. 2021 Feb; 13(4):.
doi: 10.3390/cancers13040711.

Natural Killer Cells and Anti-Cancer Therapies: Reciprocal Effects on Immune Function and Therapeutic Response

Elisa C Toffoli 1 Abdolkarim Sheikhi 1 Yannick D Höppner 1 Pita de Kok 1 Mahsa Yazdanpanah-Samani 2 Jan Spanholtz 3 Henk M W Verheul 4 Hans J van der Vliet 1 Tanja D de Gruijl 1 
  • PMID: 33572396
  •     226 References
  •     6 citations


Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells with the unique ability to recognize and kill virus-infected and cancer cells without prior immune sensitization. Due to their expression of the Fc receptor CD16, effector NK cells can kill tumor cells through antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, making them relevant players in antibody-based cancer therapies. The role of NK cells in other approved and experimental anti-cancer therapies is more elusive. Here, we review the possible role of NK cells in the efficacy of various anti-tumor therapies, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, as well as the impact of these therapies on NK cell function.

Keywords: NK cells; anti-cancer therapies; cancer; checkpoint inhibitors; chemotherapy; local ablation therapies; oncolytic virus; protein kinase inhibitors; radiotherapy.

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NK- and T-cell subsets in malignant mesothelioma patients: Baseline pattern and changes in the context of anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
Rosa Sottile, Milad Tannazi, +14 authors, Ennio Carbone.
Int J Cancer, 2019 Apr 25; 145(8). PMID: 31018250
Emerging role of Natural killer cells in oncolytic virotherapy.
Rauf Bhat, Jean Rommelaere.
Immunotargets Ther, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27471713    Free PMC article.
Immunological monitoring of newly diagnosed CML patients treated with bosutinib or imatinib first-line.
Anna Kreutzman, Bhagwan Yadav, +15 authors, Satu Mustjoki.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Aug 21; 8(9). PMID: 31428530    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy induces ATP release from tumor cells.
Isabelle Martins, Antoine Tesniere, +8 authors, Guido Kroemer.
Cell Cycle, 2009 Oct 27; 8(22). PMID: 19855167
Highly Cited.
Immunogenic death of colon cancer cells treated with oxaliplatin.
A Tesniere, F Schlemmer, +15 authors, G Kroemer.
Oncogene, 2009 Nov 03; 29(4). PMID: 19881547
Highly Cited.
Low-dose bortezomib increases the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands and enhances induced NK and γδ T cell-mediated lysis in multiple myeloma.
Chao Niu, Haofan Jin, +10 authors, Jiuwei Cui.
Oncotarget, 2016 Dec 20; 8(4). PMID: 27992381    Free PMC article.
Irradiation of breast cancer cells enhances CXCL16 ligand expression and induces the migration of natural killer cells expressing the CXCR6 receptor.
Mee Sun Yoon, Chanh Tin Pham, +6 authors, Duck Cho.
Cytotherapy, 2016 Nov 05; 18(12). PMID: 27720639
Immunogenic cell death and DAMPs in cancer therapy.
Dmitri V Krysko, Abhishek D Garg, +3 authors, Peter Vandenabeele.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2012 Nov 16; 12(12). PMID: 23151605
Highly Cited. Review.
Sunitinib Induces NK-κB-dependent NKG2D Ligand Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Hepatoma Cells.
Yu-Xian Huang, Xin-Tong Chen, +4 authors, Yan-Jie He.
J Immunother, 2017 Apr 30; 40(5). PMID: 28452850
Role of sorafenib and sunitinib in the induction of expressions of NKG2D ligands in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high expression of ABCG2.
Yuxian Huang, Yang Wang, +2 authors, Yanjie He.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2010 Sep 03; 137(5). PMID: 20809412
Impact of radiofrequency ablation on PBMC subpopulation in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Marcin Matuszewski, Jerzy Michajłowski, +4 authors, Kazimierz Krajka.
Urol Oncol, 2010 Mar 02; 29(6). PMID: 20189845
The role of radiotherapy in cancer treatment: estimating optimal utilization from a review of evidence-based clinical guidelines.
Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob, Carolyn Featherstone, Michael Barton.
Cancer, 2005 Aug 05; 104(6). PMID: 16080176
Highly Cited.
Modulation of Immune Cell Functions by the E3 Ligase Cbl-b.
Christina Lutz-Nicoladoni, Dominik Wolf, Sieghart Sopper.
Front Oncol, 2015 Mar 31; 5. PMID: 25815272    Free PMC article.
NK cells and CD8+ T cells cooperate to improve therapeutic responses in melanoma treated with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CTLA-4 blockade.
Frederick J Kohlhapp, Joseph R Broucek, +16 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
J Immunother Cancer, 2015 May 21; 3. PMID: 25992289    Free PMC article.
Blockade of the checkpoint receptor TIGIT prevents NK cell exhaustion and elicits potent anti-tumor immunity.
Qing Zhang, Jiacheng Bi, +9 authors, Zhigang Tian.
Nat Immunol, 2018 Jun 20; 19(7). PMID: 29915296
Highly Cited.
Different immunoprofiles in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib.
Yoshiki Hayashi, Hirohisa Nakamae, +8 authors, Masayuki Hino.
Leuk Lymphoma, 2012 Jan 04; 53(6). PMID: 22211798
Genotoxic anti-cancer agents and their relationship to DNA damage, mitosis, and checkpoint adaptation in proliferating cancer cells.
Lucy H Swift, Roy M Golsteyn.
Int J Mol Sci, 2014 Feb 28; 15(3). PMID: 24573252    Free PMC article.
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets.
M A Cooper, T A Fehniger, M A Caligiuri.
Trends Immunol, 2001 Nov 08; 22(11). PMID: 11698225
Highly Cited. Review.
Kinetic and catalytic mechanisms of protein kinases.
J A Adams.
Chem Rev, 2001 Dec 26; 101(8). PMID: 11749373
Highly Cited. Review.
Presence of innate lymphoid cells in pleural effusions of primary and metastatic tumors: Functional analysis and expression of PD-1 receptor.
Nicola Tumino, Stefania Martini, +7 authors, Lorenzo Moretta.
Int J Cancer, 2019 Mar 12; 145(6). PMID: 30856277    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Complex role of NK cells in regulation of oncolytic virus-bortezomib therapy.
Yangjin Kim, Ji Young Yoo, +5 authors, Avner Friedman.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Apr 25; 115(19). PMID: 29686060    Free PMC article.
Increased expression of programmed cell death protein 1 on NK cells inhibits NK-cell-mediated anti-tumor function and indicates poor prognosis in digestive cancers.
Y Liu, Y Cheng, +7 authors, C Ma.
Oncogene, 2017 Jul 12; 36(44). PMID: 28692048    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1+ natural killer cells in human non-small cell lung cancer can be activated by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.
Marcel P Trefny, Monika Kaiser, +7 authors, Alfred Zippelius.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Apr 17; 69(8). PMID: 32296919
Adaptive NK Cells with Low TIGIT Expression Are Inherently Resistant to Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.
Dhifaf Sarhan, Frank Cichocki, +6 authors, Jeffrey S Miller.
Cancer Res, 2016 Aug 10; 76(19). PMID: 27503932    Free PMC article.
Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy : Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities.
Peter Vaupel, Gabriele Multhoff.
Strahlenther Onkol, 2016 Mar 11; 192(5). PMID: 26961686
Dasatinib suppresses in vitro natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Stephen J Blake, A Bruce Lyons, +2 authors, Timothy P Hughes.
Blood, 2008 Apr 10; 111(8). PMID: 18398058
Radiotherapy-induced changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in cervical cancer patients: relationship to clinical response.
A Eric, Z Juranic, +6 authors, B Ilic.
J BUON, 2009 Apr 18; 14(1). PMID: 19373951
PD-L1 blockade enhances anti-tumor efficacy of NK cells.
Jeremiah L Oyer, Sarah B Gitto, Deborah A Altomare, Alicja J Copik.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Nov 01; 7(11). PMID: 30377572    Free PMC article.
The kinase inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib differentially affect NK cell antitumor reactivity in vitro.
Matthias Krusch, Julia Salih, +4 authors, Helmut Rainer Salih.
J Immunol, 2009 Dec 17; 183(12). PMID: 20007592
Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 increases NKG2D ligand MICA expression and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma cells: role of STAT3.
Cinzia Fionda, Giulia Malgarini, +8 authors, Marco Cippitelli.
J Immunol, 2013 May 21; 190(12). PMID: 23686482
Increased proportion of mature NK cells is associated with successful imatinib discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia.
M Ilander, U Olsson-Strömberg, +28 authors, S Mustjoki.
Leukemia, 2016 Nov 29; 31(5). PMID: 27890936    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Sublethal irradiation of human tumor cells modulates phenotype resulting in enhanced killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Charlie T Garnett, Claudia Palena, +4 authors, James W Hodge.
Cancer Res, 2004 Nov 03; 64(21). PMID: 15520206
Highly Cited.
Molecularly targeted cancer therapy: some lessons from the past decade.
Min Huang, Aijun Shen, Jian Ding, Meiyu Geng.
Trends Pharmacol Sci, 2013 Dec 24; 35(1). PMID: 24361003
Highly Cited. Review.
Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients.
Y Nakayama, S Makino, +4 authors, N Ohsawa.
Intern Med, 1995 Oct 01; 34(10). PMID: 8563096
Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activity of a Novel Anti-PD-L1 Antibody Avelumab (MSB0010718C) on Human Tumor Cells.
Benjamin Boyerinas, Caroline Jochems, +4 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2015 May 28; 3(10). PMID: 26014098    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Impact of localized radiotherapy on blood immune cells counts and function in humans.
C Belka, H Ottinger, +6 authors, M Bamberg.
Radiother Oncol, 1999 Jun 15; 50(2). PMID: 10368044
Impaired lymphocyte function in patients with hepatic malignancies after selective internal radiotherapy.
Aglaia Domouchtsidou, Vahé Barsegian, +6 authors, Monika Lindemann.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2018 Mar 04; 67(5). PMID: 29500633
Immunomodulatory effects of chemotherapy on blood lymphocytes and survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Mohanad Aldarouish, Xiangyu Su, +6 authors, Cailian Wang.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol, 2019 Apr 11; 33. PMID: 30968711    Free PMC article.
Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Are Refractory to Genotoxic Drug-Mediated Induction of Ligands for NK Cell-Activating Receptors.
Irene Veneziani, Elisa Brandetti, +3 authors, Loredana Cifaldi.
J Immunol Res, 2018 May 29; 2018. PMID: 29805983    Free PMC article.
Natural killer (NK) cells and anti-tumor therapeutic mAb: unexplored interactions.
Simone Battella, Maria Christina Cox, Angela Santoni, Gabriella Palmieri.
J Leukoc Biol, 2015 Jul 03; 99(1). PMID: 26136506
The Rise of Allogeneic Natural Killer Cells As a Platform for Cancer Immunotherapy: Recent Innovations and Future Developments.
John P Veluchamy, Nina Kok, +3 authors, Jan Spanholtz.
Front Immunol, 2017 Jun 18; 8. PMID: 28620386    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in radiation-induced immunomodulation.
Gabriele Multhoff, Alan G Pockley, Thomas E Schmid, Daniela Schilling.
Cancer Lett, 2015 Feb 15; 368(2). PMID: 25681671
Inhibition of IL-6-JAK/Stat3 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells enhances the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity via alteration of PD-L1/NKG2D ligand levels.
LiJun Xu, XiaoDong Chen, +7 authors, Soo Ok Lee.
Mol Oncol, 2017 Sep 03; 12(3). PMID: 28865178    Free PMC article.
The prognostic significance of natural killer cytotoxicity in patients with colorectal cancer.
P I Tartter, B Steinberg, D M Barron, G Martinelli.
Arch Surg, 1987 Nov 01; 122(11). PMID: 3675190
Requirement of an integrated immune response for successful neuroattenuated HSV-1 therapy in an intracranial metastatic melanoma model.
Cathie G Miller, Nigel W Fraser.
Mol Ther, 2003 Jun 06; 7(6). PMID: 12788647    Free PMC article.
Radiation-induced matrix metalloproteinases limit natural killer cell-mediated anticancer immunity in NCI-H23 lung cancer cells.
Woong Heo, Young Shin Lee, +3 authors, Jaeho Bae.
Mol Med Rep, 2014 Nov 12; 11(3). PMID: 25385045
Effect of irradiation-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity toward human cancer cells.
Jae-Uk Jeong, Tung Nguyen Thanh Uong, +9 authors, Mee Sun Yoon.
Cytotherapy, 2018 Mar 25; 20(5). PMID: 29572116
The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (bortezomib) up-regulates DR5 expression leading to induction of apoptosis and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis despite up-regulation of c-FLIP and survivin expression in human NSCLC cells.
Xiangguo Liu, Ping Yue, +4 authors, Shi-Yong Sun.
Cancer Res, 2007 May 19; 67(10). PMID: 17510429
Ipilimumab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of regulatory T cells ex vivo by nonclassical monocytes in melanoma patients.
Emanuela Romano, Monika Kusio-Kobialka, +7 authors, Daniel E Speiser.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Apr 29; 112(19). PMID: 25918390    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
GSK3 Inhibition Drives Maturation of NK Cells and Enhances Their Antitumor Activity.
Frank Cichocki, Bahram Valamehr, +19 authors, Jeffrey S Miller.
Cancer Res, 2017 Aug 10; 77(20). PMID: 28790065    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy-induced genotoxic stress promotes sensitivity to natural killer cell cytotoxicity by enabling missing-self recognition.
Jason H Fine, Peter Chen, +4 authors, James R Carlyle.
Cancer Res, 2010 Sep 09; 70(18). PMID: 20823164    Free PMC article.
Differential effects of ifosfamide on the capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells to lyse their target cells correlate with intracellular glutathione levels.
G Multhoff, T Meier, +4 authors, R D Issels.
Blood, 1995 Apr 15; 85(8). PMID: 7718883
Long-term complete remission with Ipilimumab in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: case report of two patients.
Luc Cabel, Elika Loir, +6 authors, Karim Fizazi.
J Immunother Cancer, 2017 Apr 22; 5. PMID: 28428880    Free PMC article.
NF-κB and the link between inflammation and cancer.
Joseph A DiDonato, Frank Mercurio, Michael Karin.
Immunol Rev, 2012 Mar 23; 246(1). PMID: 22435567
Highly Cited. Review.
Perioperative, Spatiotemporally Coordinated Activation of T and NK Cells Prevents Recurrence of Pancreatic Cancer.
Jennifer Brooks, Bettina Fleischmann-Mundt, +14 authors, Florian Kühnel.
Cancer Res, 2017 Nov 29; 78(2). PMID: 29180478
Oncolytic immunovirotherapy for melanoma using vesicular stomatitis virus.
Rosa Maria Diaz, Feorillo Galivo, +6 authors, Richard G Vile.
Cancer Res, 2007 Mar 17; 67(6). PMID: 17363607
Highly Cited.
AXL receptor tyrosine kinase as a promising anti-cancer approach: functions, molecular mechanisms and clinical applications.
Chenjing Zhu, Yuquan Wei, Xiawei Wei.
Mol Cancer, 2019 Nov 07; 18(1). PMID: 31684958    Free PMC article.
The immunologic aspects in advanced ovarian cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy.
Xia Wu, Qin-Mei Feng, +3 authors, Wen Di.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2009 Sep 04; 59(2). PMID: 19727719
Differential effect on different immune subsets of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.
Chiara Massa, Thomas Karn, +19 authors, Barbara Seliger.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Nov 18; 8(2). PMID: 33199511    Free PMC article.
Drug-induced hyperploidy stimulates an antitumor NK cell response mediated by NKG2D and DNAM-1 receptors.
Andrea Acebes-Huerta, Seila Lorenzo-Herrero, +4 authors, Segundo Gonzalez.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Apr 09; 5(2). PMID: 27057443    Free PMC article.
Natural killer cells are essential for the ability of BRAF inhibitors to control BRAFV600E-mutant metastatic melanoma.
Lucas Ferrari de Andrade, Shin F Ngiow, +8 authors, Mark J Smyth.
Cancer Res, 2014 Oct 30; 74(24). PMID: 25351955
Anti-PD-1 antibody increases NK cell cytotoxicity towards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in the context of chemotherapy-induced upregulation of PD-1 and PD-L1.
Anna Makowska, Selina Meier, +3 authors, Udo Kontny.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Aug 02; 70(2). PMID: 32737537    Free PMC article.
Reactive oxygen species- and DNA damage response-dependent NK cell activating ligand upregulation occurs at transcriptional levels and requires the transcriptional factor E2F1.
Alessandra Soriani, Maria Luisa Iannitto, +8 authors, Angela Santoni.
J Immunol, 2014 Jun 11; 193(2). PMID: 24913980
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid inhibits NKG2D expression in natural killer cells through suppression of STAT3 and HDAC3.
Lulu Ni, Lixin Wang, +8 authors, Shiguo Zhu.
Sci Rep, 2017 Mar 25; 7. PMID: 28338101    Free PMC article.
Clinically Relevant Radiation Exposure Differentially Impacts Forms of Cell Death in Human Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System.
Sylvia E Falcke, Paul F Rühle, +3 authors, Udo S Gaipl.
Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Nov 16; 19(11). PMID: 30428512    Free PMC article.
Low-dose ionizing radiation induces direct activation of natural killer cells and provides a novel approach for adoptive cellular immunotherapy.
Guozi Yang, Qingyu Kong, +7 authors, Jiuwei Cui.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 2014 Nov 18; 29(10). PMID: 25402754    Free PMC article.
PD-1-positive Natural Killer Cells have a weaker antitumor function than that of PD-1-negative Natural Killer Cells in Lung Cancer.
Chao Niu, Min Li, +7 authors, Jiuwei Cui.
Int J Med Sci, 2020 Aug 14; 17(13). PMID: 32788875    Free PMC article.
CTLA-4⁺ Regulatory T Cells Increased in Cetuximab-Treated Head and Neck Cancer Patients Suppress NK Cell Cytotoxicity and Correlate with Poor Prognosis.
Hyun-Bae Jie, Patrick J Schuler, +5 authors, Robert L Ferris.
Cancer Res, 2015 Apr 03; 75(11). PMID: 25832655    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Sequential pathological and immunologic analysis of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
B W Dong, J Zhang, +5 authors, G Yu.
Int J Hyperthermia, 2003 Mar 08; 19(2). PMID: 12623635
Clinical and immunological evaluation of intraoperative radiation therapy for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.
H Yamaue, H Tanimura, +7 authors, M Sasaki.
J Surg Oncol, 1992 Jan 01; 49(1). PMID: 1548874
Chemotherapy-induced differential changes in lymphocyte subsets and natural-killer-cell function in patients with advanced breast cancer.
H F Sewell, C F Halbert, +3 authors, R W Blamey.
Int J Cancer, 1993 Nov 11; 55(5). PMID: 7902339
Tim-3 Hampers Tumor Surveillance of Liver-Resident and Conventional NK Cells by Disrupting PI3K Signaling.
Siyu Tan, Yong Xu, +16 authors, Chunhong Ma.
Cancer Res, 2019 Dec 19; 80(5). PMID: 31848194
Metronomic cyclophosphamide regimen selectively depletes CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and restores T and NK effector functions in end stage cancer patients.
François Ghiringhelli, Cedric Menard, +7 authors, Bruno Chauffert.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2006 Sep 09; 56(5). PMID: 16960692
Highly Cited.
NK cell expression of Tim-3: First impressions matter.
Edward C So, Ariana Khaladj-Ghom, +10 authors, Scott E Strome.
Immunobiology, 2019 Mar 17; 224(3). PMID: 30876792
Identification of a subset of human natural killer cells expressing high levels of programmed death 1: A phenotypic and functional characterization.
Silvia Pesce, Marco Greppi, +6 authors, Emanuela Marcenaro.
J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2016 Jul 04; 139(1). PMID: 27372564
Highly Cited.
Immunomodulatory effects of radiofrequency ablation in a breast cancer model.
Valentina K Todorova, V Suzanne Klimberg, +2 authors, Anastas Pashov.
Immunol Invest, 2010 Jan 13; 39(1). PMID: 20064086
Functional Significance of CD57 Expression on Human NK Cells and Relevance to Disease.
Carolyn M Nielsen, Matthew J White, Martin R Goodier, Eleanor M Riley.
Front Immunol, 2013 Dec 25; 4. PMID: 24367364    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Enhancement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity by sodium/iodide symporter gene-mediated radioiodine pretreatment in breast cancer cells.
Hae Won Kim, Jung Eun Kim, +5 authors, Byeong-Cheol Ahn.
PLoS One, 2013 Aug 14; 8(8). PMID: 23940545    Free PMC article.
MHC class I chain-related molecule A and B expression is upregulated by cisplatin and associated with good prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Riki Okita, Takuro Yukawa, +4 authors, Masao Nakata.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2016 Mar 05; 65(5). PMID: 26940474
Epirubicin pretreatment enhances NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells in vitro.
Hui Feng, Ying Dong, +8 authors, Yanqiu Song.
Am J Transl Res, 2016 May 10; 8(2). PMID: 27158340    Free PMC article.
Microwave ablation of primary breast cancer inhibits metastatic progression in model mice via activation of natural killer cells.
Muxin Yu, Hong Pan, +14 authors, Shui Wang.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2020 May 10; 18(9). PMID: 32385362    Free PMC article.
Cisplatin enhances NK cells immunotherapy efficacy to suppress HCC progression via altering the androgen receptor (AR)-ULBP2 signals.
Liang Shi, Hui Lin, +7 authors, Chawnshang Chang.
Cancer Lett, 2016 Jan 26; 373(1). PMID: 26805759    Free PMC article.
The engagement of CTLA-4 on primary melanoma cell lines induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and TNF-α production.
Stefania Laurent, Paola Queirolo, +15 authors, Maria Pia Pistillo.
J Transl Med, 2013 May 03; 11. PMID: 23634660    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virus therapy: A new era of cancer treatment at dawn.
Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo.
Cancer Sci, 2016 Oct 30; 107(10). PMID: 27486853    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Effect of frequently used chemotherapeutic drugs on the cytotoxic activity of human natural killer cells.
Laszlo Markasz, Gyorgy Stuber, +7 authors, Laszlo Szekely.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2007 Feb 20; 6(2). PMID: 17308061
Natural killer (NK) cell profiles in blood and tumour in women with large and locally advanced breast cancer (LLABC) and their contribution to a pathological complete response (PCR) in the tumour following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC): differential restoration of blood profiles by NAC and surgery.
Chandan Verma, Viriya Kaewkangsadan, +4 authors, Oleg Eremin.
J Transl Med, 2015 Jun 05; 13. PMID: 26040463    Free PMC article.
Effects of first-line chemotherapy on natural killer cells in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Michinori Ogura, Takashi Ishida, +2 authors, Atae Utsunomiya.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 2016 Jun 13; 78(1). PMID: 27289375    Free PMC article.
Natural killer cell-mediated lysis of hepatoma cells via specific induction of NKG2D ligands by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate.
Sorin Armeanu, Michael Bitzer, +9 authors, Helmut R Salih.
Cancer Res, 2005 Jul 19; 65(14). PMID: 16024634
Highly Cited.
The TRAIL apoptotic pathway mediates proteasome inhibitor induced apoptosis in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Albert F Kabore, Jinmie Sun, +3 authors, Spencer B Gibson.
Apoptosis, 2006 May 16; 11(7). PMID: 16699949
Reversal of NK-cell exhaustion in advanced melanoma by Tim-3 blockade.
Ines Pires da Silva, Anne Gallois, +5 authors, Nina Bhardwaj.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 May 06; 2(5). PMID: 24795354    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Clinical Development of BRAF plus MEK Inhibitor Combinations.
Vivek Subbiah, Christina Baik, John M Kirkwood.
Trends Cancer, 2020 Jun 17; 6(9). PMID: 32540454
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S Szmigielski, J Sobczynski, +3 authors, Z Petrovich.
Int J Hyperthermia, 1991 Nov 01; 7(6). PMID: 1725293
Direct and natural killer cell-mediated antitumor effects of low-dose bortezomib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sorin Armeanu, Matthias Krusch, +6 authors, Helmut R Salih.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 Jun 04; 14(11). PMID: 18519785
Activation of natural killer cells by newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase.
Mostafa Jarahian, Carsten Watzl, +7 authors, Frank Momburg.
J Virol, 2009 Jun 12; 83(16). PMID: 19515783    Free PMC article.
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Eric Vivier, Elena Tomasello, +2 authors, Sophie Ugolini.
Nat Immunol, 2008 Apr 22; 9(5). PMID: 18425107
Highly Cited. Review.
Natural killer activity in peripheral lymphocyte population following local radiation therapy.
H Blomgren, E Baral, +3 authors, J Wasserman.
Acta Radiol Oncol, 1980 Jan 01; 19(2). PMID: 6254335
LAG-3 does not define a specific mode of natural killing in human.
B Huard, M Tournier, F Triebel.
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Enhanced targeting of stem-like solid tumor cells with radiation and natural killer cells.
Erik Ames, Robert J Canter, +5 authors, William J Murphy.
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Rapid mobilization of cytotoxic lymphocytes induced by dasatinib therapy.
S Mustjoki, K Auvinen, +13 authors, K Porkka.
Leukemia, 2012 Nov 30; 27(4). PMID: 23192016
NK-cell-dependent killing of colon carcinoma cells is mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and stimulated by parvovirus infection of target cells.
Rauf Bhat, Jean Rommelaere.
BMC Cancer, 2013 Aug 02; 13. PMID: 23902851    Free PMC article.
Tumor cells infected with oncolytic influenza A virus prime natural killer cells for lysis of resistant tumor cells.
Henry Ogbomo, Martin Michaelis, +5 authors, Jindrich Cinatl.
Med Microbiol Immunol, 2009 Dec 17; 199(2). PMID: 20012989
TIGIT expression levels on human NK cells correlate with functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals.
Feng Wang, Hongyan Hou, +8 authors, Ziyong Sun.
Eur J Immunol, 2015 Jul 15; 45(10). PMID: 26171588
Increase of NKG2D ligands and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells by heat shock and ionizing radiation.
Joo-Young Kim, Young-Ok Son, +6 authors, Chi-Dug Kang.
Exp Mol Med, 2006 Nov 03; 38(5). PMID: 17079863
The receptors CD96 and CD226 oppose each other in the regulation of natural killer cell functions.
Christopher J Chan, Ludovic Martinet, +7 authors, Mark J Smyth.
Nat Immunol, 2014 Mar 25; 15(5). PMID: 24658051
Highly Cited.
HLA-G expression in basal cell carcinomas of the skin recurring after radiotherapy.
M Urosevic, W Kempf, +3 authors, R Dummer.
Clin Exp Dermatol, 2005 Jun 15; 30(4). PMID: 15953086
Natural immunity in breast cancer patients during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after surgery.
P Beitsch, E Lotzová, G Hortobagyi, R Pollock.
Surg Oncol, 1994 Aug 01; 3(4). PMID: 7834112
PD-L1 Mediates Dysfunction in Activated PD-1+ NK Cells in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
Fernando Concha-Benavente, Benjamin Kansy, +3 authors, Robert L Ferris.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2018 Oct 05; 6(12). PMID: 30282672    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.
Julia K Tietze, Daniela Angelova, +2 authors, Carola Berking.
Exp Dermatol, 2016 Nov 29; 26(7). PMID: 27892653
UV Light-inactivated HSV-1 Stimulates Natural Killer Cell-induced Killing of Prostate Cancer Cells.
Ismael Samudio, Elyse Hofs, +9 authors, Gerald Krystal.
J Immunother, 2019 Apr 02; 42(5). PMID: 30933043
ATM-ATR-dependent up-regulation of DNAM-1 and NKG2D ligands on multiple myeloma cells by therapeutic agents results in enhanced NK-cell susceptibility and is associated with a senescent phenotype.
Alessandra Soriani, Alessandra Zingoni, +9 authors, Angela Santoni.
Blood, 2008 Dec 23; 113(15). PMID: 19098271
Highly Cited.
Cellular immune profile of patients with advanced cancer before and after taxane treatment.
A W Tong, B Seamour, +7 authors, J Nemunaitis.
Am J Clin Oncol, 2000 Oct 20; 23(5). PMID: 11039505
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Howard L Kaufman, Frederick J Kohlhapp, Andrew Zloza.
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Bo Xu, Rui Ma, +11 authors, Jianhua Yu.
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The cell surface-localized heat shock protein 70 epitope TKD induces migration and cytolytic activity selectively in human NK cells.
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Cell, 2006 Feb 14; 124(3). PMID: 16469695
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Taxanes enhance trastuzumab-mediated ADCC on tumor cells through NKG2D-mediated NK cell recognition.
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Cancer and radiation therapy: current advances and future directions.
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Harnessing CD16-Mediated NK Cell Functions to Enhance Therapeutic Efficacy of Tumor-Targeting mAbs.
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CAR-NK Cells in the Treatment of Solid Tumors.
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Enhancement of NK Cell Antitumor Effector Functions Using a Bispecific Single Domain Antibody Targeting CD16 and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.
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Anesthesia Techniques and Long-Term Oncological Outcomes.
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Natural killer cells and immune-checkpoint inhibitor therapy: Current knowledge and new challenges.
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Gamma-ray irradiation modulates PGRMC1 expression and the number of CD56+ and FoxP3+ cells in the tumor microenvironment of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
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