Review
. 2020 Jun;27(1).
doi: 10.1186/s12929-020-00652-z.

Ab locks for improving the selectivity and safety of antibody drugs

Wen-Wei Lin 1 Yun-Chi Lu 2 Chih-Hung Chuang 3 Tian-Lu Cheng 4 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 32586313
  •     196 References

Abstract

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major targeted therapy for malignancies, infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and chronic inflammatory diseases due to their antigen specificity and longer half-life than conventional drugs. However, long-term systemic antigen neutralization by mAbs may cause severe adverse events. Improving the selectivity of mAbs to distinguish target antigens at the disease site from normal healthy tissue and reducing severe adverse events caused by the mechanisms-of-action of mAbs is still a pressing need. Development of pro-antibodies (pro-Abs) by installing a protease-cleavable Ab lock is a novel and advanced recombinant Ab-based strategy that efficiently masks the antigen binding ability of mAbs in the normal state and selectively "turns on" the mAb activity when the pro-Ab reaches the proteolytic protease-overexpressed diseased tissue. In this review, we discuss the design and advantages/disadvantages of different Ab lock strategies, focusing particularly on spatial-hindrance-based and affinity peptide-based approaches. We expect that the development of different masking strategies for mAbs will benefit the local reactivity of mAbs at the disease site, increase the therapeutic efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with mAbs in chronic diseases and even permit scientists to develop Ab drugs for formerly undruggable targets and satisfy the unmet medical needs of mAb therapy.

Keywords: Ab lock; Monoclonal antibody (mAb); adverse events; affinity-based approaches; spatial-hindrance-based approaches.

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