. 2021 May; 12:13.
doi: 10.4103/jpi.jpi_84_20.

Artificial Intelligence in Pathology: From Prototype to Product

André Homeyer 1 Johannes Lotz 1 Lars Ole Schwen 1 Nick Weiss 1 Daniel Romberg 1 Henning Höfener 1 Norman Zerbe 2 Peter Hufnagl 2 
  • PMID: 34012717
  •     46 References


Modern image analysis techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) have great potential to improve the quality and efficiency of diagnostic procedures in pathology and to detect novel biomarkers. Despite thousands of published research papers on applications of AI in pathology, hardly any research implementations have matured into commercial products for routine use. Bringing an AI solution for pathology to market poses significant technological, business, and regulatory challenges. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview and advice on how to meet these challenges. We outline how research prototypes can be turned into a product-ready state and integrated into the IT infrastructure of clinical laboratories. We also discuss business models for profitable AI solutions and reimbursement options for computer assistance in pathology. Moreover, we explain how to obtain regulatory approval so that AI solutions can be launched as in vitro diagnostic medical devices. Thus, this paper offers computer scientists, software companies, and pathologists a road map for transforming prototypes of AI solutions into commercial products.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence; business model; image analysis; integration; pathology; regulatory approval; reimbursement; technology readiness.

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