. 2020 May; 12(5):1172.
doi: 10.3390/cancers12051172.

Inducing Angiogenesis, a Key Step in Cancer Vascularization, and Treatment Approaches

Harman Saman 1 Syed Shadab Raza 2 Shahab Uddin 3 Kakil Rasul 4 
  • PMID: 32384792
  •     118 References
  •     10 citations


Angiogenesis is a term that describes the formation of new blood and lymphatic vessels from a pre-existing vasculature. This allows tumour cells to acquire sustenance in the form of nutrients and oxygen and the ability to evacuate metabolic waste. As one of the hallmarks of cancer, angiogenesis has been studied extensively in animal and human models to enable better understanding of cancer biology and the development of new anti-cancer treatments. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the process of tumour genesis, because solid tumour need a blood supply if they are to grow beyond a few millimeters in size. On the other hand, there is growing evidence that some solid tumour exploit existing normal blood supply and do not require a new vessel formation to grow and to undergo metastasis. This review of the literature will present the current understanding of this intricate process and the latest advances in the use of angiogenesis-targeting therapies in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: VEGF; angiogenesis; anticancer; cancer.

Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 in maintenance of integrity of endothelial cell lining during tumor angiogenesis.
H Kubo, T Fujiwara, +9 authors, S I Nishikawa.
Blood, 2000 Jul 11; 96(2). PMID: 10887117
Double antiangiogenic protein, DAAP, targeting VEGF-A and angiopoietins in tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and vascular leakage.
Young Jun Koh, Hak-Zoo Kim, +15 authors, Gou Young Koh.
Cancer Cell, 2010 Aug 17; 18(2). PMID: 20708158
Phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of recombinant human anti-vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with advanced cancer.
M S Gordon, K Margolin, +6 authors, D Adelman.
J Clin Oncol, 2001 Feb 07; 19(3). PMID: 11157038
Highly Cited.
An amino-bisphosphonate targets MMP-9-expressing macrophages and angiogenesis to impair cervical carcinogenesis.
Enrico Giraudo, Masahiro Inoue, Douglas Hanahan.
J Clin Invest, 2004 Sep 03; 114(5). PMID: 15343380    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Anti-VEGF therapies in the clinic.
Kellen L Meadows, Herbert I Hurwitz.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med, 2012 Oct 03; 2(10). PMID: 23028128    Free PMC article.
Pathology of small hepatocellular carcinoma. A proposal for a new gross classification.
T Kanai, S Hirohashi, +7 authors, N Moriyama.
Cancer, 1987 Aug 15; 60(4). PMID: 2439190
Highly Cited.
Mast cells and macrophages exert beneficial and detrimental effects on tumor progression and angiogenesis.
Domenico Ribatti.
Immunol Lett, 2013 May 21; 152(2). PMID: 23685256
The Challenges of Recombinant Endostatin in Clinical Application: Focus on the Different Expression Systems and Molecular Bioengineering.
Abbas Mohajeri, Sarvin Sanaei, +3 authors, Nosratollah Zarghami.
Adv Pharm Bull, 2017 May 17; 7(1). PMID: 28507934    Free PMC article.
Downregulation of endothelial microRNA-200b supports cutaneous wound angiogenesis by desilencing GATA binding protein 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2.
Yuk Cheung Chan, Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Chandan K Sen.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2012 Apr 14; 32(6). PMID: 22499991    Free PMC article.
Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on multistage carcinogenesis in mice.
G Bergers, K Javaherian, +2 authors, D Hanahan.
Science, 1999 Apr 30; 284(5415). PMID: 10221914
Highly Cited.
Endostatin: an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth.
M S O'Reilly, T Boehm, +7 authors, J Folkman.
Cell, 1997 Jan 24; 88(2). PMID: 9008168
Highly Cited.
Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by p53-induced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha.
R Ravi, B Mookerjee, +7 authors, A Bedi.
Genes Dev, 2000 Jan 20; 14(1). PMID: 10640274    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Antiangiogenic therapy of experimental cancer does not induce acquired drug resistance.
T Boehm, J Folkman, T Browder, M S O'Reilly.
Nature, 1997 Dec 06; 390(6658). PMID: 9389480
Highly Cited.
Exploring the Benefit/Risk Associated with Antiangiogenic Agents for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.
Razelle Kurzrock, David J Stewart.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Dec 13; 23(5). PMID: 27940520
Tie2 identifies a hematopoietic lineage of proangiogenic monocytes required for tumor vessel formation and a mesenchymal population of pericyte progenitors.
Michele De Palma, Mary Anna Venneri, +4 authors, Luigi Naldini.
Cancer Cell, 2005 Sep 20; 8(3). PMID: 16169466
Highly Cited.
Regulation of angiogenesis through a microRNA (miR-130a) that down-regulates antiangiogenic homeobox genes GAX and HOXA5.
Yun Chen, David H Gorski.
Blood, 2007 Oct 25; 111(3). PMID: 17957028    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Role of myeloid cells in vascular endothelial growth factor-independent tumor angiogenesis.
Napoleone Ferrara.
Curr Opin Hematol, 2010 Mar 24; 17(3). PMID: 20308892
Permanent occlusion of feeding arteries and draining veins in solid mouse tumors by vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with Tookad.
Noa Madar-Balakirski, Catherine Tempel-Brami, +4 authors, Yoram Salomon.
PLoS One, 2010 Apr 28; 5(4). PMID: 20421983    Free PMC article.
Clinical translation of ferumoxytol-based vessel size imaging (VSI): Feasibility in a phase I oncology clinical trial population.
Jill Fredrickson, Natalie J Serkova, +7 authors, Alex de Crespigny.
Magn Reson Med, 2016 Feb 27; 77(2). PMID: 26918893    Free PMC article.
Regulation of angiogenesis by hypoxia: role of the HIF system.
Christopher W Pugh, Peter J Ratcliffe.
Nat Med, 2003 Jun 05; 9(6). PMID: 12778166
Highly Cited. Review.
Bevacizumab in Colorectal Cancer: Current Role in Treatment and the Potential of Biosimilars.
Lee S Rosen, Ira A Jacobs, Ronald L Burkes.
Target Oncol, 2017 Aug 13; 12(5). PMID: 28801849    Free PMC article.
Lung cancer cellular apoptosis induced by recombinant human endostatin gold nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy.
Haiqing Luo, Meng Xu, +3 authors, Haoran Zhang.
Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015 Aug 27; 8(6). PMID: 26309527    Free PMC article.
Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Herbert Hurwitz, Louis Fehrenbacher, +12 authors, Fairooz Kabbinavar.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Jun 04; 350(23). PMID: 15175435
Highly Cited.
Everolimus and PTK/ZK show synergistic growth inhibition in the orthotopic BL16/BL6 murine melanoma model.
Terence O'Reilly, Heidi A Lane, +4 authors, Paul M J McSheehy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2010 Jun 01; 67(1). PMID: 20512579
Vessel co-option in cancer.
Elizabeth A Kuczynski, Peter B Vermeulen, +2 authors, Andrew R Reynolds.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2019 Mar 01; 16(8). PMID: 30816337
Highly Cited. Review.
Anti-VEGF treatment reduces blood supply and increases tumor cell invasion in glioblastoma.
Olivier Keunen, Mikael Johansson, +15 authors, Simone P Niclou.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2011 Feb 16; 108(9). PMID: 21321221    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Both anteromedial and anteroventral thalamic lesions impair radial-maze learning in rats.
G Byatt, J C Dalrymple-Alford.
Behav Neurosci, 1996 Dec 01; 110(6). PMID: 8986336
Inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and microcirculation by the novel Flk-1 inhibitor SU5416 as assessed by intravital multi-fluorescence videomicroscopy.
P Vajkoczy, M D Menger, +5 authors, T A Fong.
Neoplasia, 2000 Aug 10; 1(1). PMID: 10935468    Free PMC article.
A model of postsurgical advanced metastatic breast cancer more accurately replicates the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic drugs.
Eric Guerin, Shan Man, Ping Xu, Robert S Kerbel.
Cancer Res, 2013 Apr 24; 73(9). PMID: 23610448    Free PMC article.
Dual-action combination therapy enhances angiogenesis while reducing tumor growth and spread.
Ping-Pui Wong, Fevzi Demircioglu, +10 authors, Kairbaan M Hodivala-Dilke.
Cancer Cell, 2015 Jan 15; 27(1). PMID: 25584895
Highly Cited.
Tumor refractoriness to anti-VEGF treatment is mediated by CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells.
Farbod Shojaei, Xiumin Wu, +6 authors, Napoleone Ferrara.
Nat Biotechnol, 2007 Aug 01; 25(8). PMID: 17664940
Highly Cited.
Early Actions of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Drugs on Angiogenic Blood Vessels.
Basel Sitohy, Sunghee Chang, +9 authors, Harold F Dvorak.
Am J Pathol, 2017 Jul 25; 187(10). PMID: 28736316    Free PMC article.
Roles of molecules involved in epithelial/mesenchymal transition during angiogenesis.
Giulio Ghersi.
Front Biosci, 2007 Nov 06; 13. PMID: 17981716
Anti-angiogenic agents for the treatment of solid tumors: Potential pathways, therapy and current strategies - A review.
Ahmed M Al-Abd, Abdulmohsin J Alamoudi, +2 authors, Osama M Ashour.
J Adv Res, 2017 Aug 16; 8(6). PMID: 28808589    Free PMC article.
Induction of angiogenesis during the transition from hyperplasia to neoplasia.
J Folkman, K Watson, D Ingber, D Hanahan.
Nature, 1989 May 04; 339(6219). PMID: 2469964
Highly Cited.
miR-200b inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer by targeting fucosyltransferase IV and α1,3-fucosylated glycans.
Q Zheng, X Cui, +8 authors, J Liu.
Oncogenesis, 2017 Jul 12; 6(7). PMID: 28692034    Free PMC article.
Current Challenges of Cancer Anti-angiogenic Therapy and the Promise of Nanotherapeutics.
Ahmed M E Abdalla, Lin Xiao, +3 authors, Guang Yang.
Theranostics, 2018 Jan 02; 8(2). PMID: 29290825    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Hypoxia induces microRNA miR-210 in vitro and in vivo ephrin-A3 and neuronal pentraxin 1 are potentially regulated by miR-210.
Kati Pulkkinen, Tarja Malm, +2 authors, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala.
FEBS Lett, 2008 Jun 10; 582(16). PMID: 18539147
Targeted deletion reveals essential and overlapping functions of the miR-17 through 92 family of miRNA clusters.
Andrea Ventura, Amanda G Young, +10 authors, Tyler Jacks.
Cell, 2008 Mar 11; 132(5). PMID: 18329372    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mechanisms of glioma formation: iterative perivascular glioma growth and invasion leads to tumor progression, VEGF-independent vascularization, and resistance to antiangiogenic therapy.
Gregory J Baker, Viveka Nand Yadav, +11 authors, Pedro R Lowenstein.
Neoplasia, 2014 Aug 15; 16(7). PMID: 25117977    Free PMC article.
Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas.
Nahir Cortes-Santiago, Mohammad B Hossain, +8 authors, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano.
Oncotarget, 2016 Feb 26; 7(13). PMID: 26910374    Free PMC article.
Role of Dicer and Drosha for endothelial microRNA expression and angiogenesis.
Angelika Kuehbacher, Carmen Urbich, Andreas M Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler.
Circ Res, 2007 Jun 02; 101(1). PMID: 17540974
Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab As Second-Line Therapy in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in KEYNOTE-240: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Trial.
Richard S Finn, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, +18 authors, KEYNOTE-240 investigators.
J Clin Oncol, 2019 Dec 04; 38(3). PMID: 31790344
Highly Cited.
Co-delivery of docetaxel and endostatin by a biodegradable nanoparticle for the synergistic treatment of cervical cancer.
Bo Qiu, Minghui Ji, +7 authors, Yi Zheng.
Nanoscale Res Lett, 2012 Dec 12; 7(1). PMID: 23216701    Free PMC article.
Understanding angiogenesis and its clinical applications.
D Y Suh.
Ann Clin Lab Sci, 2000 Aug 17; 30(3). PMID: 10945562
The tumor microenvironment and strategies to improve drug distribution.
Jasdeep K Saggar, Man Yu, Qian Tan, Ian F Tannock.
Front Oncol, 2013 Jun 19; 3. PMID: 23772420    Free PMC article.
The angiogenic switch in carcinogenesis.
Vanessa Baeriswyl, Gerhard Christofori.
Semin Cancer Biol, 2009 Jun 02; 19(5). PMID: 19482086
Highly Cited. Review.
The multifaceted circulating endothelial cell in cancer: towards marker and target identification.
Francesco Bertolini, Yuval Shaked, Patrizia Mancuso, Robert S Kerbel.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2006 Oct 13; 6(11). PMID: 17036040
Highly Cited. Review.
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are a major determinant of nascent tumor neovascularization.
Daniel J Nolan, Alessia Ciarrocchi, +8 authors, Vivek Mittal.
Genes Dev, 2007 Jun 19; 21(12). PMID: 17575055    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis: fibroblast growth factor signal transduction.
R E Friesel, T Maciag.
FASEB J, 1995 Jul 01; 9(10). PMID: 7542215
Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas.
Monica M Bertagnolli, Craig J Eagle, +26 authors, APC Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2006 Sep 01; 355(9). PMID: 16943400
Highly Cited.
The M type K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus regulates microRNA expression via its SH2-binding motif to induce cell migration and invasion.
Yuan-Hau Tsai, Min-Fen Wu, +4 authors, Hsei-Wei Wang.
J Virol, 2008 Oct 31; 83(2). PMID: 18971265    Free PMC article.
Thalidomide analogues as anticancer drugs.
Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Haiqing Li, Erin R Gardner, William D Figg.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov, 2007 Nov 03; 2(2). PMID: 17975653    Free PMC article.
Angiogenesis in cancer.
Naoyo Nishida, Hirohisa Yano, +2 authors, Masamichi Kojiro.
Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2007 Mar 01; 2(3). PMID: 17326328    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Inhibition of glioma angiogenesis and growth in vivo by systemic treatment with a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.
P Kunkel, U Ulbricht, +5 authors, K Lamszus.
Cancer Res, 2001 Sep 18; 61(18). PMID: 11559524
Highly Cited.
miR-200b targets Ets-1 and is down-regulated by hypoxia to induce angiogenic response of endothelial cells.
Yuk Cheung Chan, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen.
J Biol Chem, 2010 Nov 18; 286(3). PMID: 21081489    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Biodegradable m-PEG/PCL Core-Shell Micelles: Preparation and Characterization as a Sustained Release Formulation for Curcumin.
Hossein Danafar, Soodabeh Davaran, +2 authors, Mehrdad Hamidi.
Adv Pharm Bull, 2015 Feb 12; 4(Suppl 2). PMID: 25671181    Free PMC article.
Sustained VEGF blockade results in microenvironmental sequestration of VEGF by tumors and persistent VEGF receptor-2 activation.
Angela Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Joey Papa, +11 authors, Darrell J Yamashiro.
Mol Cancer Res, 2008 Feb 01; 6(1). PMID: 18234958
Hostile takeover: how tumours hijack pre-existing vascular environments to thrive.
Frank Winkler.
J Pathol, 2017 Apr 09; 242(3). PMID: 28390068
A tumor suppressor-dependent inhibitor of angiogenesis is immunologically and functionally indistinguishable from a fragment of thrombospondin.
D J Good, P J Polverini, +4 authors, N P Bouck.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1990 Sep 01; 87(17). PMID: 1697685    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Neutralizing VEGF decreases tortuosity and alters endothelial cell division orientation in arterioles and veins in a rat model of ROP: relevance to plus disease.
M Elizabeth Hartnett, David Martiniuk, +3 authors, Victoria L Bautch.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2008 Apr 02; 49(7). PMID: 18378573    Free PMC article.
Vessel co-option is common in human lung metastases and mediates resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in preclinical lung metastasis models.
Victoria L Bridgeman, Peter B Vermeulen, +19 authors, Andrew R Reynolds.
J Pathol, 2016 Nov 20; 241(3). PMID: 27859259    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Effects of dual targeting of tumor cells and stroma in human glioblastoma xenografts with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor against c-MET and VEGFR2.
Anna C Navis, Annika Bourgonje, +6 authors, William P J Leenders.
PLoS One, 2013 Mar 14; 8(3). PMID: 23484006    Free PMC article.
Phase 2 and biomarker study of trebananib, an angiopoietin-blocking peptibody, with and without bevacizumab for patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
David A Reardon, Andrew B Lassman, +11 authors, Patrick Y Wen.
Cancer, 2017 Dec 22; 124(7). PMID: 29266174
Antiangiogenic therapy of cerebral melanoma metastases results in sustained tumor progression via vessel co-option.
William P J Leenders, Benno Küsters, +6 authors, Robert de Waal.
Clin Cancer Res, 2004 Sep 28; 10(18 Pt 1). PMID: 15448011
Endostar-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Sanyuan Hu, Yangde Zhang.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2010 Dec 21; 5. PMID: 21170352    Free PMC article.
Vessel co-option: how tumors obtain blood supply in the absence of sprouting angiogenesis.
William P J Leenders, Benno Küsters, Robert M W de Waal.
Endothelium, 2002 Aug 31; 9(2). PMID: 12200959
Anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy for cancer: reassessing the target.
Basel Sitohy, Janice A Nagy, Harold F Dvorak.
Cancer Res, 2012 Apr 18; 72(8). PMID: 22508695    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Recent developments in the regulation of the angiogenic switch by cellular stress factors in tumors.
Sophie North, Michel Moenner, Andreas Bikfalvi.
Cancer Lett, 2005 Jan 11; 218(1). PMID: 15639335
Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 enhances tumor angiogenesis but not metastasis during beta-cell carcinogenesis.
Grainne Gannon, Stefano J Mandriota, +3 authors, Gerhard Christofori.
Cancer Res, 2002 Jan 26; 62(2). PMID: 11809716
[Clinical trial of the laksafer preparation on patients following gynecological operations].
N Doganov, N Negentsov.
Akush Ginekol (Sofiia), 1989 Jan 01; 28(2). PMID: 2669546
Retrospective: Judah Folkman (1933-2008).
Douglas Hanahan, Robert A Weinberg.
Science, 2008 Feb 23; 319(5866). PMID: 18292332
Vessel co-option mediates resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in liver metastases.
Sophia Frentzas, Eve Simoneau, +28 authors, Andrew R Reynolds.
Nat Med, 2016 Nov 01; 22(11). PMID: 27748747    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Suitable carriers for encapsulation and distribution of endostar: comparison of endostar-loaded particulate carriers.
Weijie Chen, Sanyuan Hu.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2011 Aug 17; 6. PMID: 21845043    Free PMC article.
Cancer associated fibroblasts in hematological malignancies.
Lizzia Raffaghello, Angelo Vacca, Vito Pistoia, Domenico Ribatti.
Oncotarget, 2014 Dec 05; 6(5). PMID: 25474039    Free PMC article.
Aflibercept in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: latest findings and interpretations.
Patricia A Tang, Malcom J Moore.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 2013 Nov 02; 6(6). PMID: 24179482    Free PMC article.
Tumor associated macrophages and neutrophils in cancer.
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Eduardo Bonavita, +3 authors, Sébastien Jaillon.
Immunobiology, 2013 Jul 31; 218(11). PMID: 23891329
Highly Cited. Review.
Drug resistance by evasion of antiangiogenic targeting of VEGF signaling in late-stage pancreatic islet tumors.
Oriol Casanovas, Daniel J Hicklin, Gabriele Bergers, Douglas Hanahan.
Cancer Cell, 2005 Oct 18; 8(4). PMID: 16226705
Highly Cited.
Mechanism of tumour vascularization in experimental lung metastases.
Vanessza Szabo, Edina Bugyik, +12 authors, Sandor Paku.
J Pathol, 2014 Oct 17; 235(3). PMID: 25319725
Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Endostatin in Periplasm of Escherichia coli Expression System.
Abbas Mohajeri, Yones Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, +3 authors, Nosratollah Zarghami.
Adv Pharm Bull, 2016 Aug 02; 6(2). PMID: 27478780    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of resistance to antiangiogenesis therapy.
Faisal Azam, Shaveta Mehta, Adrian L Harris.
Eur J Cancer, 2010 Mar 20; 46(8). PMID: 20236818
Bevacizumab Prevents Brain Metastases Formation in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Aysegül Ilhan-Mutlu, Matthias Osswald, +14 authors, Frank Winkler.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2016 Jan 27; 15(4). PMID: 26809491
Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma.
M S O'Reilly, L Holmgren, +7 authors, J Folkman.
Cell, 1994 Oct 21; 79(2). PMID: 7525077
Highly Cited.
The biology of VEGF and its receptors.
Napoleone Ferrara, Hans-Peter Gerber, Jennifer LeCouter.
Nat Med, 2003 Jun 05; 9(6). PMID: 12778165
Highly Cited. Review.
Infiltrating neutrophils mediate the initial angiogenic switch in a mouse model of multistage carcinogenesis.
Hiroaki Nozawa, Christopher Chiu, Douglas Hanahan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 Aug 08; 103(33). PMID: 16891410    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Stimulation of tumor growth and angiogenesis by low concentrations of RGD-mimetic integrin inhibitors.
Andrew R Reynolds, Ian R Hart, +14 authors, Kairbaan M Hodivala-Dilke.
Nat Med, 2009 Mar 24; 15(4). PMID: 19305413
Highly Cited.
The role of pericytes in blood-vessel formation and maintenance.
Gabriele Bergers, Steven Song.
Neuro Oncol, 2005 Oct 11; 7(4). PMID: 16212810    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Influence of shear stress in perfusion bioreactor cultures for the development of three-dimensional bone tissue constructs: a review.
Ryan J McCoy, Fergal J O'Brien.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev, 2010 Aug 31; 16(6). PMID: 20799909
MiRNA-directed regulation of VEGF and other angiogenic factors under hypoxia.
Zhong Hua, Qing Lv, +8 authors, Yaou Zhang.
PLoS One, 2007 Jan 06; 1. PMID: 17205120    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
VEGF-mediated angiogenesis links EMT-induced cancer stemness to tumor initiation.
Anna Fantozzi, Dorothea C Gruber, +8 authors, Gerhard Christofori.
Cancer Res, 2014 Jan 15; 74(5). PMID: 24413534
Anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer: current progress, unresolved questions and future directions.
Naveen S Vasudev, Andrew R Reynolds.
Angiogenesis, 2014 Feb 01; 17(3). PMID: 24482243    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
[Urethral diverticula in women. Apropos of 7 cases].
D Rossi, M Hermanowicz, +3 authors, J Ducassou.
Ann Urol (Paris), 1989 Jan 01; 23(4). PMID: 2511797
Co-option of Liver Vessels and Not Sprouting Angiogenesis Drives Acquired Sorafenib Resistance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Elizabeth A Kuczynski, Melissa Yin, +9 authors, Robert S Kerbel.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2016 Apr 10; 108(8). PMID: 27059374    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Control of vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis through the angiopoietin-Tie system.
Hellmut G Augustin, Gou Young Koh, Gavin Thurston, Kari Alitalo.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2009 Feb 24; 10(3). PMID: 19234476
Highly Cited. Review.
Zoledronic acid induces significant and long-lasting modifications of circulating angiogenic factors in cancer patients.
Daniele Santini, Bruno Vincenzi, +10 authors, Giuseppe Tonini.
Clin Cancer Res, 2003 Aug 13; 9(8). PMID: 12912933
Myeloid lineage progenitors give rise to vascular endothelium.
Alexis S Bailey, Holger Willenbring, +5 authors, William H Fleming.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 Aug 22; 103(35). PMID: 16920790    Free PMC article.
ESMO consensus guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
E Van Cutsem, A Cervantes, +44 authors, D Arnold.
Ann Oncol, 2016 Jul 07; 27(8). PMID: 27380959
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-8 mediates resistance to antiangiogenic agent sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma.
Dan Huang, Yan Ding, +7 authors, Bin Tean Teh.
Cancer Res, 2010 Jan 28; 70(3). PMID: 20103651    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumour-educated macrophages promote tumour progression and metastasis.
Jeffrey W Pollard.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2004 Jan 07; 4(1). PMID: 14708027
Highly Cited. Review.
N-terminal modification increases the stability of the recombinant human endostatin in vitro.
Li-Ping Jiang, Chang Zou, +3 authors, Yali Chen.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2009 Jun 17; 54(2). PMID: 19527221
Histologic growth patterns of metastatic carcinomas of the liver.
N Terayama, T Terada, Y Nakanuma.
Jpn J Clin Oncol, 1996 Feb 01; 26(1). PMID: 8551663
VEGF targets the tumour cell.
Hira Lal Goel, Arthur M Mercurio.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2013 Nov 23; 13(12). PMID: 24263190    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The perivascular niche regulates breast tumour dormancy.
Cyrus M Ghajar, Héctor Peinado, +10 authors, Mina J Bissell.
Nat Cell Biol, 2013 Jun 04; 15(7). PMID: 23728425    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states: acquisition of malignant and stem cell traits.
Kornelia Polyak, Robert A Weinberg.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2009 Mar 06; 9(4). PMID: 19262571
Highly Cited. Review.
The vasculature: a vessel for bone metastasis.
Koen Raymaekers, Steve Stegen, Nick van Gastel, Geert Carmeliet.
Bonekey Rep, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27217954    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms controlling cellular suicide: role of Bcl-2 and caspases.
R T Allen, M W Cluck, D K Agrawal.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 1998 Jun 30; 54(5). PMID: 9645223
Bevacizumab for the treatment of high-grade glioma: an update after phase III trials.
Mustafa Khasraw, Malaka Ameratunga, Christian Grommes.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2014 Mar 25; 14(5). PMID: 24655021
Glomeruloid microvascular proliferation is associated with p53 expression, germline BRCA1 mutations and an adverse outcome following breast cancer.
J R Goffin, O Straume, +6 authors, W D Foulkes.
Br J Cancer, 2003 Sep 11; 89(6). PMID: 12966421    Free PMC article.
Vascular-promoting therapy reduced tumor growth and progression by improving chemotherapy efficacy.
Esther Bridges, Adrian L Harris.
Cancer Cell, 2015 Jan 15; 27(1). PMID: 25584889
An interleukin-17-mediated paracrine network promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy.
Alicia S Chung, Xiumin Wu, +9 authors, Napoleone Ferrara.
Nat Med, 2013 Aug 06; 19(9). PMID: 23913124
Highly Cited.
Corrupt policemen: inflammatory cells promote tumor angiogenesis.
Adrian Zumsteg, Gerhard Christofori.
Curr Opin Oncol, 2009 Jan 07; 21(1). PMID: 19125020
Bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized phase III study.
Leonard B Saltz, Stephen Clarke, +10 authors, Jim Cassidy.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Apr 19; 26(12). PMID: 18421054
Highly Cited.
miR-296 regulates growth factor receptor overexpression in angiogenic endothelial cells.
Thomas Würdinger, Bakhos A Tannous, +6 authors, Anna M Krichevsky.
Cancer Cell, 2008 Nov 04; 14(5). PMID: 18977327    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Bevacizumab in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer: friend or foe?
Alberto J Montero, Mauricio Escobar, +2 authors, Charles Vogel.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2011 Oct 21; 14(1). PMID: 22012632    Free PMC article.
Suppression of tumor invasion and metastasis by concurrent inhibition of c-Met and VEGF signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Barbara Sennino, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, +9 authors, Donald M McDonald.
Cancer Discov, 2012 May 16; 2(3). PMID: 22585997    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun.
Biologics, 2013 Dec 26; 8. PMID: 24368879    Free PMC article.
Role of angiopoietin-2 in adaptive tumor resistance to VEGF signaling blockade.
Nicolò Rigamonti, Ece Kadioglu, +3 authors, Michele De Palma.
Cell Rep, 2014 Aug 05; 8(3). PMID: 25088418
Highly Cited.
Angiogenesis in health and disease.
Peter Carmeliet.
Nat Med, 2003 Jun 05; 9(6). PMID: 12778163
Highly Cited. Review.
Genipin suppression of growth and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma through blocking activation of STAT-3.
Ming Hong, Selena Lee, +2 authors, Jinke Li.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Aug 04; 39(1). PMID: 32741371    Free PMC article.
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a new thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based urea derivative with potential antitumor activity against tamoxifen sensitive and resistant breast cancer cell lines.
Marwa Sharaky, Marwa Kamel, +4 authors, Samia A Shouman.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2020 Aug 13; 35(1). PMID: 32781854    Free PMC article.
Orientation of the Mitotic Spindle in Blood Vessel Development.
Xuemei Wu, Jun Zhou, Dengwen Li.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Oct 20; 8. PMID: 33072763    Free PMC article.
Hedgehog Signaling and Truncated GLI1 in Cancer.
Daniel Doheny, Sara G Manore, Grace L Wong, Hui-Wen Lo.
Cells, 2020 Sep 23; 9(9). PMID: 32957513    Free PMC article.
Endothelial Basement Membrane Components and Their Products, Matrikines: Active Drivers of Pulmonary Hypertension?
Ayse Ceren Mutgan, Katharina Jandl, Grazyna Kwapiszewska.
Cells, 2020 Sep 10; 9(9). PMID: 32899187    Free PMC article.
The FGF/FGFR System in Breast Cancer: Oncogenic Features and Therapeutic Perspectives.
Maria Francesca Santolla, Marcello Maggiolini.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 22; 12(10). PMID: 33081025    Free PMC article.
Gemcitabine and Rapamycin Exhibit Additive Effect against Osteosarcoma by Targeting Autophagy and Apoptosis.
Takashi Ando, Jiro Ichikawa, +3 authors, Hirotaka Haro.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 30; 12(11). PMID: 33114161    Free PMC article.
Focal Adhesion Kinase Fine Tunes Multifaced Signals toward Breast Cancer Progression.
Damiano Cosimo Rigiracciolo, Francesca Cirillo, +4 authors, Rosamaria Lappano.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 11; 13(4). PMID: 33562737    Free PMC article.
BRAF Gene and Melanoma: Back to the Future.
Margaret Ottaviano, Emilio Francesco Giunta, +15 authors, On Behalf Of Scito Youth.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 04; 22(7). PMID: 33801689    Free PMC article.
Enhancing the in vitro and in vivo activity of itraconazole against breast cancer using miltefosine-modified lipid nanocapsules.
Nabila A El-Sheridy, Riham M El-Moslemany, +2 authors, Labiba K El-Khordagui.
Drug Deliv, 2021 May 08; 28(1). PMID: 33960245    Free PMC article.