. 2020 Dec; 21(23):.
doi: 10.3390/ijms21238984.

Overcoming Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Kevinn Eddy 1 Suzie Chen 1 
  • PMID: 33256089
  •     445 References
  •     21 citations


Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer that develops from transformed melanocytes. It is crucial to identify melanoma at its early stages, in situ, as it is "curable" at this stage. However, after metastasis, it is difficult to treat and the five-year survival is only 25%. In recent years, a better understanding of the etiology of melanoma and its progression has made it possible for the development of targeted therapeutics, such as vemurafenib and immunotherapies, to treat advanced melanomas. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate melanoma development and progression, with a special focus on the immune evasion strategies utilized by melanomas, to evade host immune surveillances. The proposed mechanism of action and the roles of immunotherapeutic agents, ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, adoptive T- cell therapy plus T-VEC in the treatment of advanced melanoma are discussed. In this review, we implore that a better understanding of the steps that mediate melanoma onset and progression, immune evasion strategies exploited by these tumor cells, and the identification of biomarkers to predict treatment response are critical in the design of improved strategies to improve clinical outcomes for patients with this deadly disease.

Keywords: T-VEC; adoptive T-cell therapy; anti-CTLA-4; anti-PD-1; anti-PD-L1; immune checkpoint blockade therapy; immunotherapy; melanoma; melanoma immune evasion.

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Immunity, 2004 Oct 16; 21(4). PMID: 15485628
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Molecular pathways: hypoxia response in immune cells fighting or promoting cancer.
Asis Palazón, Julián Aragonés, +2 authors, Ignacio Melero.
Clin Cancer Res, 2011 Dec 30; 18(5). PMID: 22205687
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Ho Joo Jung, Sun-Seog Kweon, +2 authors, Sook Jung Yun.
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J Immunol, 2000 Dec 20; 165(12). PMID: 11120790
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Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2018 Oct 13; 68(1). PMID: 30311027
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Hiroshi Kawamoto, Nagahiro Minato.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2004 May 19; 36(8). PMID: 15147715
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Cell Rep, 2016 May 24; 15(9). PMID: 27210762
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C E Feibleman, H Stoll, J C Maize.
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Katrin Klocke, Shimon Sakaguchi, Rikard Holmdahl, Kajsa Wing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Apr 14; 113(17). PMID: 27071130    Free PMC article.
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Sharad K Mittal, Paul A Roche.
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Cancer Res, 2014 Apr 03; 74(7). PMID: 24691993    Free PMC article.
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Christopher A Natale, Elizabeth K Duperret, +6 authors, Todd W Ridky.
Elife, 2016 Apr 27; 5. PMID: 27115344    Free PMC article.
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Integrated genomic analyses reveal frequent TERT aberrations in acral melanoma.
Winnie S Liang, William Hendricks, +23 authors, Jeffrey Trent.
Genome Res, 2017 Apr 05; 27(4). PMID: 28373299    Free PMC article.
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Richard Tyrell, Camila Antia, Sharon Stanley, Gary B Deutsch.
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Sci Transl Med, 2014 May 30; 6(238). PMID: 24871131    Free PMC article.
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Xiaodong Feng, Maria Sol Degese, +9 authors, J Silvio Gutkind.
Cancer Cell, 2014 Jun 03; 25(6). PMID: 24882515    Free PMC article.
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Oncogenesis, 2018 Mar 16; 7(3). PMID: 29540752    Free PMC article.
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Lancet Oncol, 2018 Sep 17; 19(10). PMID: 30219628
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Metabolic Reprogramming Mediated by the mTORC2-IRF4 Signaling Axis Is Essential for Macrophage Alternative Activation.
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Nature, 2018 Aug 10; 560(7718). PMID: 30089911    Free PMC article.
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Thomas Schwarz.
Keio J Med, 2006 Feb 03; 54(4). PMID: 16452825
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Highly Cited. Review.
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Highly Cited. Review.
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Sci Transl Med, 2014 Sep 19; 6(254). PMID: 25232180
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Liver damage related to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo.
Hepatol Int, 2019 Jan 05; 13(3). PMID: 30607787
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Blood, 2012 Apr 28; 119(24). PMID: 22538857
Analysis of response rate with ANTI PD1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies in advanced solid tumors: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Alberto Carretero-González, David Lora, +6 authors, Guillermo de Velasco.
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AKT2 is a downstream target of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1).
Seung-Shick Shin, Brian A Wall, James S Goydos, Suzie Chen.
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Jennifer O Black.
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Hum Mol Genet, 2009 Mar 20; 18(R1). PMID: 19297406
Highly Cited. Review.
Detection of M2-macrophages in uveal melanoma and relation with survival.
Inge H G Bronkhorst, Long V Ly, +4 authors, Martine J Jager.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2010 Sep 03; 52(2). PMID: 20811059
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Exp Dermatol, 2012 Aug 14; 21(10). PMID: 22882420
Genome sequencing of mucosal melanomas reveals that they are driven by distinct mechanisms from cutaneous melanoma.
Simon J Furney, Samra Turajlic, +9 authors, Richard Marais.
J Pathol, 2013 Apr 27; 230(3). PMID: 23620124
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Posttranslational Modifications of PD-L1 and Their Applications in Cancer Therapy.
Jung-Mao Hsu, Chia-Wei Li, Yun-Ju Lai, Mien-Chie Hung.
Cancer Res, 2018 Nov 18; 78(22). PMID: 30442814    Free PMC article.
Accuracy of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous wide local excision in patients with primary melanoma.
Christopher J Gannon, Dennis L Rousseau, +6 authors, Jeffrey E Gershenwald.
Cancer, 2006 Oct 26; 107(11). PMID: 17063497
Differential sensitivity of melanoma cell lines with BRAFV600E mutation to the specific Raf inhibitor PLX4032.
Jonas N Søndergaard, Ramin Nazarian, +16 authors, Antoni Ribas.
J Transl Med, 2010 Apr 22; 8. PMID: 20406486    Free PMC article.
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Phase II trial (BREAK-2) of the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib (GSK2118436) in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Paolo A Ascierto, David Minor, +17 authors, Uwe Trefzer.
J Clin Oncol, 2013 Aug 07; 31(26). PMID: 23918947
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GNAQ and GNA11 mutations occur in 9.5% of mucosal melanoma and are associated with poor prognosis.
Xinan Sheng, Yan Kong, +12 authors, Jun Guo.
Eur J Cancer, 2016 Aug 09; 65. PMID: 27498141
PD-1 on dendritic cells impedes innate immunity against bacterial infection.
Sheng Yao, Shengdian Wang, +9 authors, Lieping Chen.
Blood, 2009 Apr 03; 113(23). PMID: 19339692    Free PMC article.
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Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2017 Jan 06; 5(1). PMID: 28052991    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The effect of misdiagnosis and delay in diagnosis on clinical outcome in melanomas of the foot.
D R Bennett, D Wasson, J D MacArthur, M A McMillen.
J Am Coll Surg, 1994 Sep 01; 179(3). PMID: 8069422
Genetic, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the programmed death protein ligand 1 in cancer: biology and clinical correlations.
Ioannis Zerdes, Alexios Matikas, +2 authors, Theodoros Foukakis.
Oncogene, 2018 May 17; 37(34). PMID: 29765155    Free PMC article.
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The Genetic Evolution of Melanoma from Precursor Lesions.
A Hunter Shain, Iwei Yeh, +11 authors, Boris C Bastian.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Nov 13; 373(20). PMID: 26559571
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Immunotherapy of melanoma.
John B A G Haanen.
EJC Suppl, 2013 Sep 01; 11(2). PMID: 26217118    Free PMC article.
Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer.
Karlo Perica, Juan Carlos Varela, Mathias Oelke, Jonathan Schneck.
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The number and localization of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in different stages of cutaneous melanoma.
Satu Salmi, Hanna Siiskonen, +5 authors, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen.
Melanoma Res, 2018 Nov 07; 29(3). PMID: 30399061    Free PMC article.
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Primoz Strojan.
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Mod Pathol, 2011 Feb 15; 24(6). PMID: 21317876    Free PMC article.
Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells are overrepresented in human metastatic melanoma lymph nodes and inhibit the function of infiltrating T cells.
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J Immunol, 2004 Jul 09; 173(2). PMID: 15240741
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Tumour-derived exosomes and their role in cancer-associated T-cell signalling defects.
D D Taylor, C Gerçel-Taylor.
Br J Cancer, 2005 Jan 19; 92(2). PMID: 15655551    Free PMC article.
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Upregulation of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression is associated with tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction in melanoma patients.
Julien Fourcade, Zhaojun Sun, +6 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
J Exp Med, 2010 Sep 08; 207(10). PMID: 20819923    Free PMC article.
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Aberrant Expression of MHC Class II in Melanoma Attracts Inflammatory Tumor-Specific CD4+ T- Cells, Which Dampen CD8+ T-cell Antitumor Reactivity.
Marco Donia, Rikke Andersen, +6 authors, Inge Marie Svane.
Cancer Res, 2015 Jul 18; 75(18). PMID: 26183926
PD-L2 Expression in Human Tumors: Relevance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Cancer.
Jennifer H Yearley, Christopher Gibson, +10 authors, Terrill McClanahan.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 18; 23(12). PMID: 28619999
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Efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in different types of melanoma.
Ernesto Rossi, Giovanni Schinzari, +13 authors, Giampaolo Tortora.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2020 Jul 15; 17(1). PMID: 32663057    Free PMC article.
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Saman Maleki Vareki.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Dec 28; 6(1). PMID: 30587233    Free PMC article.
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Pro-tumor activities of macrophages in the progression of melanoma.
Huafeng Wang, Luhong Yang, +2 authors, Lijuan Zhang.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2017 Apr 26; 13(7). PMID: 28441072    Free PMC article.
Five-Year Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2019 Sep 29; 381(16). PMID: 31562797
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Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Signaling Regulates Macrophage Proliferation and Activation.
Genevieve P Hartley, Lyndah Chow, +2 authors, Steven W Dow.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2018 Jul 18; 6(10). PMID: 30012633
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First oncolytic virus approved for melanoma immunotherapy.
Jonathan Pol, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Mar 05; 5(1). PMID: 26942095    Free PMC article.
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CTLA-4 is expressed by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and regulates their functions.
Stefania Laurent, Paolo Carrega, +10 authors, Maria Pia Pistillo.
Hum Immunol, 2010 Jul 24; 71(10). PMID: 20650297
Immune System Evasion as Hallmark of Melanoma Progression: The Role of Dendritic Cells.
Marco Tucci, Anna Passarelli, +4 authors, Francesco Silvestris.
Front Oncol, 2019 Nov 22; 9. PMID: 31750245    Free PMC article.
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Susanne H Baumeister, Gordon J Freeman, Glenn Dranoff, Arlene H Sharpe.
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Uveal melanoma: relatively rare but deadly cancer.
S Kaliki, C L Shields.
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Alisa M Goldstein, May Chan, +37 authors, Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL).
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STAT1 signaling regulates tumor-associated macrophage-mediated T cell deletion.
Sergei Kusmartsev, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
J Immunol, 2005 Apr 09; 174(8). PMID: 15814715
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Comparative analysis of the in vivo expression of tyrosinase, MART-1/Melan-A, and gp100 in metastatic melanoma lesions: implications for immunotherapy.
J N Cormier, A Abati, +4 authors, S L Topalian.
J Immunother, 1998 Feb 11; 21(1). PMID: 9456433
Pan-tumor genomic biomarkers for PD-1 checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy.
Razvan Cristescu, Robin Mogg, +21 authors, David Kaufman.
Science, 2018 Oct 13; 362(6411). PMID: 30309915    Free PMC article.
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Melanoma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Bear the Potential for the Induction of Antigen-Specific Tolerance.
Markus Düchler, Liliana Czernek, +3 authors, Malgorzata Czyz.
Cells, 2019 Jul 05; 8(7). PMID: 31269655    Free PMC article.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype-1 is essential for in vivo growth of melanoma.
Y Ohtani, T Harada, +7 authors, A Aiba.
Oncogene, 2008 Sep 09; 27(57). PMID: 18776920
Effectiveness of imiquimod limited to dermal melanoma metastases, with simultaneous resistance of subcutaneous metastasis.
Kristin Turza, Lynn T Dengel, +4 authors, Craig L Slingluff.
J Cutan Pathol, 2009 Jul 16; 37(1). PMID: 19602071    Free PMC article.
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma: Incidence and Survival in the United States, 2006-2015, an Analysis of the SEER Registry.
Kai Huang, Ji Fan, Subhasis Misra.
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Interferon-γ Signaling in Melanocytes and Melanoma Cells Regulates Expression of CTLA-4.
Xuan Mo, Hanghang Zhang, +7 authors, M Raza Zaidi.
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Exp Eye Res, 2012 Dec 05; 107. PMID: 23206928    Free PMC article.
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Daniela Massi, Chiara Marconi, +6 authors, Lido Calorini.
Hum Pathol, 2007 Jul 21; 38(10). PMID: 17640716
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The melanoma revolution: from UV carcinogenesis to a new era in therapeutics.
Jennifer A Lo, David E Fisher.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Heterogeneous expression of melanoma-associated antigens and HLA-A2 in metastatic melanoma in vivo.
J N Cormier, Y M Hijazi, +5 authors, F M Marincola.
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Gut microbiome modulates response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients.
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FOXP3 expression accurately defines the population of intratumoral regulatory T cells that selectively accumulate in metastatic melanoma lesions.
Mojgan Ahmadzadeh, Aloisio Felipe-Silva, +4 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
Blood, 2008 Sep 30; 112(13). PMID: 18820132    Free PMC article.
The 2018 World Health Organization Classification of Cutaneous, Mucosal, and Uveal Melanoma: Detailed Analysis of 9 Distinct Subtypes Defined by Their Evolutionary Pathway.
David E Elder, Boris C Bastian, +2 authors, Richard A Scolyer.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2020 Feb 15; 144(4). PMID: 32057276
Revealing the genomic heterogeneity of melanoma.
Omar Kabbarah, Lynda Chin.
Cancer Cell, 2005 Dec 13; 8(6). PMID: 16338657
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Marlana Orloff.
Oncolytic Virother, 2016 Oct 28; 5. PMID: 27785448    Free PMC article.
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Immunological Backbone of Uveal Melanoma: Is There a Rationale for Immunotherapy?
Ernesto Rossi, Giovanni Schinzari, +11 authors, Giampaolo Tortora.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jul 31; 11(8). PMID: 31357439    Free PMC article.
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Susan M Swetter, Hensin Tsao, +13 authors, Toyin Lamina.
J Am Acad Dermatol, 2018 Nov 06; 80(1). PMID: 30392755
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Michael A Postow, Margaret K Callahan, +18 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Mar 09; 366(10). PMID: 22397654    Free PMC article.
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An Update on Adoptive T-Cell Therapy and Neoantigen Vaccines.
Patrick A Ott, Gianpietro Dotti, Cassian Yee, Stephanie L Goff.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book, 2019 May 18; 39. PMID: 31099621
Combination therapy with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 leads to distinct immunologic changes in vivo.
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J Immunol, 2014 Dec 30; 194(3). PMID: 25539810    Free PMC article.
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The reciprocal relationship between melanization and tyrosinase activity in melanosomes (melanin granules).
J Biochem, 1961 Jun 01; 49. PMID: 13749805
Phenotypic characterization of tumor CTLA-4 expression in melanoma tissues and its possible role in clinical response to Ipilimumab.
Maria Pia Pistillo, Roberta Carosio, +12 authors, Paola Queirolo.
Clin Immunol, 2020 Apr 29; 215. PMID: 32344017
CTLA-4 and PD-1 receptors inhibit T-cell activation by distinct mechanisms.
Richard V Parry, Jens M Chemnitz, +6 authors, James L Riley.
Mol Cell Biol, 2005 Oct 18; 25(21). PMID: 16227604    Free PMC article.
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Andrea Castro, Rachel Marty Pyke, +5 authors, Hannah Carter.
Nat Commun, 2020 Aug 19; 11(1). PMID: 32807809    Free PMC article.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Identifying a Clinically Applicable Mutational Burden Threshold as a Potential Biomarker of Response to Immune Checkpoint Therapy in Solid Tumors.
Anshuman Panda, Anil Betigeri, +14 authors, Shridar Ganesan.
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Seung-Shick Shin, Jin Namkoong, +3 authors, Suzie Chen.
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Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.
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Nat Med, 2002 Jul 02; 8(8). PMID: 12091876
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An immune-active tumor microenvironment favors clinical response to ipilimumab.
Rui-Ru Ji, Scott D Chasalow, +9 authors, Vafa Shahabi.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2011 Dec 08; 61(7). PMID: 22146893
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Is the scavenger receptor MARCO a new immune checkpoint?
Mohamed S Arredouani.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 May 06; 3(10). PMID: 25941575    Free PMC article.
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Jedd D Wolchok, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +30 authors, James Larkin.
N Engl J Med, 2017 Sep 12; 377(14). PMID: 28889792    Free PMC article.
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Michal J Besser, Ronnie Shapira-Frommer, +17 authors, Jacob Schachter.
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Discovery of a selective inhibitor of oncogenic B-Raf kinase with potent antimelanoma activity.
James Tsai, John T Lee, +35 authors, Gideon Bollag.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Feb 22; 105(8). PMID: 18287029    Free PMC article.
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SHP-1 and SHP-2 associate with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif of programmed death 1 upon primary human T cell stimulation, but only receptor ligation prevents T cell activation.
Jens M Chemnitz, Richard V Parry, +2 authors, James L Riley.
J Immunol, 2004 Jul 09; 173(2). PMID: 15240681
Highly Cited.
Ipilimumab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of regulatory T cells ex vivo by nonclassical monocytes in melanoma patients.
Emanuela Romano, Monika Kusio-Kobialka, +7 authors, Daniel E Speiser.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Apr 29; 112(19). PMID: 25918390    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
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Thomas Condamine, Indu Ramachandran, Je-In Youn, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
Annu Rev Med, 2014 Oct 24; 66. PMID: 25341012    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
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V K Shreedhar, M W Pride, +2 authors, F M Strickland.
J Immunol, 1998 Aug 01; 161(3). PMID: 9686595
Melanoma prone families with CDK4 germline mutation: phenotypic profile and associations with MC1R variants.
Hanne Eknes Puntervoll, Xiaohong R Yang, +30 authors, Anders Molven.
J Med Genet, 2013 Feb 07; 50(4). PMID: 23384855    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Therapeutic Targets for Skin Cancer.
Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, +2 authors, Setsuya Aiba.
Front Oncol, 2018 Feb 08; 8. PMID: 29410946    Free PMC article.
Cellular and cytokine-dependent immunosuppressive mechanisms of grm1-transgenic murine melanoma.
Miriam Alb, Christopher Sie, +3 authors, David Schrama.
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Highly Cited.
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Highly Cited.
Melanoma staging: Evidence-based changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual.
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Highly Cited.
Durable complete responses in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic melanoma using T-cell transfer immunotherapy.
Steven A Rosenberg, James C Yang, +12 authors, Mark E Dudley.
Clin Cancer Res, 2011 Apr 19; 17(13). PMID: 21498393    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The protective role of melanin against UV damage in human skin.
Michaela Brenner, Vincent J Hearing.
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Highly Cited. Review.
M-1/M-2 macrophages and the Th1/Th2 paradigm.
C D Mills, K Kincaid, +2 authors, A M Hill.
J Immunol, 2000 Jun 08; 164(12). PMID: 10843666
Highly Cited.
Spontaneous melanocytosis in transgenic mice.
S Chen, H Zhu, W J Wetzel, M A Philbert.
J Invest Dermatol, 1996 May 01; 106(5). PMID: 8618055
A guide to cancer immunotherapy: from T cell basic science to clinical practice.
Alex D Waldman, Jill M Fritz, Michael J Lenardo.
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Encorafenib plus binimetinib versus vemurafenib or encorafenib in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma (COLUMBUS): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.
Reinhard Dummer, Paolo A Ascierto, +17 authors, Keith T Flaherty.
Lancet Oncol, 2018 Mar 27; 19(5). PMID: 29573941
Highly Cited.
Prospects of IL-2 in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Hani Choudhry, Nawal Helmi, +7 authors, Mohammad S Jamal.
Biomed Res Int, 2018 Jun 02; 2018. PMID: 29854806    Free PMC article.
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Highly Cited.
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
Jedd D Wolchok, Harriet Kluger, +21 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724867    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune escape of cancer cells with beta2-microglobulin loss over the course of metastatic melanoma.
Ana B del Campo, Jon Amund Kyte, +8 authors, Natalia Aptsiauri.
Int J Cancer, 2013 Jun 21; 134(1). PMID: 23784959
Biology, Therapy and Implications of Tumor Exosomes in the Progression of Melanoma.
Allison L Isola, Kevinn Eddy, Suzie Chen.
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Blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 Enhances Adoptive T-cell Therapy Efficacy in an ICOS-Mediated Manner.
Lewis Zhichang Shi, Sangeeta Goswami, +12 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
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Surgery of primary tumor improves the survival of newly diagnosed metastatic melanoma: a population-based, propensity-matched study.
Dongxiao Zhang, Yinjun Dong, +2 authors, Jinming Yu.
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Impaired gp100-Specific CD8(+) T-Cell Responses in the Presence of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in a Spontaneous Mouse Melanoma Model.
David G Mairhofer, Daniela Ortner, +10 authors, Patrizia Stoitzner.
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Interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 promote tolerance by blocking the TCR-induced stop signal.
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Highly Cited.
Death through a tragedy: mitotic catastrophe.
H Vakifahmetoglu, M Olsson, B Zhivotovsky.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Magnetic resonance imaging of melanoma exosomes in lymph nodes.
Lingzhi Hu, Samuel A Wickline, Joshua L Hood.
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Programmed cell death 1 forms negative costimulatory microclusters that directly inhibit T cell receptor signaling by recruiting phosphatase SHP2.
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J Exp Med, 2012 May 30; 209(6). PMID: 22641383    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Gut microbiome influences efficacy of PD-1-based immunotherapy against epithelial tumors.
Bertrand Routy, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, +45 authors, Laurence Zitvogel.
Science, 2017 Nov 04; 359(6371). PMID: 29097494
Highly Cited.
FOXP3+ T regulatory lymphocytes in primary melanoma are associated with BRAF mutation but not with response to BRAF inhibitor.
Connull Leslie, Samantha E Bowyer, +5 authors, Michael Millward.
Pathology, 2015 Aug 27; 47(6). PMID: 26308130
Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma.
Michael Krauthammer, Yong Kong, +27 authors, Ruth Halaban.
Nat Genet, 2012 Jul 31; 44(9). PMID: 22842228    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Down-regulation of HLA class I antigen-processing molecules in malignant melanoma: association with disease progression.
T Kageshita, S Hirai, +2 authors, S Ferrone.
Am J Pathol, 1999 Mar 18; 154(3). PMID: 10079252    Free PMC article.
Melanoma induces immunosuppression by up-regulating FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells.
Joel Baumgartner, Cara Wilson, +3 authors, Martin McCarter.
J Surg Res, 2007 Jun 19; 141(1). PMID: 17574040    Free PMC article.
Melanoma exosomes promote mixed M1 and M2 macrophage polarization.
Gina T Bardi, Mary Ann Smith, Joshua L Hood.
Cytokine, 2018 Feb 21; 105. PMID: 29459345    Free PMC article.
Tumor-derived exosomes regulate expression of immune function-related genes in human T cell subsets.
Laurent Muller, Masato Mitsuhashi, +2 authors, Theresa L Whiteside.
Sci Rep, 2016 Feb 05; 6. PMID: 26842680    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Melanoma.
Shigehisa Kitano, Takayuki Nakayama, Makiko Yamashita.
Front Oncol, 2018 Aug 04; 8. PMID: 30073150    Free PMC article.
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John A Curtin, Jane Fridlyand, +9 authors, Boris C Bastian.
N Engl J Med, 2005 Nov 18; 353(20). PMID: 16291983
Highly Cited.
The use of interferon in melanoma patients: a systematic review.
Rossella Di Trolio, Ester Simeone, +2 authors, Paolo Antonio Ascierto.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 2014 Dec 17; 26(2). PMID: 25511547
Systematic Review.
Therapeutic PD-L1 antibodies are more effective than PD-1 antibodies in blocking PD-1/PD-L1 signaling.
Annika De Sousa Linhares, Claire Battin, +8 authors, Peter Steinberger.
Sci Rep, 2019 Aug 09; 9(1). PMID: 31391510    Free PMC article.
B7-H1 limits the entry of effector CD8(+) T cells to the memory pool by upregulating Bim.
Rachel M Gibbons, Xin Liu, +4 authors, Haidong Dong.
Oncoimmunology, 2012 Nov 22; 1(7). PMID: 23170254    Free PMC article.
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William E Damsky, Lara E Rosenbaum, Marcus Bosenberg.
Cancers (Basel), 2010 Jan 01; 3(1). PMID: 24212610    Free PMC article.
Antigen-specific inhibition of CD8+ T cell response by immature myeloid cells in cancer is mediated by reactive oxygen species.
Sergei Kusmartsev, Yulia Nefedova, Daniel Yoder, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
J Immunol, 2004 Jan 07; 172(2). PMID: 14707072
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Interferon Receptor Signaling Pathways Regulating PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression.
Angel Garcia-Diaz, Daniel Sanghoon Shin, +16 authors, Antoni Ribas.
Cell Rep, 2017 May 13; 19(6). PMID: 28494868    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Increased frequency of ICOS+ CD4 T cells as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
Derek Ng Tang, Yu Shen, +5 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Apr 30; 1(4). PMID: 24777852    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Dermatol Wochenschr, 1963 May 18; 147. PMID: 14172128
Highly Cited.
Specific inhibition of PI3K p110δ inhibits CSF-1-induced macrophage spreading and invasive capacity.
Kellie A Mouchemore, Natalia G Sampaio, +3 authors, Fiona J Pixley.
FEBS J, 2013 May 08; 280(21). PMID: 23648053    Free PMC article.
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Ludmil B Alexandrov, Serena Nik-Zainal, +72 authors, Michael R Stratton.
Nature, 2013 Aug 16; 500(7463). PMID: 23945592    Free PMC article.
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Melanoma cell-derived exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients suppress functions of immune effector cells.
Priyanka Sharma, Brenda Diergaarde, +2 authors, Theresa L Whiteside.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jan 11; 10(1). PMID: 31919420    Free PMC article.
Cancer Immunotherapy in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Jun Zhang, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Ken H Young.
Front Oncol, 2018 Sep 27; 8. PMID: 30250823    Free PMC article.
Activity of the oral MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with advanced melanoma: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
Gerald S Falchook, Karl D Lewis, +19 authors, Leslie A Fecher.
Lancet Oncol, 2012 Jul 19; 13(8). PMID: 22805292    Free PMC article.
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In vitro reactivity of splenic lymphocytes from normal and UV-irradiated mice against syngeneic UV-induced tumors.
G W Fortner, M L Kripke.
J Immunol, 1977 Apr 01; 118(4). PMID: 66296
Does exposure to UV radiation induce a shift to a Th-2-like immune reaction?
S E Ullrich.
Photochem Photobiol, 1996 Aug 01; 64(2). PMID: 8760564
Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent SF3B1 R625 mutation and comutation of NF1 and KIT in mucosal melanoma.
Jennifer D Hintzsche, Nicholas T Gorden, +16 authors, William A Robinson.
Melanoma Res, 2017 Mar 16; 27(3). PMID: 28296713    Free PMC article.
Dermoscopy, with and without visual inspection, for diagnosing melanoma in adults.
Jacqueline Dinnes, Jonathan J Deeks, +15 authors, Cochrane Skin Cancer Diagnostic Test Accuracy Group.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 Dec 07; 12. PMID: 30521682    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Distinguishing clinicopathologic features of patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma.
Alexander M Menzies, Lauren E Haydu, +6 authors, Georgina V Long.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Apr 27; 18(12). PMID: 22535154
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Surgery of primary melanomas.
Piotr Rutkowski, Marcin Zdzienicki, Zbigniew I Nowecki, Alexander C J Van Akkooi.
Cancers (Basel), 2010 Jan 01; 2(2). PMID: 24281096    Free PMC article.
Interaction of SHP-2 SH2 domains with PD-1 ITSM induces PD-1 dimerization and SHP-2 activation.
Nikolaos Patsoukis, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, +6 authors, Vassiliki A Boussiotis.
Commun Biol, 2020 Mar 19; 3(1). PMID: 32184441    Free PMC article.
Gender-related differences in outcome for melanoma patients.
Charles R Scoggins, Merrick I Ross, +13 authors, Sunbelt Melanoma Trial.
Ann Surg, 2006 Apr 25; 243(5). PMID: 16633005    Free PMC article.
Multiple structural and epigenetic defects in the human leukocyte antigen class I antigen presentation pathway in a recurrent metastatic melanoma following immunotherapy.
Chien-Chung Chang, Giuseppe Pirozzi, +6 authors, Soldano Ferrone.
J Biol Chem, 2015 Sep 19; 290(44). PMID: 26381407    Free PMC article.
Patterns of Clinical Response with Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC) in Patients with Melanoma Treated in the OPTiM Phase III Clinical Trial.
Robert H I Andtbacka, Merrick Ross, +10 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2016 Nov 03; 23(13). PMID: 27342831    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cancer regression in patients after transfer of genetically engineered lymphocytes.
Richard A Morgan, Mark E Dudley, +13 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
Science, 2006 Sep 02; 314(5796). PMID: 16946036    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumor-infiltrating monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate CCR5-dependent recruitment of regulatory T cells favoring tumor growth.
Eva Schlecker, Ana Stojanovic, +4 authors, Adelheid Cerwenka.
J Immunol, 2012 Nov 16; 189(12). PMID: 23152559
Highly Cited.
Chemotherapy for Melanoma.
Melissa A Wilson, Lynn M Schuchter.
Cancer Treat Res, 2015 Nov 26; 167. PMID: 26601864
Blockade of B7-H1 and PD-1 by monoclonal antibodies potentiates cancer therapeutic immunity.
Fumiya Hirano, Katsumi Kaneko, +9 authors, Lieping Chen.
Cancer Res, 2005 Feb 12; 65(3). PMID: 15705911
Highly Cited.
Histologic features of tumors and the female superiority in survival from malignant melanoma.
H M Shaw, V J McGovern, +2 authors, W H McCarthy.
Cancer, 1980 Apr 01; 45(7). PMID: 7370919
Melanoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1 Receptor Functions Promote Tumor Growth.
Sonja Kleffel, Christian Posch, +19 authors, Tobias Schatton.
Cell, 2015 Sep 12; 162(6). PMID: 26359984    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and glutamate signaling in human melanoma.
Jin Namkoong, Seung-Shick Shin, +4 authors, Suzie Chen.
Cancer Res, 2007 Mar 03; 67(5). PMID: 17332361
Inefficient presentation of tumor-derived antigen by tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells.
Patrizia Stoitzner, Laura K Green, +4 authors, Franca Ronchese.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2008 Mar 04; 57(11). PMID: 18311487
Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce TAP, LMP, Tapasin genes and MHC class I antigen presentation by melanoma cells.
A Nazmul H Khan, Christopher J Gregorie, Thomas B Tomasi.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2007 Nov 30; 57(5). PMID: 18046553    Free PMC article.
Murine mammary carcinoma exosomes promote tumor growth by suppression of NK cell function.
Cunren Liu, Shaohua Yu, +8 authors, Huang-Ge Zhang.
J Immunol, 2006 Jan 21; 176(3). PMID: 16424164
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Current state of melanoma diagnosis and treatment.
Lauren E Davis, Sara C Shalin, Alan J Tackett.
Cancer Biol Ther, 2019 Aug 02; 20(11). PMID: 31366280    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade.
Antoni Ribas, Jedd D Wolchok.
Science, 2018 Mar 24; 359(6382). PMID: 29567705    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Tumor-selective induction of apoptosis and the small-molecule immune response modifier imiquimod.
Margarete Schön, Anne B Bong, +7 authors, Michael P Schön.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2003 Aug 07; 95(15). PMID: 12902443
PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation.
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Nat Immunol, 2001 Feb 27; 2(3). PMID: 11224527
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Clonal expansion of CD8 T cells in the systemic circulation precedes development of ipilimumab-induced toxicities.
Sumit K Subudhi, Ana Aparicio, +14 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Oct 30; 113(42). PMID: 27698113    Free PMC article.
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Integrating oncolytic viruses in combination cancer immunotherapy.
Praveen K Bommareddy, Megha Shettigar, Howard L Kaufman.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2018 May 11; 18(8). PMID: 29743717
Highly Cited. Review.
CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7.
P S Linsley, W Brady, +3 authors, J A Ledbetter.
J Exp Med, 1991 Sep 01; 174(3). PMID: 1714933    Free PMC article.
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Exosomes released by melanoma cells prepare sentinel lymph nodes for tumor metastasis.
Joshua L Hood, Roman Susana San, Samuel A Wickline.
Cancer Res, 2011 Apr 12; 71(11). PMID: 21478294
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Targeting Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways to reverse T cell exhaustion and restore anti-tumor immunity.
Kaori Sakuishi, Lionel Apetoh, +3 authors, Ana C Anderson.
J Exp Med, 2010 Sep 08; 207(10). PMID: 20819927    Free PMC article.
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Ultraviolet Radiation and Melanomagenesis: From Mechanism to Immunotherapy.
Xiaoying Sun, Na Zhang, +2 authors, Xin Li.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jul 28; 10. PMID: 32714859    Free PMC article.
Combination anti-CTLA-4 plus anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade utilizes cellular mechanisms partially distinct from monotherapies.
Spencer C Wei, Nana-Ama A S Anang, +8 authors, James P Allison.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Oct 23; 116(45). PMID: 31636208    Free PMC article.
Characteristics of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Prior to and During Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy.
Ioana Plesca, Antje Tunger, +6 authors, Marc Schmitz.
Front Immunol, 2020 Mar 21; 11. PMID: 32194568    Free PMC article.
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H Groux, M Bigler, J E de Vries, M G Roncarolo.
J Immunol, 1998 Apr 08; 160(7). PMID: 9531274
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone versus ipilimumab alone in advanced melanoma (CheckMate 067): 4-year outcomes of a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial.
Frank Stephen Hodi, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +16 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
Lancet Oncol, 2018 Oct 27; 19(11). PMID: 30361170
Highly Cited.
Rexpression of HLA class I antigens and restoration of antigen-specific CTL response in melanoma cells following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment.
A Serrano, S Tanzarella, +4 authors, F Garrido.
Int J Cancer, 2001 Oct 23; 94(2). PMID: 11668505
Molecular profiling, including TERT promoter mutations, of acral lentiginous melanomas.
Vinicius de Lima Vazquez, Anna L Vicente, +5 authors, Rui M Reis.
Melanoma Res, 2015 Dec 29; 26(2). PMID: 26709572
BCG immunotherapy of malignant melanoma: summary of a seven-year experience.
D L Morton, F R Eilber, +4 authors, F C Sparks.
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Macrophage plasticity and interaction with lymphocyte subsets: cancer as a paradigm.
Subhra K Biswas, Alberto Mantovani.
Nat Immunol, 2010 Sep 22; 11(10). PMID: 20856220
Highly Cited. Review.
Germline p16 mutations in familial melanoma.
C J Hussussian, J P Struewing, +6 authors, N C Dracopoli.
Nat Genet, 1994 Sep 01; 8(1). PMID: 7987387
Highly Cited.
CD80 (B7-1) binds both CD28 and CTLA-4 with a low affinity and very fast kinetics.
P A van der Merwe, D L Bodian, +2 authors, S J Davis.
J Exp Med, 1997 Feb 03; 185(3). PMID: 9053440    Free PMC article.
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Recurrent activating mutations of G-protein-coupled receptor CYSLTR2 in uveal melanoma.
Amanda R Moore, Emilie Ceraudo, +11 authors, Yu Chen.
Nat Genet, 2016 Apr 19; 48(6). PMID: 27089179    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
M-CSF and GM-CSF Receptor Signaling Differentially Regulate Monocyte Maturation and Macrophage Polarization in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Eva Van Overmeire, Benoît Stijlemans, +12 authors, Damya Laoui.
Cancer Res, 2015 Nov 18; 76(1). PMID: 26573801
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade increases IFNgamma-producing CD4+ICOShi cells to shift the ratio of effector to regulatory T cells in cancer patients.
Chrysoula I Liakou, Ashish Kamat, +5 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Sep 27; 105(39). PMID: 18818309    Free PMC article.
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Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Mediated Tumor Response and Adverse Events.
Yoshiyuki Nakamura.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2019 Jun 14; 6. PMID: 31192215    Free PMC article.
Effect of paclitaxel/carboplatin salvage chemotherapy in noncutaneous versus cutaneous metastatic melanoma.
Wonjin Chang, Su Jin Lee, +7 authors, Jeeyun Lee.
Melanoma Res, 2013 Feb 16; 23(2). PMID: 23411477
Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations.
Keith T Flaherty, Jeffery R Infante, +23 authors, Jeffrey Weber.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Oct 02; 367(18). PMID: 23020132    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Malignant melanoma associates with Th1/Th2 imbalance that coincides with disease progression and immunotherapy response.
L Lauerova, L Dusek, +4 authors, J Kovarík.
Neoplasma, 2002 Jul 05; 49(3). PMID: 12098001
Tumor Mutational Burden as an Independent Predictor of Response to Immunotherapy in Diverse Cancers.
Aaron M Goodman, Shumei Kato, +6 authors, Razelle Kurzrock.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2017 Aug 25; 16(11). PMID: 28835386    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1, PD-L2 and PD-1 expression in metastatic melanoma: Correlation with tumor-infiltrating immune cells and clinical outcome.
Joseph M Obeid, Gulsun Erdag, +5 authors, Craig L Slingluff.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Dec 22; 5(11). PMID: 27999753    Free PMC article.
CTLA4 is expressed on mature dendritic cells derived from human monocytes and influences their maturation and antigen presentation.
Xiong B Wang, Zhong Z Fan, +4 authors, Ann K Lefvert.
BMC Immunol, 2011 Mar 19; 12. PMID: 21414236    Free PMC article.
Langerhans cells are required for UVR-induced immunosuppression.
Agatha Schwarz, Madelon Noordegraaf, +3 authors, Thomas Schwarz.
J Invest Dermatol, 2010 Jan 22; 130(5). PMID: 20090769
Adoptive cell therapy: genetic modification to redirect effector cell specificity.
Richard A Morgan, Mark E Dudley, Steven A Rosenberg.
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Richard L Mort, Ian J Jackson, E Elizabeth Patton.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Epigenetic stability of exhausted T cells limits durability of reinvigoration by PD-1 blockade.
Kristen E Pauken, Morgan A Sammons, +16 authors, E John Wherry.
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Highly Cited.
Imatinib for melanomas harboring mutationally activated or amplified KIT arising on mucosal, acral, and chronically sun-damaged skin.
F Stephen Hodi, Christopher L Corless, +21 authors, David E Fisher.
J Clin Oncol, 2013 Jun 19; 31(26). PMID: 23775962    Free PMC article.
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The 'ugly duckling' sign: identification of the common characteristics of nevi in an individual as a basis for melanoma screening.
J J Grob, J J Bonerandi.
Arch Dermatol, 1998 Feb 05; 134(1). PMID: 9449921
Galectin-9 modulates immunity by promoting Th2/M2 differentiation and impacts survival in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Elizabeth Ann L Enninga, Wendy K Nevala, +2 authors, Svetomir N Markovic.
Melanoma Res, 2016 Jul 28; 26(5). PMID: 27455380    Free PMC article.
Long term survival with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade using tremelimumab.
Zeynep Eroglu, Dae Won Kim, +9 authors, Antoni Ribas.
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Porcia T Bradford, Alisa M Goldstein, Mary L McMaster, Margaret A Tucker.
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Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis of PD-L1 Protein Expression, N-glycosylation and Expression Stoichiometry with PD-1 and PD-L2 in Human Melanoma.
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A prospective phase II trial exploring the association between tumor microenvironment biomarkers and clinical activity of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
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Highly Cited.
Suppression of Exosomal PD-L1 Induces Systemic Anti-tumor Immunity and Memory.
Mauro Poggio, Tianyi Hu, +8 authors, Robert Blelloch.
Cell, 2019 Apr 06; 177(2). PMID: 30951669    Free PMC article.
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Dermoscopy for melanoma detection in family practice.
Andrea Herschorn.
Can Fam Physician, 2012 Aug 04; 58(7). PMID: 22859635    Free PMC article.
Long-term Follow-up of Standard-Dose Pembrolizumab Plus Reduced-Dose Ipilimumab in Patients with Advanced Melanoma: KEYNOTE-029 Part 1B.
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Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Jul 02; 26(19). PMID: 32605909
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Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma.
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Highly Cited.
Induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by tumor exosomes.
Xiaoyu Xiang, Anton Poliakov, +10 authors, Huang-Ge Zhang.
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Highly Cited.
Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: a multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial.
Axel Hauschild, Jean-Jacques Grob, +18 authors, Paul B Chapman.
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Whole-genome landscapes of major melanoma subtypes.
Nicholas K Hayward, James S Wilmott, +46 authors, Graham J Mann.
Nature, 2017 May 04; 545(7653). PMID: 28467829
Highly Cited.
Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition versus BRAF inhibition alone in melanoma.
Georgina V Long, Daniil Stroyakovskiy, +32 authors, Keith Flaherty.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Sep 30; 371(20). PMID: 25265492
Highly Cited.
Immune-related adverse events of checkpoint inhibitors.
Manuel Ramos-Casals, Julie R Brahmer, +7 authors, Maria E Suárez-Almazor.
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Emma Shtivelman, Michael Q A Davies, +5 authors, David E Fisher.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in dendritic cell-stimulated Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells with pembrolizumab enhances their therapeutic effects against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Wan Zhang, Zhenghui Song, +5 authors, Aimin Li.
J Cancer, 2019 Jul 02; 10(11). PMID: 31258764    Free PMC article.
The PD-1/PD-L1-Checkpoint Restrains T cell Immunity in Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes.
Floris Dammeijer, Mandy van Gulijk, +21 authors, Joachim G Aerts.
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D K Wilkins, P D Nathan.
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Highly Cited.
Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade.
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Combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors for melanoma: latest evidence and place in therapy.
Zeynep Eroglu, Antoni Ribas.
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Highly Cited. Review.
KIT is a frequent target for epigenetic silencing in cutaneous melanoma.
Christina Dahl, Cecilie Abildgaard, +3 authors, Per Guldberg.
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Elizabeth C Smyth, Marisa Flavin, +8 authors, Richard D Carvajal.
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CTLA-4 suppresses proximal TCR signaling in resting human CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting ZAP-70 Tyr(319) phosphorylation: a potential role for tyrosine phosphatases.
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Highly Cited.
T-cell receptor ligation induces distinct signaling pathways in naive vs. antigen-experienced T cells.
Keishi Adachi, Mark M Davis.
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The Efficacy of Anti-PD-L1 Treatment in Melanoma Is Associated with the Expression of the ECM Molecule EMILIN2.
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Microbeam Radiotherapy-A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Overcome Radioresistance and Enhance Anti-Tumour Response in Melanoma.
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Adenoviral CD40 Ligand Immunotherapy in 32 Canine Malignant Melanomas-Long-Term Follow Up.
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Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Aug 28; 11(8). PMID: 34441278    Free PMC article.
Generation of Pure Highly Functional Human Anti-Tumor Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes With Stem Cell-Like Memory Features for Melanoma Immunotherapy.
Mohamad Hamieh, Jean-François Chatillon, +8 authors, Jean-Baptiste Latouche.
Front Immunol, 2021 Sep 28; 12. PMID: 34566953    Free PMC article.
Interrogating Epigenome toward Personalized Approach in Cutaneous Melanoma.
Elena-Georgiana Dobre, Carolina Constantin, Marieta Costache, Monica Neagu.
J Pers Med, 2021 Sep 29; 11(9). PMID: 34575678    Free PMC article.
FKBP51 Affects TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand Response in Melanoma.
Martina Tufano, Elena Cesaro, +3 authors, Maria Fiammetta Romano.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Oct 01; 9. PMID: 34589486    Free PMC article.
Preclinical Study of Immunological Isoxazole Derivatives as a Potential Support for Melanoma Chemotherapy.
Izabela Jęśkowiak, Benita Wiatrak, Adam Szeląg, Marcin Mączyński.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 24; 22(20). PMID: 34681580    Free PMC article.
Novel possibility for cutaneous melanoma treatment by means of rosmarinic acid action on purinergic signaling.
Gilnei Bruno da Silva, Milena Ayumi Yamauchi, Daniela Zanini, Margarete Dulce Bagatini.
Purinergic Signal, 2021 Nov 07; 18(1). PMID: 34741236    Free PMC article.
Comparison of Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Treated with Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Who Did or Did Not Discontinue Treatment Due to Immune-Related Adverse Events: A Real-World Data Study.
Morten Fink, Anders Schwartz Vittrup, +10 authors, Henrik Schmidt.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 14; 13(21). PMID: 34771712    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune Implication of TEX41 in Skin Cutaneous Melanoma.
Zhi-Yong Chen, Jie-Qing Huang, +2 authors, Xue-Feng Yu.
Dis Markers, 2021 Nov 20; 2021. PMID: 34795805    Free PMC article.
Oxidative Stress and Autophagy as Key Targets in Melanoma Cell Fate.
Elisabetta Catalani, Matteo Giovarelli, +2 authors, Davide Cervia.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 28; 13(22). PMID: 34830947    Free PMC article.
The Challenging Melanoma Landscape: From Early Drug Discovery to Clinical Approval.
Mariana Matias, Jacinta O Pinho, +3 authors, Maria Manuela Gaspar.
Cells, 2021 Nov 28; 10(11). PMID: 34831311    Free PMC article.
Identification of m6A Regulator-Associated Methylation Modification Clusters and Immune Profiles in Melanoma.
Fengying Du, Han Li, +10 authors, Xiaokang Li.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2022 Jan 08; 9. PMID: 34993195    Free PMC article.
Emerging Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Treatment of Advanced Cutaneous Melanoma.
Francesca Comito, Rachele Pagani, +3 authors, Barbara Melotti.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Jan 22; 14(2). PMID: 35053435    Free PMC article.
Nobiletin Induces Ferroptosis in Human Skin Melanoma Cells Through the GSK3β-Mediated Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signalling Pathway.
Senling Feng, Yongheng Zhou, +8 authors, Baoying Liang.
Front Genet, 2022 Mar 31; 13. PMID: 35350242    Free PMC article.
Second Primary Malignancies in Patients With Melanoma Subtypes: Analysis of 120,299 Patients From the SEER Database (2000-2016).
Asad Loya, Dan S Gombos, Sapna P Patel.
Front Oncol, 2022 Apr 05; 12. PMID: 35372013    Free PMC article.
The Role of Fast-Cycling Atypical RHO GTPases in Cancer.
Pontus Aspenström.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Apr 24; 14(8). PMID: 35454871    Free PMC article.