. 2020 Dec; 12(12):.
doi: 10.3390/cancers12123824.

Modulating the Tumour Microenvironment by Intratumoural Injection of Pattern Recognition Receptor Agonists

Olivia K Burn 1 Kef K Prasit 1 Ian F Hermans 1 
  • PMID: 33352882
  •     166 References
  •     4 citations


Signalling through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to strong proinflammatory responses, enhancing the activity of antigen presenting cells and shaping adaptive immune responses against tumour associated antigens. Unfortunately, toxicities associated with systemic administration of these agonists have limited their clinical use to date. Direct injection of PRR agonists into the tumour can enhance immune responses by directly modulating the cells present in the tumour microenvironment. This can improve local antitumour activity, but importantly, also facilitates systemic responses that limit tumour growth at distant sites. As such, this form of therapy could be used clinically where metastatic tumour lesions are accessible, or as neoadjuvant therapy. In this review, we summarise current preclinical data on intratumoural administration of PRR agonists, including new strategies to optimise delivery and impact, and combination studies with current and promising new cancer therapies.

Keywords: intratumoural; pattern-recognition receptors; toll-like receptors; tumour microenvironment.

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