. 2021 Jan; 18(3):566-578.
doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-00613-4.

Tumor-associated myeloid cells: diversity and therapeutic targeting

Alberto Mantovani 1 Federica Marchesi 2 Sebastien Jaillon 2 Cecilia Garlanda 2 Paola Allavena 2 
  • PMID: 33473192
  •     235 References
  •     18 citations


Myeloid cells in tumor tissues constitute a dynamic immune population characterized by a non-uniform phenotype and diverse functional activities. Both tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which are more abundantly represented, and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) are known to sustain tumor cell growth and invasion, support neoangiogenesis and suppress anticancer adaptive immune responses. In recent decades, several therapeutic approaches have been implemented in preclinical cancer models to neutralize the tumor-promoting roles of both TAMs and TANs. Some of the most successful strategies have now reached the clinic and are being investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent literature on the ever-growing complexity of the biology of TAMs and TANs and the development of the most promising approaches to target these populations therapeutically in cancer patients.

Keywords: macrophage targeting; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages.

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Yuan Yin, Surui Yao, +11 authors, Zhaohui Huang.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Sep 21; 23(23). PMID: 28928161
Leukocyte complexity predicts breast cancer survival and functionally regulates response to chemotherapy.
David G DeNardo, Donal J Brennan, +12 authors, Lisa M Coussens.
Cancer Discov, 2011 Nov 01; 1(1). PMID: 22039576    Free PMC article.
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Macrophages and cathepsin proteases blunt chemotherapeutic response in breast cancer.
Tanaya Shree, Oakley C Olson, +7 authors, Johanna A Joyce.
Genes Dev, 2011 Dec 14; 25(23). PMID: 22156207    Free PMC article.
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Perivascular M2 Macrophages Stimulate Tumor Relapse after Chemotherapy.
Russell Hughes, Bin-Zhi Qian, +12 authors, Claire E Lewis.
Cancer Res, 2015 Aug 14; 75(17). PMID: 26269531    Free PMC article.
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George S Karagiannis, Jessica M Pastoriza, +13 authors, Maja H Oktay.
Sci Transl Med, 2017 Jul 07; 9(397). PMID: 28679654    Free PMC article.
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Low-dose irradiation programs macrophage differentiation to an iNOS⁺/M1 phenotype that orchestrates effective T cell immunotherapy.
Felix Klug, Hridayesh Prakash, +15 authors, Philipp Beckhove.
Cancer Cell, 2013 Nov 12; 24(5). PMID: 24209604
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Immune Priming of the Tumor Microenvironment by Radiation.
Wen Jiang, Charles K Chan, +2 authors, Stephen M Hahn.
Trends Cancer, 2017 Jul 26; 2(11). PMID: 28741502
Tumor-Derived CCL2 Mediates Resistance to Radiotherapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Anusha Kalbasi, Chad Komar, +5 authors, Gregory L Beatty.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Jun 30; 23(1). PMID: 27354473    Free PMC article.
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Tumor irradiation increases the recruitment of circulating mesenchymal stem cells into the tumor microenvironment.
Ann H Klopp, Erika L Spaeth, +6 authors, Frank C Marini.
Cancer Res, 2007 Dec 20; 67(24). PMID: 18089798    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CSF1R signaling blockade stanches tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and improves the efficacy of radiotherapy in prostate cancer.
Jingying Xu, Jemima Escamilla, +6 authors, Lily Wu.
Cancer Res, 2013 Feb 19; 73(9). PMID: 23418320    Free PMC article.
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Antibody-Dependent Phagocytosis of Tumor Cells by Macrophages: A Potent Effector Mechanism of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy of Cancer.
Nuray Gül, Marjolein van Egmond.
Cancer Res, 2015 Nov 18; 75(23). PMID: 26573795
Fc-Receptor Interactions Regulate Both Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibody Effector Functions.
David J DiLillo, Jeffrey V Ravetch.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2015 Jul 04; 3(7). PMID: 26138698
Highly Cited. Review.
Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets.
R A Clynes, T L Towers, L G Presta, J V Ravetch.
Nat Med, 2000 Mar 31; 6(4). PMID: 10742152
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An Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism drives antibody-mediated target-receptor signaling in cancer cells.
Nicholas S Wilson, Becky Yang, +17 authors, Avi Ashkenazi.
Cancer Cell, 2011 Jan 22; 19(1). PMID: 21251615
Highly Cited.
The innate mononuclear phagocyte network depletes B lymphocytes through Fc receptor-dependent mechanisms during anti-CD20 antibody immunotherapy.
Junji Uchida, Yasuhito Hamaguchi, +4 authors, Thomas F Tedder.
J Exp Med, 2004 Jun 24; 199(12). PMID: 15210744    Free PMC article.
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Lymphoma depletion during CD20 immunotherapy in mice is mediated by macrophage FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, and FcgammaRIV.
Veronique Minard-Colin, Yan Xiu, +5 authors, Thomas F Tedder.
Blood, 2008 May 23; 112(4). PMID: 18495955    Free PMC article.
Pilot study of the mechanism of action of preoperative trastuzumab in patients with primary operable breast tumors overexpressing HER2.
Roberto Gennari, Sylvie Menard, +12 authors, Alberto Costa.
Clin Cancer Res, 2004 Sep 10; 10(17). PMID: 15355889
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Trastuzumab causes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediated growth inhibition of submacroscopic JIMT-1 breast cancer xenografts despite intrinsic drug resistance.
Márk Barok, Jorma Isola, +8 authors, János Szöllösi.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2007 Jul 11; 6(7). PMID: 17620435
Immunoglobulin G fragment C receptor polymorphisms and clinical efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy in patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast cancer.
Antonino Musolino, Nadia Naldi, +9 authors, Andrea Ardizzoni.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Mar 19; 26(11). PMID: 18347005
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Antibody-mediated phagocytosis contributes to the anti-tumor activity of the therapeutic antibody daratumumab in lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
Marije B Overdijk, Sandra Verploegen, +8 authors, Paul W H I Parren.
MAbs, 2015 Mar 12; 7(2). PMID: 25760767    Free PMC article.
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Two immunoglobulin G fragment C receptor polymorphisms independently predict response to rituximab in patients with follicular lymphoma.
Wen-Kai Weng, Ronald Levy.
J Clin Oncol, 2003 Sep 17; 21(21). PMID: 12975461
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Impact of Fc{gamma}RIIa-Fc{gamma}RIIIa polymorphisms and KRAS mutations on the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus irinotecan.
Frédéric Bibeau, Evelyne Lopez-Crapez, +9 authors, Florence Boissière-Michot.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Jan 24; 27(7). PMID: 19164213
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Anti-CD47 antibody synergizes with rituximab to promote phagocytosis and eradicate non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Mark P Chao, Ash A Alizadeh, +17 authors, Ravindra Majeti.
Cell, 2010 Sep 04; 142(5). PMID: 20813259    Free PMC article.
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The CD47-SIRPα pathway in cancer immune evasion and potential therapeutic implications.
Mark P Chao, Irving L Weissman, Ravindra Majeti.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2012 Feb 09; 24(2). PMID: 22310103    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Molecular Pathways: Activating T Cells after Cancer Cell Phagocytosis from Blockade of CD47 "Don't Eat Me" Signals.
Melissa N McCracken, Adriel C Cha, Irving L Weissman.
Clin Cancer Res, 2015 Jun 28; 21(16). PMID: 26116271    Free PMC article.
The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors.
Stephen B Willingham, Jens-Peter Volkmer, +41 authors, Irving L Weissman.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012 Mar 28; 109(17). PMID: 22451913    Free PMC article.
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Disrupting the CD47-SIRPα anti-phagocytic axis by a humanized anti-CD47 antibody is an efficacious treatment for malignant pediatric brain tumors.
Sharareh Gholamin, Siddhartha S Mitra, +31 authors, Samuel H Cheshier.
Sci Transl Med, 2017 Mar 17; 9(381). PMID: 28298418
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Activating Fc γ receptors contribute to the antitumor activities of immunoregulatory receptor-targeting antibodies.
Yannick Bulliard, Rose Jolicoeur, +6 authors, Jennifer L Brogdon.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897982    Free PMC article.
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Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
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Activated monocytes in peritumoral stroma of hepatocellular carcinoma foster immune privilege and disease progression through PD-L1.
Dong-Ming Kuang, Qiyi Zhao, +4 authors, Limin Zheng.
J Exp Med, 2009 May 20; 206(6). PMID: 19451266    Free PMC article.
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Gliomas promote immunosuppression through induction of B7-H1 expression in tumor-associated macrophages.
Orin Bloch, Courtney A Crane, +3 authors, Andrew T Parsa.
Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Apr 25; 19(12). PMID: 23613317    Free PMC article.
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Pathologic features of response to neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 in resected non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a proposal for quantitative immune-related pathologic response criteria (irPRC).
T R Cottrell, E D Thompson, +27 authors, J M Taube.
Ann Oncol, 2018 Jul 10; 29(8). PMID: 29982279    Free PMC article.
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CCL2 blockade augments cancer immunotherapy.
Zvi G Fridlender, George Buchlis, +9 authors, Steven M Albelda.
Cancer Res, 2009 Dec 24; 70(1). PMID: 20028856    Free PMC article.
CSF1/CSF1R blockade reprograms tumor-infiltrating macrophages and improves response to T-cell checkpoint immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer models.
Yu Zhu, Brett L Knolhoff, +7 authors, David G DeNardo.
Cancer Res, 2014 Aug 02; 74(18). PMID: 25082815    Free PMC article.
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Macrophages impede CD8 T cells from reaching tumor cells and limit the efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment.
Elisa Peranzoni, Jean Lemoine, +12 authors, Emmanuel Donnadieu.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Apr 11; 115(17). PMID: 29632196    Free PMC article.
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T cell-induced CSF1 promotes melanoma resistance to PD1 blockade.
Natalie J Neubert, Martina Schmittnaegel, +18 authors, Daniel E Speiser.
Sci Transl Med, 2018 Apr 13; 10(436). PMID: 29643229    Free PMC article.
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5-Fluorouracil selectively kills tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells resulting in enhanced T cell-dependent antitumor immunity.
Julie Vincent, Grégoire Mignot, +7 authors, François Ghiringhelli.
Cancer Res, 2010 Apr 15; 70(8). PMID: 20388795
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Doxorubicin eliminates myeloid-derived suppressor cells and enhances the efficacy of adoptive T-cell transfer in breast cancer.
Darya Alizadeh, Malika Trad, +5 authors, Nicolas Larmonier.
Cancer Res, 2013 Nov 08; 74(1). PMID: 24197130    Free PMC article.
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Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloid-derived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth.
Mélanie Bruchard, Grégoire Mignot, +12 authors, François Ghiringhelli.
Nat Med, 2012 Dec 04; 19(1). PMID: 23202296
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Occurrence and significance of tumor-associated neutrophils in patients with colorectal cancer.
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Paolo Bianchi, +14 authors, Sébastien Jaillon.
Int J Cancer, 2016 Mar 05; 139(2). PMID: 26939802
The Interplay Between Neutrophils and CD8+ T Cells Improves Survival in Human Colorectal Cancer.
Valeria Governa, Emanuele Trella, +14 authors, Giulio C Spagnoli.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 22; 23(14). PMID: 28108544
High density of CD66b in primary high-grade ovarian cancer independently predicts response to chemotherapy.
Alberto Posabella, Philipp Köhn, +10 authors, Gad Singer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2019 Dec 20; 146(1). PMID: 31853662
Neutrophils, a candidate biomarker and target for radiation therapy?
Antoine Schernberg, Pierre Blanchard, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch.
Acta Oncol, 2017 Aug 25; 56(11). PMID: 28835188
Key role for neutrophils in radiation-induced antitumor immune responses: Potentiation with G-CSF.
Tsuguhide Takeshima, Laurentiu M Pop, +3 authors, Raquibul Hannan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Sep 22; 113(40). PMID: 27651484    Free PMC article.
Targeting Macrophage-Recruiting Chemokines as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy to Prevent the Progression of Solid Tumors.
David Argyle, Takanori Kitamura.
Front Immunol, 2018 Nov 30; 9. PMID: 30483271    Free PMC article.
Carlumab, an anti-C-C chemokine ligand 2 monoclonal antibody, in combination with four chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients with solid tumors: an open-label, multicenter phase 1b study.
Irene Brana, Antonio Calles, +7 authors, Emiliano Calvo.
Target Oncol, 2014 Jun 15; 10(1). PMID: 24928772
Targeting tumour-associated macrophages with CCR2 inhibition in combination with FOLFIRINOX in patients with borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a single-centre, open-label, dose-finding, non-randomised, phase 1b trial.
Timothy M Nywening, Andrea Wang-Gillam, +18 authors, David C Linehan.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Apr 09; 17(5). PMID: 27055731    Free PMC article.
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CSF-1R inhibition alters macrophage polarization and blocks glioma progression.
Stephanie M Pyonteck, Leila Akkari, +17 authors, Johanna A Joyce.
Nat Med, 2013 Sep 24; 19(10). PMID: 24056773    Free PMC article.
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Targeting tumor-associated macrophages with anti-CSF-1R antibody reveals a strategy for cancer therapy.
Carola H Ries, Michael A Cannarile, +24 authors, Dominik Rüttinger.
Cancer Cell, 2014 Jun 06; 25(6). PMID: 24898549
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CSF-1R Inhibitor Development: Current Clinical Status.
Florent Peyraud, Sophie Cousin, Antoine Italiano.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2017 Sep 07; 19(11). PMID: 28875266
Biology and therapeutic targeting of tumour-associated macrophages.
Tim Beltraminelli, Michele De Palma.
J Pathol, 2020 Feb 23; 250(5). PMID: 32086811
Trabectedin as a chemotherapy option for patients with BRCA deficiency.
Bradley J Monk, Domenica Lorusso, +4 authors, Maurizio D'Incalci.
Cancer Treat Rev, 2016 Oct 25; 50. PMID: 27710871
Role of macrophage targeting in the antitumor activity of trabectedin.
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Cancer Cell, 2013 Feb 16; 23(2). PMID: 23410977
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Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages switches the epigenetic profile of pancreatic cancer infiltrating T cells and restores their anti-tumor phenotype.
Simone Borgoni, Andrea Iannello, +4 authors, Paola Cappello.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jan 09; 7(2). PMID: 29308326    Free PMC article.
Trabectedin Reveals a Strategy of Immunomodulation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Priyanka Banerjee, Ronghua Zhang, +12 authors, Maria Teresa S Bertilaccio.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2019 Sep 19; 7(12). PMID: 31530560    Free PMC article.
Trabectedin Reduces Skeletal Prostate Cancer Tumor Size in Association with Effects on M2 Macrophages and Efferocytosis.
J D Jones, B P Sinder, +8 authors, L K McCauley.
Neoplasia, 2018 Dec 29; 21(2). PMID: 30591422    Free PMC article.
Antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of trabectedin in cutaneous melanoma.
Laura Carminati, Denise Pinessi, +5 authors, Giulia Taraboletti.
Carcinogenesis, 2018 Dec 14; 40(2). PMID: 30544170
The Mononuclear Phagocytic System. Generation of Diversity.
Siamon Gordon, Annette Plüddemann.
Front Immunol, 2019 Aug 27; 10. PMID: 31447860    Free PMC article.
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J Exp Med, 2019 Aug 04; 216(10). PMID: 31375534    Free PMC article.
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Cancer-related inflammation: common themes and therapeutic opportunities.
Frances R Balkwill, Alberto Mantovani.
Semin Cancer Biol, 2012 Jan 03; 22(1). PMID: 22210179
Highly Cited. Review.
CD40 Agonist Antibodies in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Robert H Vonderheide.
Annu Rev Med, 2019 Aug 15; 71. PMID: 31412220
Highly Cited. Review.
CD47 Blockade by Hu5F9-G4 and Rituximab in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Ranjana Advani, Ian Flinn, +18 authors, Sonali M Smith.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Nov 01; 379(18). PMID: 30380386    Free PMC article.
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Engineered SIRPα variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies.
Kipp Weiskopf, Aaron M Ring, +8 authors, K Christopher Garcia.
Science, 2013 Jun 01; 341(6141). PMID: 23722425    Free PMC article.
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Mannose receptor (CD206) activation in tumor-associated macrophages enhances adaptive and innate antitumor immune responses.
Jesse M Jaynes, Rushikesh Sable, +40 authors, Udo Rudloff.
Sci Transl Med, 2020 Feb 14; 12(530). PMID: 32051227    Free PMC article.
Reprogramming Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Antibody Targeting Inhibits Cancer Progression and Metastasis.
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Cell Rep, 2016 May 24; 15(9). PMID: 27210762
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Toll-like receptors and innate immunity.
R Medzhitov.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2002 Mar 22; 1(2). PMID: 11905821
Highly Cited. Review.
The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors.
Taro Kawai, Shizuo Akira.
Nat Immunol, 2010 Apr 21; 11(5). PMID: 20404851
Highly Cited. Review.
Mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy and its outlook for bladder cancer.
Caroline Pettenati, Molly A Ingersoll.
Nat Rev Urol, 2018 Jul 12; 15(10). PMID: 29991725
Highly Cited. Review.
Percutaneous BCG enhances innate effector antitumor cytotoxicity during treatment of bladder cancer: a translational clinical trial.
Niannian Ji, Neelam Mukherjee, +10 authors, Robert S Svatek.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Aug 16; 8(8). PMID: 31413921    Free PMC article.
Toll-like Receptors and the Control of Immunity.
Katherine A Fitzgerald, Jonathan C Kagan.
Cell, 2020 Mar 14; 180(6). PMID: 32164908
Trial Watch: Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer immunotherapy.
Melody Smith, Elena García-Martínez, +5 authors, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 7(12). PMID: 30524908    Free PMC article.
TLR-mediated metabolic reprogramming in the tumor microenvironment: potential novel strategies for cancer immunotherapy.
Lan Huang, Huaxi Xu, Guangyong Peng.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2018 Mar 20; 15(5). PMID: 29553135    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase Ib Trial of the Toll-like Receptor 8 Agonist, Motolimod (VTX-2337), Combined with Cetuximab in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic SCCHN.
Laura Q M Chow, Chihiro Morishima, +9 authors, Renato G Martins.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Nov 05; 23(10). PMID: 27810904
Preclinical development of the TLR9 agonist DV281 as an inhaled aerosolized immunotherapeutic for lung cancer: Pharmacological profile in mice, non-human primates, and human primary cells.
Sariah A Kell, Melissa A Kachura, +3 authors, John D Campbell.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2018 Dec 05; 66. PMID: 30502651
SD-101 in Combination with Pembrolizumab in Advanced Melanoma: Results of a Phase Ib, Multicenter Study.
Antoni Ribas, Theresa Medina, +11 authors, Robert S Janssen.
Cancer Discov, 2018 Aug 30; 8(10). PMID: 30154193    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
In Situ Vaccination with a TLR9 Agonist and Local Low-Dose Radiation Induces Systemic Responses in Untreated Indolent Lymphoma.
Matthew J Frank, Patrick M Reagan, +9 authors, Ronald Levy.
Cancer Discov, 2018 Aug 30; 8(10). PMID: 30154192    Free PMC article.
PI3Kγ is a molecular switch that controls immune suppression.
Megan M Kaneda, Karen S Messer, +20 authors, Judith A Varner.
Nature, 2016 Nov 01; 539(7629). PMID: 27642729    Free PMC article.
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Bruton Tyrosine Kinase-Dependent Immune Cell Cross-talk Drives Pancreas Cancer.
Andrew J Gunderson, Megan M Kaneda, +15 authors, Lisa M Coussens.
Cancer Discov, 2015 Dec 31; 6(3). PMID: 26715645    Free PMC article.
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Overcoming resistance to checkpoint blockade therapy by targeting PI3Kγ in myeloid cells.
Olivier De Henau, Matthew Rausch, +21 authors, Taha Merghoub.
Nature, 2016 Nov 10; 539(7629). PMID: 27828943    Free PMC article.
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Macrophage targeting in cancer.
Martha Lopez-Yrigoyen, Luca Cassetta, Jeffrey W Pollard.
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2020 May 24; 1499(1). PMID: 32445205
Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages.
Jennifer L Guerriero, Alaba Sotayo, +11 authors, Anthony Letai.
Nature, 2017 Mar 09; 543(7645). PMID: 28273064    Free PMC article.
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Epigenetic therapy inhibits metastases by disrupting premetastatic niches.
Zhihao Lu, Jianling Zou, +45 authors, Malcolm V Brock.
Nature, 2020 Feb 28; 579(7798). PMID: 32103175    Free PMC article.
Macrophage Metabolism As Therapeutic Target for Cancer, Atherosclerosis, and Obesity.
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Front Immunol, 2017 Apr 01; 8. PMID: 28360914    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Targeting glutamine metabolism enhances tumor-specific immunity by modulating suppressive myeloid cells.
Min-Hee Oh, Im-Hong Sun, +17 authors, Jonathan D Powell.
J Clin Invest, 2020 Apr 24; 130(7). PMID: 32324593    Free PMC article.
From Krebs to clinic: glutamine metabolism to cancer therapy.
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Highly Cited. Review.
Glufosinate constrains synchronous and metachronous metastasis by promoting anti-tumor macrophages.
Alessio Menga, Marina Serra, +11 authors, Massimiliano Mazzone.
EMBO Mol Med, 2020 Sep 05; 12(10). PMID: 32885605    Free PMC article.
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Nature, 2014 Jul 22; 513(7519). PMID: 25043024    Free PMC article.
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Gpr132 sensing of lactate mediates tumor-macrophage interplay to promote breast cancer metastasis.
Peiwen Chen, Hao Zuo, +5 authors, Yihong Wan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 Jan 05; 114(3). PMID: 28049847    Free PMC article.
Tumor-derived lactate induces M2 macrophage polarization via the activation of the ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway in breast cancer.
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Cell Cycle, 2018 Feb 23; 17(4). PMID: 29468929    Free PMC article.
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Adenosine up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor in human macrophages.
Isabelle Ernens, Frédérique Léonard, +3 authors, Daniel R Wagner.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010 Jan 14; 392(3). PMID: 20067761
Myeloid expression of adenosine A2A receptor suppresses T and NK cell responses in the solid tumor microenvironment.
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Ursula Grohmann, Vincenzo Bronte.
Immunol Rev, 2010 Jul 20; 236. PMID: 20636821
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Trends Cancer, 2019 Dec 10; 5(12). PMID: 31813459    Free PMC article.
State of the art in CAR T cell therapy for CD19+ B cell malignancies.
Matthew J Frigault, Marcela V Maus.
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Human chimeric antigen receptor macrophages for cancer immunotherapy.
Michael Klichinsky, Marco Ruella, +23 authors, Saar Gill.
Nat Biotechnol, 2020 May 04; 38(8). PMID: 32361713    Free PMC article.
A CXCL1 paracrine network links cancer chemoresistance and metastasis.
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CXCR2 Inhibition Profoundly Suppresses Metastases and Augments Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
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Wenwen Xu, Juan Dong, +10 authors, Li Wang.
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