. 2020 Jul; 17(8):807-821.
doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-0488-6.

The history and advances in cancer immunotherapy: understanding the characteristics of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and their therapeutic implications

Yuanyuan Zhang 1 Zemin Zhang 2 
  • PMID: 32612154
  •     237 References
  •     125 citations


Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment and rejuvenated the field of tumor immunology. Several types of immunotherapy, including adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have obtained durable clinical responses, but their efficacies vary, and only subsets of cancer patients can benefit from them. Immune infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been shown to play a key role in tumor development and will affect the clinical outcomes of cancer patients. Comprehensive profiling of tumor-infiltrating immune cells would shed light on the mechanisms of cancer-immune evasion, thus providing opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. However, the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the TME impedes the precise dissection of intratumoral immune cells. With recent advances in single-cell technologies such as single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and mass cytometry, systematic interrogation of the TME is feasible and will provide insights into the functional diversities of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. In this review, we outline the recent progress in cancer immunotherapy, particularly by focusing on landmark studies and the recent single-cell characterization of tumor-associated immune cells, and we summarize the phenotypic diversities of intratumoral immune cells and their connections with cancer immunotherapy. We believe such a review could strengthen our understanding of the progress in cancer immunotherapy, facilitate the elucidation of immune cell modulation in tumor progression, and thus guide the development of novel immunotherapies for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Immunotherapy; Phenotypic diversities; Single-cell technologies; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-infiltrating immune cells.

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Nat Med, 2018 Jun 27; 24(7). PMID: 29942094
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Lancet Oncol, 2017 Jul 12; 18(8). PMID: 28694034
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Meena Kishore Sakharkar, Sarinder Kaur Dhillon, +4 authors, Jian Yang.
Int J Tryptophan Res, 2020 Dec 24; 13. PMID: 33354111    Free PMC article.
Dynamic immune profiling identifies the stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects with haploidentical allografts compared to HLA-matched stem cell transplantation.
Huidong Guo, Ying-Jun Chang, +14 authors, Xiao-Jun Huang.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2021 Jan 08; 18(5). PMID: 33408344    Free PMC article.
Overcoming the challenges associated with CD3+ T-cell redirection in cancer.
Ajit Singh, Sundee Dees, Iqbal S Grewal.
Br J Cancer, 2021 Jan 21; 124(6). PMID: 33469153    Free PMC article.
The Potentiation of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Tumor Abolition with Alpha Particles, Protons, or Carbon Ion Radiation and Its Enforcement by Combination with Immunoadjuvants or Inhibitors of Immune Suppressor Cells and Checkpoint Molecules.
Yona Keisari, Itzhak Kelson.
Cells, 2021 Jan 29; 10(2). PMID: 33503958    Free PMC article.
Molecules and Mechanisms to Overcome Oxidative Stress Inducing Cardiovascular Disease in Cancer Patients.
Francesco Sabbatino, Valeria Conti, +8 authors, Stefano Pepe.
Life (Basel), 2021 Feb 13; 11(2). PMID: 33573162    Free PMC article.
GLI2 but not GLI1/GLI3 plays a central role in the induction of malignant phenotype of gallbladder cancer.
Shu Ichimiya, Hideya Onishi, +8 authors, Masafumi Nakamura.
Oncol Rep, 2021 Mar 03; 45(3). PMID: 33650666    Free PMC article.
New Insights Into the Cancer-Microbiome-Immune Axis: Decrypting a Decade of Discoveries.
Tejeshwar Jain, Prateek Sharma, +2 authors, Vikas Dudeja.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 13; 12. PMID: 33708214    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Profiling to Explore Immunological Heterogeneity of Tumor Microenvironment in Breast Cancer.
Xiao Yuan, Jinxi Wang, +2 authors, Peng Zhang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 16; 12. PMID: 33717201    Free PMC article.
Lymphoma Heterogeneity Unraveled by Single-Cell Transcriptomics.
Loic Ysebaert, Anne Quillet-Mary, +3 authors, Jean-Jacques Fournié.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 19; 12. PMID: 33732232    Free PMC article.
Cytosolic Delivery of Thiolated Neoantigen Nano-Vaccine Combined with Immune Checkpoint Blockade to Boost Anti-Cancer T Cell Immunity.
Da Zhang, Ziguo Lin, +12 authors, Xiaolong Liu.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2021 Mar 23; 8(6). PMID: 33747739    Free PMC article.
Remodeling of Stromal Cells and Immune Landscape in Microenvironment During Tumor Progression.
Leena Arora, Durba Pal.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 26; 11. PMID: 33763348    Free PMC article.
Nanobody: A Small Antibody with Big Implications for Tumor Therapeutic Strategy.
Shuyang Sun, Ziqiang Ding, +9 authors, Xiaoling Lu.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2021 Apr 02; 16. PMID: 33790553    Free PMC article.
The TRAIL in the Treatment of Human Cancer: An Update on Clinical Trials.
Martin Snajdauf, Klara Havlova, +5 authors, Zuzana Strizova.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Apr 02; 8. PMID: 33791337    Free PMC article.
Identification of PSMD7 as a prognostic factor correlated with immune infiltration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Si Zhang, Siwei Yu, Jiulong Wang, Zhigang Cheng.
Biosci Rep, 2021 Mar 10; 41(3). PMID: 33687056    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence prediction model for overall survival of clear cell renal cell carcinoma based on a 21-gene molecular prognostic score system.
Qiliang Peng, Yi Shen, +4 authors, Jin Zhu.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021 Mar 10; 13(5). PMID: 33686949    Free PMC article.
The Peripheral Immune Landscape of Breast Cancer: Clinical Findings and In Vitro Models for Biomarker Discovery.
Sofia Batalha, Sofia Ferreira, Catarina Brito.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33804027    Free PMC article.
Arming Immune Cells for Battle: A Brief Journey through the Advancements of T and NK Cell Immunotherapy.
Philipp Wendel, Lisa Marie Reindl, +7 authors, Evelyn Ullrich.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33807011    Free PMC article.
Aryl Urea Based Scaffolds for Multitarget Drug Discovery in Anticancer Immunotherapies.
Celia Martín-Beltrán, Raquel Gil-Edo, +4 authors, Eva Falomir.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 May 01; 14(4). PMID: 33917617    Free PMC article.
Combination Therapy of Novel Oncolytic Adenovirus with Anti-PD1 Resulted in Enhanced Anti-Cancer Effect in Syngeneic Immunocompetent Melanoma Mouse Model.
Mariangela Garofalo, Laura Bertinato, +6 authors, Lukasz Kuryk.
Pharmaceutics, 2021 May 01; 13(4). PMID: 33919827    Free PMC article.
The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers.
Virginia Liberini, Riccardo Laudicella, +5 authors, Désirée Deandreis.
Molecules, 2021 May 01; 26(8). PMID: 33920423    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Biomechanical Properties of Cancer Cells.
Gaël Runel, Noémie Lopez-Ramirez, Julien Chlasta, Ingrid Masse.
Cells, 2021 May 01; 10(4). PMID: 33924659    Free PMC article.
Cancer neoantigens as potential targets for immunotherapy.
Weijie Ma, Brian Pham, Tianhong Li.
Clin Exp Metastasis, 2021 May 06; 39(1). PMID: 33950415    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic potential of interleukin-15 in cancer (Review).
Gheorghita Isvoranu, Mihaela Surcel, +4 authors, Marioara Chiritoiu-Butnaru.
Exp Ther Med, 2021 May 15; 22(1). PMID: 33986840    Free PMC article.
Current and Prospective Methods for Assessing Anti-Tumor Immunity in Colorectal Cancer.
Yulia I Nussbaum, Yariswamy Manjunath, +5 authors, Jonathan B Mitchem.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 06; 22(9). PMID: 33946558    Free PMC article.
Identification of Hub Genes and Their Correlation With Immune Infiltration Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on GEO and TCGA Databases.
Rui Huang, Jinying Liu, +7 authors, Kun Yang.
Front Genet, 2021 May 18; 12. PMID: 33995482    Free PMC article.
Tristetraprolin, a Potential Safeguard Against Carcinoma: Role in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Diwen Zhang, Zhigang Zhou, +6 authors, Jian Tu.
Front Oncol, 2021 May 25; 11. PMID: 34026612    Free PMC article.
The Orphan Nuclear Receptor Gene NR0B2 Is a Favorite Prognosis Factor Modulated by Multiple Cellular Signal Pathways in Human Liver Cancers.
Runzhi Zhu, Yanjie Tu, +7 authors, Benyi Li.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 01; 11. PMID: 34055653    Free PMC article.
Using four decades of FDA orphan drug designations to describe trends in rare disease drug development: substantial growth seen in development of drugs for rare oncologic, neurologic, and pediatric-onset diseases.
Kathleen L Miller, Lewis J Fermaglich, Janet Maynard.
Orphanet J Rare Dis, 2021 Jun 11; 16(1). PMID: 34107994    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Insights From Single-Cell Analysis.
Jingyu Zang, Kaiyan Ye, +3 authors, Guanglei Zhuang.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 15; 11. PMID: 34123863    Free PMC article.
Pan-cancer characterization of lncRNA modifiers of immune microenvironment reveals clinically distinct de novo tumor subtypes.
Zicheng Zhang, Congcong Yan, +6 authors, Meng Zhou.
NPJ Genom Med, 2021 Jun 19; 6(1). PMID: 34140519    Free PMC article.
ceRNA network development and tumor-infiltrating immune cell analysis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Li Chen, Weijie Zou, +3 authors, Caifang Ni.
Med Oncol, 2021 Jun 21; 38(7). PMID: 34148185
B Cell Orchestration of Anti-tumor Immune Responses: A Matter of Cell Localization and Communication.
Gabriela Sarti Kinker, Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello, +3 authors, Tiago da Silva Medina.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Jun 25; 9. PMID: 34164398    Free PMC article.
Immunological analysis of the murine anti-CD3-induced cytokine release syndrome model and therapeutic efficacy of anti-cytokine antibodies.
Lise Nouveau, Vanessa Buatois, +4 authors, Walter G Ferlin.
Eur J Immunol, 2021 May 05; 51(8). PMID: 33945643    Free PMC article.
A Novel Risk Model Based on Lipid Metabolism-Associated Genes Predicts Prognosis and Indicates Immune Microenvironment in Breast Cancer.
Zhimin Ye, Shengmei Zou, +2 authors, Yongbin Hu.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Jul 02; 9. PMID: 34195202    Free PMC article.
The Impact of the Tumor Microenvironment on Macrophage Polarization in Cancer Metastatic Progression.
Huogang Wang, Mingo M H Yung, +2 authors, David W Chan.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jul 03; 22(12). PMID: 34207286    Free PMC article.
Octogenarians' Breast Cancer Is Associated with an Unfavorable Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Worse Disease-Free Survival.
Maiko Okano, Masanori Oshi, +5 authors, Kazuaki Takabe.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 13(12). PMID: 34208219    Free PMC article.
PER1 Is a Prognostic Biomarker and Correlated With Immune Infiltrates in Ovarian Cancer.
Mali Chen, Lili Zhang, +2 authors, Ling Lv.
Front Genet, 2021 Jul 06; 12. PMID: 34220965    Free PMC article.
Crosstalk between Macrophages and Myxoid Liposarcoma Cells Increases Spreading and Invasiveness of Tumor Cells.
Michele Minopoli, Sabrina Sarno, +18 authors, Maria Vincenza Carriero.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 13(13). PMID: 34209309    Free PMC article.
Immune infiltration-related N6-methyladenosine RNA methylation regulators influence the malignancy and prognosis of endometrial cancer.
Jian Ma, Di Yang, Xiao-Xin Ma.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021 Jul 08; 13(12). PMID: 34230220    Free PMC article.
Pan-Cancer Analysis of the Prognostic and Immunological Role of HSF1: A Potential Target for Survival and Immunotherapy.
Fei Chen, Yumei Fan, +4 authors, Ke Tan.
Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2021 Jul 10; 2021. PMID: 34239690    Free PMC article.
Chimeric antigen receptor- and natural killer cell receptor-engineered innate killer cells in cancer immunotherapy.
Cai Zhang, Yuan Hu, Weihua Xiao, Zhigang Tian.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2021 Jul 17; 18(9). PMID: 34267335    Free PMC article.
Hepcidin Downregulation Correlates With Disease Aggressiveness And Immune Infiltration in Liver Cancers.
Jinhu Wang, Wang Liu, +3 authors, Runzhi Zhu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 20; 11. PMID: 34277457    Free PMC article.
Refractoriness of STING therapy is relieved by AKT inhibitor through effective vascular disruption in tumour.
Seung-Hwan Jeong, Myung Jin Yang, +2 authors, Gou Young Koh.
Nat Commun, 2021 Jul 22; 12(1). PMID: 34285232    Free PMC article.
Plasma IL-8 and ICOSLG as prognostic biomarkers in glioblastoma.
Camilla Bjørnbak Holst, Ib Jarle Christensen, +4 authors, Julia Sidenius Johansen.
Neurooncol Adv, 2021 Jul 22; 3(1). PMID: 34286278    Free PMC article.
KCNN4 is a potential prognostic marker and critical factor affecting the immune status of the tumor microenvironment in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma.
Shaohua Chen, Chengbang Wang, +3 authors, Zengnan Mo.
Transl Androl Urol, 2021 Jul 24; 10(6). PMID: 34295732    Free PMC article.
HDAC Inhibitors: Dissecting Mechanisms of Action to Counter Tumor Heterogeneity.
Dimitris Karagiannis, Theodoros Rampias.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 25; 13(14). PMID: 34298787    Free PMC article.
A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Analysis of RBM8A Based on Data Mining.
Nan Mei, Heyan Chen, +2 authors, Chunli Li.
J Oncol, 2021 Jul 31; 2021. PMID: 34326876    Free PMC article.
Identification of a Prognostic Signature Associated With the Homeobox Gene Family for Bladder Cancer.
Bingqi Dong, Jiaming Liang, +6 authors, Tiejun Yang.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Aug 10; 8. PMID: 34368227    Free PMC article.
Technological advances in cancer immunity: from immunogenomics to single-cell analysis and artificial intelligence.
Ying Xu, Guan-Hua Su, +3 authors, Yi-Zhou Jiang.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Aug 22; 6(1). PMID: 34417437    Free PMC article.
Tissue-specific Tregs in cancer metastasis: opportunities for precision immunotherapy.
Laura A Huppert, Michael D Green, +4 authors, James C Lee.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2021 Aug 22; 19(1). PMID: 34417572    Free PMC article.
GARP Correlates With Tumor-Infiltrating T-Cells and Predicts the Outcome of Gastric Cancer.
Sutian Jiang, Yifan Zhang, +5 authors, Jianfei Huang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Aug 24; 12. PMID: 34421887    Free PMC article.
Rapid Serial Immunoprofiling of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment by Fine Needle Sampling.
Juhyun Oh, Jonathan C T Carlson, +7 authors, Ralph Weissleder.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Jul 09; 27(17). PMID: 34233961    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic cancer vaccines revamping: technology advancements and pitfalls.
G Antonarelli, C Corti, +6 authors, G Curigliano.
Ann Oncol, 2021 Sep 10; 32(12). PMID: 34500046    Free PMC article.
Tumor Expression Profile Analysis Developed and Validated a Prognostic Model Based on Immune-Related Genes in Bladder Cancer.
Bingqi Dong, Jiaming Liang, +6 authors, Tiejun Yang.
Front Genet, 2021 Sep 14; 12. PMID: 34512722    Free PMC article.
Extending traditional antibody therapies: Novel discoveries in immunotherapy and clinical applications.
Charles Shin, Sung Soo Kim, Yong Hwa Jo.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2021 Sep 14; 22. PMID: 34514097    Free PMC article.
Ceruloplasmin correlates with immune infiltration and serves as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.
Fei Chen, Bihui Han, +7 authors, Ke Tan.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021 Aug 21; 13(16). PMID: 34413268    Free PMC article.
CARs and beyond: tailoring macrophage-based cell therapeutics to combat solid malignancies.
Shifaa M Abdin, Daniela Paasch, Michael Morgan, Nico Lachmann.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Sep 01; 9(8). PMID: 34462325    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy in microsatellite instability metastatic colorectal cancer: Current status and future perspectives.
Rodrigo Motta, Santiago Cabezas-Camarero, +4 authors, Miguel J Sotelo.
J Clin Transl Res, 2021 Sep 21; 7(4). PMID: 34541365    Free PMC article.
NSCLC Biomarkers to Predict Response to Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI): From the Cells to In Vivo Images.
Virginia Liberini, Annapaola Mariniello, +7 authors, Désirée Deandreis.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 13(18). PMID: 34572771    Free PMC article.
A Human Pan-Cancer System Analysis of Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase 3 (PLOD3).
Siming Gong, Yingjuan Duan, +3 authors, Sonja Kallendrusch.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Sep 29; 22(18). PMID: 34576068    Free PMC article.
The Clinical Significance of Mesenteric Lymphocytes in Human Colorectal Cancer.
Zi-Xin Wu, Fei Wang, +7 authors, Zhe-Xiong Lian.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 05; 11. PMID: 34604029    Free PMC article.
Identification of an Immune-Related Long Noncoding RNA Pairs Model to Predict Survival and Immune Features in Gastric Cancer.
Shenglei Song, Shuhao Liu, +5 authors, Changhua Zhang.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Oct 09; 9. PMID: 34621744    Free PMC article.
Application of Proteomics in Cancer: Recent Trends and Approaches for Biomarkers Discovery.
Yang Woo Kwon, Han-Seul Jo, +4 authors, Jong Hyuk Yoon.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 Oct 12; 8. PMID: 34631760    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current Status and Future Prospects.
Zhuoyan Liu, Xuan Liu, +5 authors, Xiaotao Jiang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Oct 23; 12. PMID: 34675942    Free PMC article.
Trial watch: intratumoral immunotherapy.
Juliette Humeau, Julie Le Naour, +2 authors, Jonathan G Pol.
Oncoimmunology, 2021 Oct 23; 10(1). PMID: 34676147    Free PMC article.
Supplementation with Serum-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Reinforces Antitumor Immunity Induced by Cryo-Thermal Therapy.
Yinuo Cen, Yue Lou, +4 authors, Ping Liu.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 24; 22(20). PMID: 34681680    Free PMC article.
Low expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related gene SERP1 is associated with poor prognosis and immune infiltration in skin cutaneous melanoma.
Yuchao Fan, Xiao Liang, Deshui Yu.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021 Oct 07; 13(19). PMID: 34613934    Free PMC article.
Pan-cancer analysis combined with experiments predicts CTHRC1 as a therapeutic target for human cancers.
Dazhao Peng, Cheng Wei, +5 authors, Lei Han.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Oct 28; 21(1). PMID: 34702252    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy: The future of cancer treatment.
Manisha Sahu, Hemakumari Suryawanshi.
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 2021 Oct 28; 25(2). PMID: 34703141    Free PMC article.
Identification of Three Core Secretome Genes Associated with Immune Infiltration in High Tumor Mutation Burden Across 14 Major Solid Tumors.
Huan Wu, Hanchu Wang, Zhenyou Jiang, Yue Chen.
Int J Gen Med, 2021 Oct 28; 14. PMID: 34703282    Free PMC article.
CKS2 Overexpression Correlates with Prognosis and Immune Cell Infiltration in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Comprehensive Study based on Bioinformatics and Experiments.
Zhiping Wang, Mengyan Zhang, +3 authors, Jiancheng Li.
J Cancer, 2021 Nov 04; 12(23). PMID: 34729099    Free PMC article.
PD1/PDL1 expression is associated with increased TIM3 expression and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes in fibroblastic tumors.
H Chen, H Liu, +3 authors, S Xiao.
Clin Transl Oncol, 2021 Nov 07; 24(3). PMID: 34741725
The Prognostic and Immunological Value of Guanylate-Binding Proteins in Lower-Grade Glioma: Potential Markers or Not?
Zhuang Liu, Jifeng Sun, +3 authors, Chang Liu.
Front Genet, 2021 Nov 12; 12. PMID: 34759950    Free PMC article.
Roles of HMGBs in Prognosis and Immunotherapy: A Pan-Cancer Analysis.
Tong Lin, Yingzhao Zhang, Zhimei Lin, Lisheng Peng.
Front Genet, 2021 Nov 16; 12. PMID: 34777483    Free PMC article.
The Upregulation of PLXDC2 Correlates with Immune Microenvironment Characteristics and Predicts Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.
Yang Li, Jia-Qi Li, Hai-Ping Jiang, Xin Li.
Dis Markers, 2021 Nov 16; 2021. PMID: 34777633    Free PMC article.
Radioresistance of Human Cancers: Clinical Implications of Genetic Expression Signatures.
Sven de Mey, Inès Dufait, Mark De Ridder.
Front Oncol, 2021 Nov 16; 11. PMID: 34778082    Free PMC article.
Proteomics as a Complementary Technique to Characterize Bladder Cancer.
Rubén López-Cortés, Sergio Vázquez-Estévez, Javier Álvarez Fernández, Cristina Núñez.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 14; 13(21). PMID: 34771699    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Tumor-Reactive T Cell Signature Associated With Clinical Outcome and Immunotherapy Response In Melanoma.
Min Yan, Jing Hu, +8 authors, Xia Li.
Front Immunol, 2021 Nov 23; 12. PMID: 34804045    Free PMC article.
From Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation to Chimeric Antigen Receptor Therapy: Advances, Limitations and Future Perspectives.
Elisaveta Voynova, Damian Kovalovsky.
Cells, 2021 Nov 28; 10(11). PMID: 34831068    Free PMC article.
Programmed death ligand 2 expression plays a limited role in adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction after preoperative chemotherapy.
Gerd Jomrich, Dagmar Kollmann, +10 authors, Sebastian F Schoppmann.
Eur Surg, 2021 Dec 07; 53(6). PMID: 34868284    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Significance of PD-L1 Expression In Patients With Primary Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.
Jerry Polesel, Anna Menegaldo, +8 authors, Elisabetta Fratta.
Front Oncol, 2021 Dec 14; 11. PMID: 34900743    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Antiviral Responses in Cancer: Boosting Antitumor Immunity Through Activation of Interferon Pathway in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello, Wallax Augusto Silva Ferreira, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima, Tiago da Silva Medina.
Front Immunol, 2021 Dec 21; 12. PMID: 34925363    Free PMC article.
Combination of Lenvatinib and Pembrolizumab as Salvage Treatment for Paucicellular Variant of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report.
Cristina Luongo, Tommaso Porcelli, +9 authors, Domenico Salvatore.
Curr Oncol, 2021 Dec 24; 28(6). PMID: 34940089    Free PMC article.
Kidney Cancer and Chronic Kidney Disease: Too Close for Comfort.
Pedro Caetano Pinto, Cindy Rönnau, Martin Burchardt, Ingmar Wolff.
Biomedicines, 2021 Dec 25; 9(12). PMID: 34944574    Free PMC article.
Characterization of m6A RNA Methylation Regulators Predicts Survival and Immunotherapy in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Minggao Zhu, Yachao Cui, +8 authors, Qiang You.
Front Immunol, 2022 Jan 04; 12. PMID: 34975871    Free PMC article.
Systematic analysis of the role of SLC52A2 in multiple human cancers.
Lilong Zhang, Man Li, +4 authors, Weixing Wang.
Cancer Cell Int, 2022 Jan 08; 22(1). PMID: 34991609    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Microenvironment-Responsive Nanomedicine for Enhanced Cancer Immunotherapy.
Shaojun Peng, Fengfeng Xiao, Meiwan Chen, Huile Gao.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2021 Nov 20; 9(1). PMID: 34796689    Free PMC article.
Hybrid Membrane Nanovaccines Combined with Immune Checkpoint Blockade to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy.
Peiqi Zhao, Yuanlin Xu, +5 authors, Huilai Zhang.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2022 Jan 15; 17. PMID: 35027827    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Infiltrating CD4+ Central Memory T Cells Correlated with Favorable Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Jin Wu, Tianyi Zhang, +6 authors, Tong Su.
J Inflamm Res, 2022 Jan 18; 15. PMID: 35035226    Free PMC article.
Expanding the role of interventional oncology for advancing precision immunotherapy of solid tumors.
Yasushi Kimura, Mario Ghosn, +3 authors, Govindarajan Srimathveeralli.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2022 Jan 18; 24. PMID: 35036524    Free PMC article.
Defining the correlation between immune-checkpoint inhibitors-related adverse events and clinical outcomes: a narrative review.
Omar Abdihamid, Abeid Omar, Tibera Rugambwa.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2022 Jan 21; 15. PMID: 35047065    Free PMC article.
Spatial omics: Navigating to the golden era of cancer research.
Yingcheng Wu, Yifei Cheng, +2 authors, Qiang Gao.
Clin Transl Med, 2022 Jan 19; 12(1). PMID: 35040595    Free PMC article.
Insights Into the Prognostic Value and Immunological Role of NAAA in Pan-Cancer.
Da Huang, Jiayu Shen, +4 authors, Jianwei Zhou.
Front Immunol, 2022 Jan 25; 12. PMID: 35069601    Free PMC article.
Mitosis-related gene CENP-U as a potential biomarker in malignancy.
Changjian Shao, Yuanyong Wang, +6 authors, Xiaolong Yan.
Ann Transl Med, 2022 Jan 25; 9(23). PMID: 35071438    Free PMC article.
Single-cell transcriptome profiling reveals intra-tumoral heterogeneity in human chordomas.
Wanru Duan, Boyan Zhang, +7 authors, Zan Chen.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2022 Jan 28;. PMID: 35084549
Chordin-like 1 is a novel prognostic biomarker and correlative with immune cell infiltration in lung adenocarcinoma.
Bing Deng, Xiaorui Chen, +6 authors, Depeng Jiang.
Aging (Albany NY), 2022 Jan 13; 14(1). PMID: 35021154    Free PMC article.
Gold-Polymer Nanocomposites for Future Therapeutic and Tissue Engineering Applications.
Panangattukara Prabhakaran Praveen Kumar, Dong-Kwon Lim.
Pharmaceutics, 2022 Jan 22; 14(1). PMID: 35056967    Free PMC article.
Neurotoxicity of Tumor Immunotherapy: The Emergence of Clinical Attention.
Benxia Zhang, Xue Li, +5 authors, Yongsheng Wang.
J Oncol, 2022 Jan 29; 2022. PMID: 35087588    Free PMC article.
The screening of immune-related biomarkers for prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma.
Zhonghui Liu, Dan Sun, Qing Zhu, Xinmin Liu.
Bioengineered, 2021 Apr 20; 12(1). PMID: 33870858    Free PMC article.
Photodynamic therapy of melanoma with new, structurally similar, NIR-absorbing ruthenium (II) complexes promotes tumor growth control via distinct hallmarks of immunogenic cell death.
Prathyusha Konda, John A Roque Iii, +6 authors, Shashi Gujar.
Am J Cancer Res, 2022 Feb 11; 12(1). PMID: 35141014    Free PMC article.
Pan-Cancer Analysis Reveals the Multidimensional Expression and Prognostic and Immunologic Roles of VSTM2L in Cancer.
Shuyi Zhang, Hailin Xiong, Jiahui Yang, Xia Yuan.
Front Mol Biosci, 2022 Feb 15; 8. PMID: 35155565    Free PMC article.
Thymic Polypeptide Fraction Biomodulina T Decreases Exhausted and Terminally Differentiated EMRA T Cells in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.
Gisela María Suárez, Mauricio Catalá, +15 authors, Danay Saavedra.
Front Oncol, 2022 Feb 15; 12. PMID: 35155258    Free PMC article.
ITGA5 is an independent prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Chongchang Zhou, Yiming Shen, +4 authors, Hongxia Deng.
J Clin Lab Anal, 2022 Jan 08; 36(2). PMID: 34994984    Free PMC article.
An Immunological Perspective of Circulating Tumor Cells as Diagnostic Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets.
Eunice Dotse, King H Lim, +2 authors, Kwan T Chow.
Life (Basel), 2022 Feb 26; 12(2). PMID: 35207611    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic DNA Vaccines against HPV-Related Malignancies: Promising Leads from Clinical Trials.
Jianming Tang, Mingzhu Li, +4 authors, Lihui Wei.
Viruses, 2022 Feb 27; 14(2). PMID: 35215833    Free PMC article.
TJP1 Contributes to Tumor Progression through Supporting Cell-Cell Aggregation and Communicating with Tumor Microenvironment in Leiomyosarcoma.
Eun-Young Lee, Minjeong Kim, +3 authors, Hye Jin You.
Mol Cells, 2021 Nov 13; 44(11). PMID: 34764231    Free PMC article.
Clinical Significance of Tumor-Infiltrating Conventional and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Ioana Plesca, Iva Benešová, +12 authors, Marc Schmitz.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Mar 11; 14(5). PMID: 35267524    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint silencing using RNAi-incorporated nanoparticles enhances antitumor immunity and therapeutic efficacy compared with antibody-based approaches.
Ji Eun Won, Youngseon Byeon, +7 authors, Hee Dong Han.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022 Mar 02; 10(2). PMID: 35228265    Free PMC article.
Upregulation of IGF2BP2 Promotes Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression That Is Related to Cell Proliferation, Metastasis and Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells.
Lijie Zhou, Hongyu Li, +4 authors, Shuai He.
Front Oncol, 2022 Mar 19; 12. PMID: 35299748    Free PMC article.
Advances in High Throughput Proteomics Profiling in Establishing Potential Biomarkers for Gastrointestinal Cancer.
Md Zahirul Islam Khan, Shing Yau Tam, Helen Ka Wai Law.
Cells, 2022 Mar 26; 11(6). PMID: 35326424    Free PMC article.
Shock Waves Enhance Expression of Glycosphingolipid Tumor Antigen on Renal Cell Carcinoma: Dynamics of Physically Unmasking Hidden Intracellular Markers Independent of Gene-Signaling Pathways.
Nushin Hosano, Zahra Moosavi-Nejad, Makoto Satoh, Hamid Hosano.
Biomedicines, 2022 Mar 26; 10(3). PMID: 35327347    Free PMC article.
Functional antigen processing and presentation mechanism as a prerequisite factor of response to treatment with dendritic cell vaccines and anti-PD-1 in preclinical murine LLC1 and GL261 tumor models.
Karolina Žilionytė, Ugnė Bagdzevičiūtė, +5 authors, Vita Pašukonienė.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2022 Apr 03;. PMID: 35364740
Bladder cancer cells shift rapidly and spontaneously to cisplatin-resistant oxidative phosphorylation that is trackable in real time.
Tong Xu, Jason A Junge, +11 authors, Amir Goldkorn.
Sci Rep, 2022 Apr 03; 12(1). PMID: 35365706    Free PMC article.
Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of checkpoint genes on the tumour side of the immunological synapse.
Paula Dobosz, Przemysław A Stempor, Miguel Ramírez Moreno, Natalia A Bulgakova.
Heredity (Edinb), 2022 Apr 24;. PMID: 35459932
Development and Validation of Novel Prognostic Models for Immune-Related Genes in Osteosarcoma.
Junqing Li, Li Su, +6 authors, Huimin Zhu.
Front Mol Biosci, 2022 Apr 26; 9. PMID: 35463956    Free PMC article.
The Prognostic Value and Immune Infiltration of USP10 in Pan-Cancer: A Potential Therapeutic Target.
Dacheng Gao, Zhiwen Zhang, +8 authors, Zengguang Xu.
Front Oncol, 2022 Apr 19; 12. PMID: 35433424    Free PMC article.
Improving ovarian cancer treatment decision using a novel risk predictive tool.
Zhenyi Xu, Jiali Song, +5 authors, Yan Hou.
Aging (Albany NY), 2022 Apr 20; 14(8). PMID: 35439731    Free PMC article.
Development of Cancer Immunotherapies.
Diana C DeLucia, John K Lee.
Cancer Treat Res, 2022 May 14; 183. PMID: 35551655
Probing immune infiltration dynamics in cancer by in vivo imaging.
Thomas S C Ng, Harris H Allen, Mohammad Rashidian, Miles A Miller.
Curr Opin Chem Biol, 2022 Feb 27; 67. PMID: 35219177    Free PMC article.
Disrupting Mechanisms that Regulate Genomic Repeat Elements to Combat Cancer and Drug Resistance.
Chames Kermi, Lena Lau, Azar Asadi Shahmirzadi, Marie Classon.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2022 May 24; 10. PMID: 35602594    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Roles of exosomal circRNAs in tumour immunity and cancer progression.
Baojing Tuo, Zhuang Chen, +4 authors, Zhenqiang Sun.
Cell Death Dis, 2022 Jun 09; 13(6). PMID: 35676257
Prognostic and tumor immunity implication of inflammatory bowel disease-associated genes in colorectal cancer.
Di Wang, Biao Xie.
Eur J Med Res, 2022 Jun 14; 27(1). PMID: 35698180
Recent advances in porous nanomaterials-based drug delivery systems for cancer immunotherapy.
Su-Ran Li, Fang-Yi Huo, +4 authors, Lin-Lin Bu.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2022 Jun 15; 20(1). PMID: 35701847