Review
. 2020 Jun; 10:597.
doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.00597.

Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms During Photodynamic Therapy of Melanoma

Xin-Ying Li 1 Liu-Chang Tan 1 Li-Wen Dong 1 Wan-Qi Zhang 1 Xiao-Xiao Shen 1 Xiao Lu 2 Hong Zheng 2 Yuan-Gang Lu 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 32528867
  •     199 References
  •     7 citations

Abstract

Melanoma is the most aggressive malignant skin tumor and arises from melanocytes. The resistance of melanoma cells to various treatments results in rapid tumor growth and high mortality. As a local therapeutic modality, photodynamic therapy has been successfully applied for clinical treatment of skin diseases. Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for various types of malignant tumors in humans and, compared to conventional treatment methods, has fewer side effects, and is more accurate and non-invasive. Although several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown encouraging results regarding the potential benefits of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant treatment for melanoma, its clinical application remains limited owing to its relative inefficiency. This review article discusses the use of photodynamic therapy in melanoma treatment as well as the latest progress made in deciphering the mechanism of tolerance. Lastly, potential targets are identified that may improve photodynamic therapy against melanoma cells.

Keywords: apoptosis; autophagy; melanoma; photodynamic therapy; tumor immunity.

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Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2011 Jun 07; 60(10). PMID: 21644033
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Metallo-naphthalocyanines as photothermal sensitisers for experimental tumours: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Monica Camerin, Santi Rello-Varona, +2 authors, Giulio Jori.
Lasers Surg Med, 2009 Oct 01; 41(9). PMID: 19790243
Photodynamic Therapy in Melanoma - Where do we Stand?
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A novel pro-apoptotic role of zinc octacarboxyphthalocyanine in melanoma me45 cancer cell's photodynamic therapy (PDT).
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J Photochem Photobiol B, 2018 Dec 15; 190. PMID: 30551028
Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin of choroidal malignancy from breast cancer.
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Am J Ophthalmol, 2006 Oct 24; 142(5). PMID: 17056382
Photodynamic therapy of murine colon cancer and melanoma using systemic aminolevulinic acid as a photosensitizer.
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Autophagy in Cancer: Regulation by Small Molecules.
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Photodynamic ablation of early cancers of the stomach by means of mTHPC and laser irradiation: preliminary clinical experience.
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Apoptosis induced by methylene-blue-mediated photodynamic therapy in melanomas and the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction revealed by proteomics.
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Cancer Sci, 2008 Nov 20; 99(10). PMID: 19016762
Necroptosis: Mechanisms and Relevance to Disease.
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J Mater Chem B, 2019 Nov 02; 7(46). PMID: 31670352
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J Dermatol Sci, 2015 Sep 12; 80(2). PMID: 26360010
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Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 2004 Jan 24; 20(1). PMID: 14738529
Photodynamic therapy-induced killing is enhanced in depigmented metastatic melanoma cells.
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Cutaneous photoprotection and melanoma susceptibility: reaching beyond melanin content to the frontiers of DNA repair.
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T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity after photodynamic therapy: why does it not always work and how can we improve it?
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Monitoring photodynamic therapy of solid tumors online by BOLD-contrast MRI.
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Nat Med, 2003 Sep 23; 9(10). PMID: 14502284
AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND STUDY OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN CHOROIDAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA.
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Retina, 2019 Mar 26; 40(5). PMID: 30908472
Microneedle-Assisted Topical Delivery of Photodynamically Active Mesoporous Formulation for Combination Therapy of Deep-Seated Melanoma.
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ACS Nano, 2018 Nov 18; 12(12). PMID: 30444343
Indocyanine green as a prospective sensitizer for photodynamic therapy of melanomas.
Krystyna Urbanska, Bozena Romanowska-Dixon, +3 authors, Grazyna Stochel.
Acta Biochim Pol, 2002 Oct 05; 49(2). PMID: 12362980
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Increased melanogenesis is a risk factor for oxidative DNA damage--study on cultured melanocytes and atypical nevus cells.
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Photochem Photobiol, 2008 Apr 26; 84(3). PMID: 18435613
Targeting metastasis-initiating cells through the fatty acid receptor CD36.
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Exosomes and tumor-mediated immune suppression.
Theresa L Whiteside.
J Clin Invest, 2016 Mar 02; 126(4). PMID: 26927673    Free PMC article.
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The regulation of epidermal melanogenesis via cAMP and/or PKC signaling pathways: insights for the development of hypopigmenting agents.
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Toxicol In Vitro, 2009 Sep 02; 24(1). PMID: 19720133
Photocatalytic and Cytotoxic Effects of Nitrogen-Doped TiO₂ Nanoparticles on Melanoma Cells.
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J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Feb 15; 18(5). PMID: 29442890
Bortezomib/proteasome inhibitor triggers both apoptosis and autophagy-dependent pathways in melanoma cells.
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A new method for photodynamic therapy of melanotic melanoma -- effects of depigmentation with violet light photodynamic therapy.
Li-Wei Ma, Kristian Pagh Nielsen, Vladimir Iani, Johan Moan.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2008 Jan 17; 26(3). PMID: 18197832
Atg7 Overcomes Senescence and Promotes Growth of BrafV600E-Driven Melanoma.
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Pro-tolerogenic effects of photodynamic therapy with TH9402 on dendritic cells.
Raewyn Broady, Jie Yu, Megan K Levings.
J Clin Apher, 2008 Apr 03; 23(2). PMID: 18381757
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Biomed Res Int, 2017 Nov 18; 2017. PMID: 29147654    Free PMC article.
Robust Photodynamic Therapy Using 5-ALA-Incorporated Nanocomplexes Cures Metastatic Melanoma through Priming of CD4+CD8+ Double Positive T Cells.
Zhi Li, Cuifeng Wang, +6 authors, Min Feng.
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Platinum(II) Ring-Fused Chlorins as Near-Infrared Emitting Oxygen Sensors and Photodynamic Agents.
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Systemic antitumor effect of intratumoral injection of dendritic cells in combination with local photodynamic therapy.
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Clin Cancer Res, 2006 Apr 28; 12(8). PMID: 16638867
miR-7112-3p targets PERK to regulate the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway and apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy in colorectal cancer CX-1 cells.
Fanhua Kong, Heng Zou, +4 authors, Xiongying Miao.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2020 Jan 17; 29. PMID: 31945549
Redox- and light-responsive alginate nanoparticles as effective drug carriers for combinational anticancer therapy.
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Nanoscale, 2017 Feb 23; 9(9). PMID: 28225139
Gold mining for PDT: Great expectations from tiny nanoparticles.
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Chloride intracellular channel 4 involves in the reduced invasiveness of cancer cells treated by photodynamic therapy.
Pei-Chi Chiang, Ruey-Hwang Chou, +2 authors, Chin-Tin Chen.
Lasers Surg Med, 2013 Jan 17; 45(1). PMID: 23322262
Effects of Photodynamic Therapy with Redaporfin on Tumor Oxygenation and Blood Flow in a Lung Cancer Mouse Model.
Malwina Karwicka, Barbara Pucelik, +2 authors, Janusz M Dąbrowski.
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Highly Cited. Review.
CK1α, CK1δ, and CK1ε are necrosome components which phosphorylate serine 227 of human RIPK3 to activate necroptosis.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020 Jan 15; 117(4). PMID: 31932442    Free PMC article.
Perspectives on the application of nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma.
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A combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy displays a differential cytotoxic effect on human metastatic melanoma cells.
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J Photochem Photobiol B, 2016 Nov 17; 166. PMID: 27852006
Programming DNA Nanoassembly for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.
Min Pan, Qunying Jiang, +4 authors, Xiaoqing Liu.
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Targeting Programmed Cell Death -1 (PD-1) and Ligand (PD-L1): A new era in cancer active immunotherapy.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Reduced MiR-675 in exosome in H19 RNA-related melanogenesis via MITF as a direct target.
Nan-Hyung Kim, Soo-Hyun Choi, +3 authors, Ai-Young Lee.
J Invest Dermatol, 2013 Dec 18; 134(4). PMID: 24335901
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Yoshimi Harada, Koichi Ogawa, +4 authors, Katsuro Tachibana.
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Curr Drug Metab, 2012 Mar 03; 13(8). PMID: 22380016
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Inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 increases responsiveness of melanoma cells to ALA-based photodynamic therapy.
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Efficacy of topical ALA-PDT combined with excision in the treatment of skin malignant tumor.
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Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2014 Feb 27; 11(2). PMID: 24568889
Precise control of apoptosis via gold nanostars for dose dependent photothermal therapy of melanoma.
Peng Xu, Peng Ning, +3 authors, Yu Cheng.
J Mater Chem B, 2019 Nov 02; 7(44). PMID: 31675048
Targeting Epigenetic Processes in Photodynamic Therapy-Induced Anticancer Immunity.
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Proteomic Analysis of Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria to Chlorhexidine and Impacts on Susceptibility to Colistin, Antimicrobial Peptides, and Ceragenins.
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Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level.
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Molecular Pathways: The Necrosome-A Target for Cancer Therapy.
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The "nano to micro" transition of hydrophobic curcumin crystals leading to in situ adjuvant depots for Au-liposome nanoparticle mediated enhanced photothermal therapy.
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Biomater Sci, 2019 Jul 17; 7(9). PMID: 31309204
A tissue factor-cascade-targeted strategy to tumor vasculature: a combination of EGFP-EGF1 conjugation nanoparticles with photodynamic therapy.
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Concurrent MEK and autophagy inhibition is required to restore cell death associated danger-signalling in Vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells.
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Lesion oxygenation associates with clinical outcomes in premalignant and early stage head and neck tumors treated on a phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy.
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Crosslinked self-assembled nanoparticles for chemo-sonodynamic combination therapy favoring antitumor, antimetastasis management and immune responses.
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Phenotypic Switching of B16F10 Melanoma Cells as a Stress Adaptation Response to Fe3O4/Salicylic Acid Nanoparticle Therapy.
Ion Mîndrilă, Andrei Osman, +3 authors, Sandra Alice Buteică.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Oct 24; 14(10). PMID: 34681232    Free PMC article.
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Progress in Nanocarriers Codelivery System to Enhance the Anticancer Effect of Photodynamic Therapy.
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Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery Systems in Photodynamic Therapy of Colorectal Cancer.
Nokuphila Winifred Nompumelelo Simelane, Heidi Abrahamse.
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Review.