Dec 12; 10(11). PMID: 33304781    Free PMC article.
Characterization and oncolytic virus targeting of FAP-expressing tumor-associated pericytes in glioblastoma.
Ming Li, Guoping Li, +8 authors, Hiroaki Wakimoto.
Acta Neuropathol Commun, 2020 Dec 15; 8(1). PMID: 33308315    Free PMC article.
A novel workflow for cancer blood biomarker identification.
Xiang Wang, Zhiqiang Qiu, +4 authors, Hongwei Zhang.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Dec 15; 8(21). PMID: 33313175    Free PMC article.
A narrative review of the role of fibroblasts in the growth and development of neurogenic tumors.
Cheng-Jiang Wei, Yi-Hui Gu, +8 authors, Zhi-Chao Wang.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Dec 15; 8(21). PMID: 33313207    Free PMC article.
The mesenchymal context in inflammation, immunity and cancer.
Vasiliki Koliaraki, Alejandro Prados, Marietta Armaka, George Kollias.
Nat Immunol, 2020 Aug 05; 21(9). PMID: 32747813
Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Density, Prognostic Characteristics, and Recurrence in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.
Alexander M Knops, Andrew South, +5 authors, Joseph M Curry.
Front Oncol, 2020 Dec 18; 10. PMID: 33330034    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Obesity-Related Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Metabolism in Cancer-Associated Host Cells.
Ying Ye, Xiaoting Sun, Yongtian Lu.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Dec 18; 8. PMID: 33330490    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-34 Enhances the Tumor Promoting Function of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Eleonora Franzè, Antonio Di Grazia, +3 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 03; 12(12). PMID: 33260828    Free PMC article.
Three-Dimensional Spheroids as In Vitro Preclinical Models for Cancer Research.
Bárbara Pinto, Ana C Henriques, Patrícia M A Silva, Hassan Bousbaa.
Pharmaceutics, 2020 Dec 10; 12(12). PMID: 33291351    Free PMC article.
TGF-β Mediated Immune Evasion in Cancer-Spotlight on Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Parisa Ghahremanifard, Ayan Chanda, Shirin Bonni, Pinaki Bose.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 10; 12(12). PMID: 33291370    Free PMC article.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells interact with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to promote cancer progression and drug resistance.
Chuanxia Liu, Sandrine Billet, +7 authors, Neil A Bhowmick.
Neoplasia, 2020 Dec 15; 23(1). PMID: 33310208    Free PMC article.
Tumour Stroma Ratio Assessment Using Digital Image Analysis Predicts Survival in Triple Negative and Luminal Breast Cancer.
Ewan Ka Millar, Lois H Browne, +4 authors, Peter H Graham.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 17; 12(12). PMID: 33322174    Free PMC article.
Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling in Fibrotic Diseases and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Xueke Shi, Christian D Young, Hongmei Zhou, Xiaojing Wang.
Biomolecules, 2020 Dec 17; 10(12). PMID: 33322749    Free PMC article.
Cellular Heterogeneity of Pancreatic Stellate Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Pancreatic Cancer.
Yoshiaki Sunami, Johanna Häußler, Jörg Kleeff.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 19; 12(12). PMID: 33333727    Free PMC article.
Murine- and Human-Derived Autologous Organoid/Immune Cell Co-Cultures as Pre-Clinical Models of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Loryn Holokai, Jayati Chakrabarti, +15 authors, Yana Zavros.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 23; 12(12). PMID: 33348809    Free PMC article.
Extracellular Vesicles: Messengers of p53 in Tumor-Stroma Communication and Cancer Metastasis.
Evangelos Pavlakis, Michelle Neumann, Thorsten Stiewe.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Dec 23; 21(24). PMID: 33348923    Free PMC article.
Glycosaminoglycan Modification of Decorin Depends on MMP14 Activity and Regulates Collagen Assembly.
Alexes C Daquinag, Zhanguo Gao, +2 authors, Mikhail G Kolonin.
Cells, 2020 Dec 16; 9(12). PMID: 33317052    Free PMC article.
Stroma Transcriptomic and Proteomic Profile of Prostate Cancer Metastasis Xenograft Models Reveals Prognostic Value of Stroma Signatures.
Sofia Karkampouna, Maria R De Filippo, +7 authors, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 19; 12(12). PMID: 33334054    Free PMC article.
TGFβ-Directed Therapeutics: 2020.
Beverly A Teicher.
Pharmacol Ther, 2020 Aug 25; 217. PMID: 32835827    Free PMC article.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts and their influence on tumor immunity and immunotherapy.
Richard Lee Barrett, Ellen Puré.
Elife, 2020 Dec 29; 9. PMID: 33370234    Free PMC article.
Targeting Autophagy to Treat Cancer: Challenges and Opportunities.
Junghyun Lim, Aditya Murthy.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Jan 01; 11. PMID: 33381037    Free PMC article.
Role of inflammatory microenvironment: potential implications for improved breast cancer nano-targeted therapy.
Meng Lan, Wenping Lu, +4 authors, Yu Cai.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2021 Jan 03; 78(5). PMID: 33386887
Identification of a novel therapeutic candidate, NRK, in primary cancer-associated fibroblasts of lung adenocarcinoma microenvironment.
Tongtong Wei, Jinjing Song, +6 authors, Jie Yang.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2021 Jan 03; 147(4). PMID: 33387038
The fibrotic and immune microenvironments as targetable drivers of metastasis.
Luke Boulter, Esme Bullock, Zeanap Mabruk, Valerie G Brunton.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Nov 27; 124(1). PMID: 33239677    Free PMC article.
H3K27 acetylation activated-COL6A1 promotes osteosarcoma lung metastasis by repressing STAT1 and activating pulmonary cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Ying Zhang, Zhaoyong Liu, +6 authors, Jing-Ping Yun.
Theranostics, 2021 Jan 05; 11(3). PMID: 33391546    Free PMC article.
Extracellular Citrate Fuels Cancer Cell Metabolism and Growth.
Sebastian Haferkamp, Konstantin Drexler, +8 authors, Maria E Mycielska.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Jan 12; 8. PMID: 33425906    Free PMC article.
Tumor Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: A Synergistic Crosstalk to Promote Thyroid Cancer.
Laura Fozzatti, Sheue-Yann Cheng.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul), 2020 Nov 10; 35(4). PMID: 33161690    Free PMC article.
Combined inhibition of Ref-1 and STAT3 leads to synergistic tumour inhibition in multiple cancers using 3D and in vivo tumour co-culture models.
Rachel A Caston, Fenil Shah, +14 authors, Melissa L Fishel.
J Cell Mol Med, 2020 Dec 05; 25(2). PMID: 33274592    Free PMC article.
Fibroblast Subsets in Intestinal Homeostasis, Carcinogenesis, Tumor Progression, and Metastasis.
Hao Dang, Tom J Harryvan, Lukas J A C Hawinkels.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 13; 13(2). PMID: 33430285    Free PMC article.
Radiation Response in the Tumour Microenvironment: Predictive Biomarkers and Future Perspectives.
Niall M Byrne, Prajakta Tambe, Jonathan A Coulter.
J Pers Med, 2021 Jan 21; 11(1). PMID: 33467153    Free PMC article.
Molecular Changes Underlying Hypertrophic Scarring Following Burns Involve Specific Deregulations at All Wound Healing Stages (Inflammation, Proliferation and Maturation).
Matúš Čoma, Lucia Fröhlichová, +8 authors, Peter Gál.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jan 23; 22(2). PMID: 33477421    Free PMC article.
The androgen receptor/filamin A complex as a target in prostate cancer microenvironment.
Marzia Di Donato, Alice Zamagni, +10 authors, Gabriella Castoria.
Cell Death Dis, 2021 Jan 28; 12(1). PMID: 33500395    Free PMC article.
Host-microbiota maladaptation in colorectal cancer.
Alina Janney, Fiona Powrie, Elizabeth H Mann.
Nature, 2020 Sep 25; 585(7826). PMID: 32968260
Netrin G1 Promotes Pancreatic Tumorigenesis through Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Driven Nutritional Support and Immunosuppression.
Ralph Francescone, Débora Barbosa Vendramini-Costa, +26 authors, Edna Cukierman.
Cancer Discov, 2020 Nov 01; 11(2). PMID: 33127842    Free PMC article.
Stromal SOX2 Upregulation Promotes Tumorigenesis through the Generation of a SFRP1/2-Expressing Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Population.
Hiroaki Kasashima, Angeles Duran, +13 authors, Jorge Moscat.
Dev Cell, 2020 Nov 19; 56(1). PMID: 33207226    Free PMC article.
Identification of the Different Gene Expression Characteristics from Liver Cirrhosis to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Single-Cell Sequencing Analyses.
Xin Xing, Jian Song.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Feb 04; 2021. PMID: 33532508    Free PMC article.
Tumor Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: An Updated Metabolic Perspective.
Géraldine Gentric, Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 28; 13(3). PMID: 33499022    Free PMC article.
TGF-β in Cancer: Metabolic Driver of the Tolerogenic Crosstalk in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Roberta Angioni, Ricardo Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonella Viola, Barbara Molon.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 28; 13(3). PMID: 33499083    Free PMC article.
Radiotherapy-Immunotherapy Combination: How Will We Bridge the Gap Between Pre-Clinical Promise and Effective Clinical Delivery?
Erminia Romano, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy M Illidge.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 04; 13(3). PMID: 33530329    Free PMC article.
Determinants and Functions of CAFs Secretome During Cancer Progression and Therapy.
Jenniffer Linares, Juan A Marín-Jiménez, Jordi Badia-Ramentol, Alexandre Calon.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Feb 09; 8. PMID: 33553157    Free PMC article.
Modeling the tumor immune microenvironment for drug discovery using 3D culture.
Joanna Y Lee, Ovijit Chaudhuri.
APL Bioeng, 2021 Feb 11; 5(1). PMID: 33564739    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral heterogeneity in cancer progression and response to immunotherapy.
Ilio Vitale, Efrat Shema, Sherene Loi, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Nat Med, 2021 Feb 13; 27(2). PMID: 33574607
Diversity and Biology of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Giulia Biffi, David A Tuveson.
Physiol Rev, 2020 May 30; 101(1). PMID: 32466724    Free PMC article.
Simultaneously targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts and angiogenic vessel as a treatment for TNBC.
Malvika Sharma, Ravi Chakra Turaga, +7 authors, Zhi-Ren Liu.
J Exp Med, 2021 Feb 10; 218(4). PMID: 33561195    Free PMC article.
Characterising cancer-associated fibroblast heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Andrew F Irvine, Sara Waise, +2 authors, Gareth J Thomas.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 14; 11(1). PMID: 33580106    Free PMC article.
The Adhesome Network: Key Components Shaping the Tumour Stroma.
Pinelopi A Nikolopoulou, Maria A Koufaki, Vassiliki Kostourou.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 13; 13(3). PMID: 33573141    Free PMC article.
Irradiated Tumor Fibroblasts Avoid Immune Recognition and Retain Immunosuppressive Functions Over Natural Killer Cells.
Nannan Yang, Kristin Lode, +3 authors, Turid Hellevik.
Front Immunol, 2021 Feb 16; 11. PMID: 33584669    Free PMC article.
Progress towards non-small-cell lung cancer models that represent clinical evolutionary trajectories.
Robert E Hynds, Kristopher K Frese, +3 authors, Charles Swanton.
Open Biol, 2021 Jan 14; 11(1). PMID: 33435818    Free PMC article.
TGF-β1-mediated transition of resident fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes cancer metastasis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Hyunho Yoon, Chih-Min Tang, +4 authors, Jason K Sicklick.
Oncogenesis, 2021 Feb 12; 10(2). PMID: 33568624    Free PMC article.
Palladin isoforms 3 and 4 regulate cancer-associated fibroblast pro-tumor functions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
J I Alexander, D B Vendramini-Costa, +7 authors, E Cukierman.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 17; 11(1). PMID: 33589694    Free PMC article.
Cx43 phosphorylation sites regulate pancreatic cancer metastasis.
Joell L Solan, Sunil R Hingorani, Paul D Lampe.
Oncogene, 2021 Feb 20; 40(10). PMID: 33603164
Presence of myxoid stromal change and fibrotic focus in pathological examination are prognostic factors of triple-negative breast cancer: Results from a retrospective single-center study.
Hirotsugu Yanai, Katsuhiro Yoshikawa, +3 authors, Tomoharu Sugie.
PLoS One, 2021 Feb 12; 16(2). PMID: 33571189    Free PMC article.
Emerging paradigms in metastasis research.
Ashik Ahmed Abdul Pari, Mahak Singhal, Hellmut G Augustin.
J Exp Med, 2021 Feb 19; 218(1). PMID: 33601416    Free PMC article.
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Suppress Cancer Development: The Other Side of the Coin.
Zhanhuai Wang, Qi Yang, +4 authors, Wei Yu.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Feb 23; 9. PMID: 33614646    Free PMC article.
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into heterogeneous cancer-associated fibroblasts in a stroma-rich xenograft model.
Yoshihiro Miyazaki, Tatsuya Oda, +7 authors, Yasuyuki S Kida.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 27; 11(1). PMID: 33633222    Free PMC article.
Identification of a Gene Signature for Renal Cell Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Mediating Cancer Progression and Affecting Prognosis.
Bitian Liu, Xiaonan Chen, +2 authors, Shen Pan.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Feb 27; 8. PMID: 33634098    Free PMC article.
Mapping the Metabolic Networks of Tumor Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Jessica Karta, Ysaline Bossicard, +2 authors, Elisabeth Letellier.
Cells, 2021 Feb 06; 10(2). PMID: 33540679    Free PMC article.
Evolved Resistance to Placental Invasion Secondarily Confers Increased Survival in Melanoma Patients.
Yasir Suhail, Junaid Afzal, Kshitiz.
J Clin Med, 2021 Feb 11; 10(4). PMID: 33562461    Free PMC article.
Selective Targeting of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts by Engineered H-Ferritin Nanocages Loaded with Navitoclax.
Leopoldo Sitia, Arianna Bonizzi, +12 authors, Fabio Corsi.
Cells, 2021 Feb 11; 10(2). PMID: 33562504    Free PMC article.
Prognostic and predictive impact of stroma cells defined by PDGFRb expression in early breast cancer: results from the randomized SweBCG91RT trial.
Carina Strell, Axel Stenmark Tullberg, +6 authors, Per Karlsson.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Mar 05; 187(1). PMID: 33661437
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Positively Correlate with Dedifferentiation and Aggressiveness of Thyroid Cancer.
Shishuai Wen, Ning Qu, +7 authors, Qinghai Ji.
Onco Targets Ther, 2021 Mar 04; 14. PMID: 33654411    Free PMC article.
The cancer cell secretome drives cooperative manipulation of the tumour microenvironment to accelerate tumourigenesis.
Shona Ritchie, Daniel A Reed, Brooke A Pereira, Paul Timpson.
Fac Rev, 2021 Mar 05; 10. PMID: 33659922    Free PMC article.
Tumor Immune Evasion Induced by Dysregulation of Erythroid Progenitor Cells Development.
Tomasz M Grzywa, Magdalena Justyniarska, Dominika Nowis, Jakub Golab.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 13(4). PMID: 33669537    Free PMC article.
p62-Induced Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Activation via the Nrf2-ATF6 Pathway Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.
Ji In Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, +8 authors, Bo Yeon Kim.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 13(4). PMID: 33670717    Free PMC article.
In Vitro Suppression of T Cell Proliferation Is a Conserved Function of Primary and Immortalized Human Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Mohammed H Abuwarwar, Alfie T Baker, +4 authors, Anne L Fletcher.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Mar 07; 22(4). PMID: 33673197    Free PMC article.
Trials and tribulations of pancreatic cancer immunotherapy.
Daniel R Principe, Murray Korc, +2 authors, Ajay Rana.
Cancer Lett, 2021 Feb 08; 504. PMID: 33549709    Free PMC article.
Exosomal proteins: Key players mediating pre‑metastatic niche formation and clinical implications (Review).
Mei Wang, Xinxin Zhao, +4 authors, Wanjun Yu.
Int J Oncol, 2021 Mar 03; 58(4). PMID: 33649844    Free PMC article.
Potential Roles of Acute Phase Proteins in Cancer: Why Do Cancer Cells Produce or Take Up Exogenous Acute Phase Protein Alpha1-Antitrypsin?
Sabina Janciauskiene, Sabine Wrenger, +3 authors, Tobias Welte.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 09; 11. PMID: 33680966    Free PMC article.
Research advances of secretory proteins in malignant tumors.
Na Zhang, Jiajie Hao, Yan Cai, Mingrong Wang.
Chin J Cancer Res, 2021 Mar 13; 33(1). PMID: 33707934    Free PMC article.
New Insights Into the Cancer-Microbiome-Immune Axis: Decrypting a Decade of Discoveries.
Tejeshwar Jain, Prateek Sharma, +2 authors, Vikas Dudeja.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 13; 12. PMID: 33708214    Free PMC article.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts: overview, progress, challenges, and directions.
Qinrong Ping, Ruping Yan, +6 authors, Ruhong Li.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2021 Mar 14;. PMID: 33712707
POU1F1 transcription factor induces metabolic reprogramming and breast cancer progression via LDHA regulation.
Anxo Martínez-Ordoñez, Samuel Seoane, +9 authors, Román Perez-Fernandez.
Oncogene, 2021 Mar 15; 40(15). PMID: 33714987
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts as a Common Orchestrator of Therapy Resistance in Lung and Pancreatic Cancer.
Andreas Domen, Delphine Quatannens, +12 authors, Hans Prenen.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 13(5). PMID: 33673405    Free PMC article.
The Role of EBV-Encoded LMP1 in the NPC Tumor Microenvironment: From Function to Therapy.
Angela Kwok-Fung Lo, Christopher W Dawson, +2 authors, Lawrence S Young.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 16; 11. PMID: 33718235    Free PMC article.
Understanding breast cancer heterogeneity through non-genetic heterogeneity.
Neda Barzgar Barough, Fakhrosadat Sajjadian, +2 authors, Kobra Velaei.
Breast Cancer, 2021 Mar 17;. PMID: 33723745
Leveraging microenvironmental synthetic lethalities to treat cancer.
Kevin J Metcalf, Alaa Alazzeh, Zena Werb, Valerie M Weaver.
J Clin Invest, 2021 Mar 16; 131(6). PMID: 33720045    Free PMC article.
Fibronectin as a multiregulatory molecule crucial in tumor matrisome: from structural and functional features to clinical practice in oncology.
Sheila Spada, Annalisa Tocci, Francesca Di Modugno, Paola Nisticò.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Mar 19; 40(1). PMID: 33731188    Free PMC article.
Establishment and characterization of HXWMF-1: the first mouse fibroblastic tumor cell line derived from leukemia-associated fibroblasts.
Yuanyuan Li, Ling Gu.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Mar 21; 21(1). PMID: 33740980    Free PMC article.
Harnessing metabolic dependencies in pancreatic cancers.
Joel Encarnación-Rosado, Alec C Kimmelman.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Mar 21;. PMID: 33742165
Aberrant Expression of microRNA Clusters in Head and Neck Cancer Development and Progression: Current and Future Translational Impacts.
Li-Jie Li, Wei-Min Chang, Michael Hsiao.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 14(3). PMID: 33673471    Free PMC article.
Identification of extracellular matrix proteins secreted by human dermal fibroblasts cultured in 3D electrospun scaffolds.
Atena Malakpour-Permlid, Irina Buzzi, +2 authors, Stina Oredsson.
Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 25; 11(1). PMID: 33758206    Free PMC article.
Fibroblasts in cancer dormancy: foe or friend?
Li Dai, Mao Li, +3 authors, Xin-Hua Liang.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Mar 28; 21(1). PMID: 33771156    Free PMC article.
Hedgehog signaling in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment.
Jinghui Zhang, Jiajun Fan, +5 authors, Kai Yin.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2021 Mar 30; 11(3). PMID: 33777671    Free PMC article.
Dynamic PET/CT Imaging of 68Ga-FAPI-04 in Chinese Subjects.
Shuailiang Wang, Xin Zhou, +6 authors, Zhi Yang.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 30; 11. PMID: 33777814    Free PMC article.
The matrix in cancer.
Thomas R Cox.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2021 Feb 17; 21(4). PMID: 33589810
Stromal-immune cell crosstalk fundamentally alters the lung microenvironment following tissue insult.
Julie C Worrell, Megan K L MacLeod.
Immunology, 2021 Feb 09;. PMID: 33556186    Free PMC article.
AKT3 Is a Novel Regulator of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Hideyuki Takahashi, Susumu Rokudai, +4 authors, Kazuaki Chikamatsu.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33799788    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Arbitrator in Patients' Outcome.
Cristina Galindo-Pumariño, Manuel Collado, Mercedes Herrera, Cristina Peña.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33800796    Free PMC article.
Cancer-Associated Fibroblast-Induced Resistance to Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers.
In-Hye Ham, Dagyeong Lee, Hoon Hur.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33803229    Free PMC article.
Hydrogel Models with Stiffness Gradients for Interrogating Pancreatic Cancer Cell Fate.
Chun-Yi Chang, Chien-Chi Lin.
Bioengineering (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 8(3). PMID: 33805737    Free PMC article.
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts as Players in Cancer Development and Progression and Their Role in Targeted Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy.
Sofia Koustoulidou, Mark W H Hoorens, +4 authors, Marion de Jong.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33806468    Free PMC article.
Inhibition of Hedgehog Signaling Alters Fibroblast Composition in Pancreatic Cancer.
Nina G Steele, Giulia Biffi, +33 authors, Marina Pasca di Magliano.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Jan 27; 27(7). PMID: 33495315    Free PMC article.
Hot and Cold Tumors: Is Endoglin (CD105) a Potential Target for Vessel Normalization?
Claudia Ollauri-Ibáñez, Blanca Ayuso-Íñigo, Miguel Pericacho.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(7). PMID: 33800564    Free PMC article.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor Design and Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer Treatment.
Katarzyna M Terlikowska, Bożena Dobrzycka, Sławomir J Terlikowski.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 04; 22(7). PMID: 33800608    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer: Toward Identification of Novel Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy Development.
Hisham F Bahmad, Mohammad Jalloul, +5 authors, Wassim Abou-Kheir.
Front Genet, 2021 Apr 13; 12. PMID: 33841508    Free PMC article.
Stromal NRG1 in luminal breast cancer defines pro-fibrotic and migratory cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Mireia Berdiel-Acer, Ana Maia, +13 authors, Stefan Wiemann.
Oncogene, 2021 Mar 12; 40(15). PMID: 33692466
Progression of prostate carcinoma is promoted by adipose stromal cell-secreted CXCL12 signaling in prostate epithelium.
Fei Su, Alexes C Daquinag, +5 authors, Mikhail G Kolonin.
NPJ Precis Oncol, 2021 Mar 24; 5(1). PMID: 33753872    Free PMC article.
Turning cold tumors into hot tumors by improving T-cell infiltration.
Yuan-Tong Liu, Zhi-Jun Sun.
Theranostics, 2021 Apr 17; 11(11). PMID: 33859752    Free PMC article.
Suppression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth and metastasis by fibrillar collagens produced selectively by tumor cells.
Chenxi Tian, Ying Huang, +5 authors, Richard O Hynes.
Nat Commun, 2021 Apr 22; 12(1). PMID: 33879793
Centrosome amplification mediates small extracellular vesicle secretion via lysosome disruption.
Sophie D Adams, Judit Csere, +9 authors, Susana A Godinho.
Curr Biol, 2021 Feb 17; 31(7). PMID: 33592190    Free PMC article.
Combining Gold Nanoparticles with Other Radiosensitizing Agents for Unlocking the Full Potential of Cancer Radiotherapy.
Abdulaziz Alhussan, Ece Pinar Demirci Bozdoğan, Devika B Chithrani.
Pharmaceutics, 2021 Apr 04; 13(4). PMID: 33805917    Free PMC article.
Current Status and Future Perspectives of Androgen Receptor Inhibition Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Review.
Tae Jin Kim, Young Hwa Lee, Kyo Chul Koo.
Biomolecules, 2021 Apr 04; 11(4). PMID: 33805919    Free PMC article.
An expanded universe of cancer targets.
William C Hahn, Joel S Bader, +21 authors, Cancer Target Discovery and Development Network.
Cell, 2021 Mar 06; 184(5). PMID: 33667368    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic cancer vaccines.
Mansi Saxena, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Cornelis J M Melief, Nina Bhardwaj.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2021 Apr 29;. PMID: 33907315