Review
. 2021 May; 34(9):1634-1650.
doi: 10.1038/s41379-021-00820-y.

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors: a model for neuroendocrine tumor classification

Sylvia L Asa 1 Ozgur Mete 2 Michael D Cusimano 3 Ian E McCutcheon 4 Arie Perry 5 Shozo Yamada 6 Hiroshi Nishioka 7 Olivera Casar-Borota 8 Silvia Uccella 9 Stefano La Rosa 10 Ashley B Grossman 11 Shereen Ezzat 12 Attendees of the 15th Meeting of the International Pituitary Pathology Club, Istanbul October 2019  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 34017065
  •     208 References

Abstract

The classification of adenohypophysial neoplasms as "pituitary neuroendocrine tumors" (PitNETs) was proposed in 2017 to reflect their characteristics as epithelial neuroendocrine neoplasms with a spectrum of clinical behaviors ranging from small indolent lesions to large, locally invasive, unresectable tumors. Tumor growth and hormone hypersecretion cause significant morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients. The proposal was endorsed by a WHO working group that sought to provide a unified approach to neuroendocrine neoplasia in all body sites. We review the features that are characteristic of neuroendocrine cells, the epidemiology and prognosis of these tumors, as well as further refinements in terms used for other pituitary tumors to ensure consistency with the WHO framework. The intense study of PitNETs has provided information about the importance of cellular differentiation in tumor prognosis as a model for neuroendocrine tumors in different locations.

The gut as the largest endocrine organ in the body.
H Ahlman, Nilsson.
Ann Oncol, 2002 Jan 05; 12 Suppl 2. PMID: 11762354
Review.
Site-specific biology and pathology of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Günter Klöppel, Guido Rindi, +2 authors, Paul Komminoth.
Virchows Arch, 2007 Aug 09; 451 Suppl 1. PMID: 17684761
Review.
Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with primary pituitary tumors.
Vania Nosé, Shereen Ezzat, +5 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2011 Apr 30; 135(5). PMID: 21526962
Contributions of a specialty clinic for children and adolescents with Down syndrome.
Brian G Skotko, Emily Jean Davidson, Gil S Weintraub.
Am J Med Genet A, 2013 Feb 13; 161A(3). PMID: 23401090
Rectal neuroendocrine and L-cell tumors: diagnostic dilemma and therapeutic strategy.
Suk Hee Lee, Byung Chang Kim, +8 authors, Eui-Gon Youk.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2013 May 08; 37(7). PMID: 23648459
Specializing in accountability: strategies to prepare a subspecialty workforce for care delivery redesign.
Vinod E Nambudiri, Arthur J Sober, Alexa B Kimball.
Acad Med, 2013 Oct 17; 88(12). PMID: 24128620
Radiology reports for incidental thyroid nodules on CT and MRI: high variability across subspecialties.
A T Grady, J A Sosa, +3 authors, J K Hoang.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2014 Aug 26; 36(2). PMID: 25147197    Free PMC article.
ACTH-secreting pancreatic neoplasms associated with Cushing syndrome: clinicopathologic study of 11 cases and review of the literature.
Roberta Maragliano, Alessandro Vanoli, +12 authors, Stefano La Rosa.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2014 Oct 30; 39(3). PMID: 25353285
Review.
The impact of gynecologic oncology training in the management of cancer patients: is it really necessary? A prospective cohort study.
Francesco Plotti, Stella Capriglione, +7 authors, Roberto Angioli.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2014 Dec 03; 184. PMID: 25462214
Prognostic Significance of Defining L-Cell Type on the Biologic Behavior of Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors in Relation with Pathological Parameters.
Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of Korean Society of Pathologists, Jin Hee Sohn, +18 authors, EunHee Choi.
Cancer Res Treat, 2015 Feb 27; 47(4). PMID: 25715764    Free PMC article.
Non-L-cell immunophenotype and large tumor size in rectal neuroendocrine tumors are associated with aggressive clinical behavior and worse prognosis.
Joo Young Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, +10 authors, Seung-Mo Hong.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2015 Feb 28; 39(5). PMID: 25724002
Subspecialisation in cardiology care and outcome: should clinical services be redesigned, again?
B Pathik, C G De Pasquale, +8 authors, D P Chew.
Intern Med J, 2015 Sep 22; 46(2). PMID: 26387874
Four Neuroendocrine Tumor Types and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Duodenum: Analysis of 203 Cases.
Alessandro Vanoli, Stefano La Rosa, +11 authors, Enrico Solcia.
Neuroendocrinology, 2016 Feb 26; 104(2). PMID: 26910321
The role of specialist units to provide focused care and complication avoidance following traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review.
Monish M Maharaj, Jarred A Hogan, Kevin Phan, Ralph J Mobbs.
Eur Spine J, 2016 Apr 03; 25(6). PMID: 27037920
Systematic Review.
Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.
Kristin N Ray, Laura Ellen Ashcraft, +2 authors, Elizabeth Miller.
Acad Pediatr, 2016 May 31; 16(6). PMID: 27237115    Free PMC article.
Effect of hormone secretory syndromes on neuroendocrine tumor prognosis.
Wouter T Zandee, Kimberly Kamp, +2 authors, Wouter W de Herder.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2017 May 10; 24(7). PMID: 28483790
Review.
Integrated Pathology Informatics Enables High-Quality Personalized and Precision Medicine: Digital Pathology and Beyond.
Zoya Volynskaya, Hung Chow, +3 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2017 Aug 30; 142(3). PMID: 28849944
Calcitonin-Producing Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Clinicopathological Study of 25 Cases and Review of the Literature.
Silvia Uccella, Annika Blank, +3 authors, Stefano La Rosa.
Endocr Pathol, 2017 Oct 25; 28(4). PMID: 29063495
Review.
ACTH-producing tumorlets and carcinoids of the lung: clinico-pathologic study of 63 cases and review of the literature.
Stefano La Rosa, Marco Volante, +12 authors, Andrea Imperatori.
Virchows Arch, 2019 Jul 03; 475(5). PMID: 31264037
Review.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: clinical, biochemical, and morphological manifestations.
T Sano, S L Asa, K Kovacs.
Endocr Rev, 1988 Aug 01; 9(3). PMID: 3145190
Review.
Pituitary Tumors Centers of Excellence.
Stefano Frara, Gemma Rodriguez-Carnero, +3 authors, Felipe F Casanueva.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2020 Aug 04; 49(3). PMID: 32741488
Review.
Immunohistologic localization of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in human tumors.
S L Asa, K Kovacs, +2 authors, P Vecsei.
Am J Clin Pathol, 1987 Mar 01; 87(3). PMID: 3548317
Amine and peptide hormone production by lung carcinoid: a clinicopathological and immunocytochemical study.
F T Bosman, A B de la Riviere, +2 authors, G Cramer-Knijnenburg.
J Clin Pathol, 1984 Aug 01; 37(8). PMID: 6147359    Free PMC article.
Purine de novo synthesis in liver and developing rat brain, and the effect of some inhibitors of purine nucleotide interconversion.
J Allsop, R W Watts.
Enzyme, 1983 Jan 01; 30(3). PMID: 6628351
Histopathology of Parasellar Neoplasms.
Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic, Elham Rostami, Niki Karavitaki, Olivera Casar-Borota.
Neuroendocrinology, 2020 Mar 11; 110(9-10). PMID: 32155632    Free PMC article.
Review.
The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review.
Shereen Ezzat, Sylvia L Asa, +4 authors, Ian E McCutcheon.
Cancer, 2004 Jul 27; 101(3). PMID: 15274075
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
High prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium.
Adrian F Daly, Martine Rixhon, +3 authors, Albert Beckers.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2006 Sep 14; 91(12). PMID: 16968795
Highly Cited.
Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete.
Pathology, 2017 Nov 15; 50(1). PMID: 29132721
Review.
The APUD cell concept and its implications in pathology.
A G Pearse.
Pathol Annu, 1974 Jan 01; 9(0). PMID: 4154097
Review.
Gastric gel mucus thickness: effect of distention, 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin e2, and carbenoxolone.
M Bickel, G L Kauffman.
Gastroenterology, 1981 Apr 01; 80(4). PMID: 6162705
INSM1: A Novel Immunohistochemical and Molecular Marker for Neuroendocrine and Neuroepithelial Neoplasms.
Jason N Rosenbaum, Zhenying Guo, +3 authors, Ricardo V Lloyd.
Am J Clin Pathol, 2015 Sep 20; 144(4). PMID: 26386079
INSM1 Expression Is Frequent in Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms but Not in the Adult Brain Parenchyma.
Heather M Ames, Lisa M Rooper, +2 authors, Fausto J Rodriguez.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2018 Mar 01; 77(5). PMID: 29490065    Free PMC article.
Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis.
Kathleen M Scully, Michael G Rosenfeld.
Science, 2002 Mar 23; 295(5563). PMID: 11910101
Review.
The Complementary Role of Transcription Factors in the Accurate Diagnosis of Clinically Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas.
Hiroshi Nishioka, Naoko Inoshita, +7 authors, Shozo Yamada.
Endocr Pathol, 2015 Oct 21; 26(4). PMID: 26481628
Invited Review: Pathology of pituitary neuroendocrine tumours: present status, modern diagnostic approach, controversies and future perspectives from a neuropathological and clinical standpoint.
E Manojlovic-Gacic, J Bollerslev, O Casar-Borota.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, 2019 May 22; 46(2). PMID: 31112312
Review.
Synchronous Multiple Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors of Different Cell Lineages.
Ozgur Mete, Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, +2 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Endocr Pathol, 2018 Sep 15; 29(4). PMID: 30215160
Plurihormonal Pituitary Tumor of Pit-1 and SF-1 Lineages, with Synchronous Collision Corticotroph Tumor: a Possible Stem Cell Phenomenon.
Karen M Tordjman, Yona Greenman, +4 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Endocr Pathol, 2019 Jan 06; 30(1). PMID: 30610567
Pituitary blastoma: a pathognomonic feature of germ-line DICER1 mutations.
Leanne de Kock, Nelly Sabbaghian, +30 authors, William D Foulkes.
Acta Neuropathol, 2014 May 21; 128(1). PMID: 24839956    Free PMC article.
A common classification framework for neuroendocrine neoplasms: an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Health Organization (WHO) expert consensus proposal.
Guido Rindi, David S Klimstra, +23 authors, Ian A Cree.
Mod Pathol, 2018 Aug 25; 31(12). PMID: 30140036    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.
Aldo Scarpa, David K Chang, +101 authors, Sean M Grimmond.
Nature, 2017 Feb 16; 543(7643). PMID: 28199314
Highly Cited.
Pathology and genetics of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
John Turchini, Veronica K Y Cheung, +2 authors, Anthony J Gill.
Histopathology, 2017 Dec 15; 72(1). PMID: 29239044
Review.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas reveal a closer relationship to ductal adenocarcinomas than to neuroendocrine tumors G3.
Björn Konukiewitz, Moritz Jesinghaus, +7 authors, Günter Klöppel.
Hum Pathol, 2018 Mar 30; 77. PMID: 29596894
Colorectal mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas are genetically closely related to colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Moritz Jesinghaus, Björn Konukiewitz, +11 authors, Günter Klöppel.
Mod Pathol, 2017 Jan 07; 30(4). PMID: 28059096
Integrative and comparative genomic analyses identify clinically relevant pulmonary carcinoid groups and unveil the supra-carcinoids.
N Alcala, N Leblay, +67 authors, L Fernandez-Cuesta.
Nat Commun, 2019 Aug 23; 10(1). PMID: 31431620    Free PMC article.
From pituitary adenoma to pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET): an International Pituitary Pathology Club proposal.
S L Asa, O Casar-Borota, +23 authors, attendees of 14th Meeting of the International Pituitary Pathology Club, Annecy, France, November 2016.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2017 Mar 08; 24(4). PMID: 28264912
Highly Cited.
Pituitary acromegaly: not one disease.
Sylvia L Asa, Walter Kucharczyk, Shereen Ezzat.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2017 Jan 27; 24(3). PMID: 28122798
Silent subtype 3 pituitary adenomas are not always silent and represent poorly differentiated monomorphous plurihormonal Pit-1 lineage adenomas.
Ozgur Mete, Karen Gomez-Hernandez, +5 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Mod Pathol, 2016 Jan 09; 29(2). PMID: 26743473
Monomorphous Plurihormonal Pituitary Adenoma of Pit-1 Lineage in a Giant Adolescent with Central Hyperthyroidism.
Bernardo Dias Pereira, Luísa Raimundo, +3 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
Endocr Pathol, 2015 Sep 04; 27(1). PMID: 26330191
One hundred years after "carcinoid": epidemiology of and prognostic factors for neuroendocrine tumors in 35,825 cases in the United States.
James C Yao, Manal Hassan, +8 authors, Douglas B Evans.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Jun 21; 26(18). PMID: 18565894
Highly Cited. Review.
Subclinical Adenoma of the Pituitary Gland.
R T Costello.
Am J Pathol, 1936 Mar 01; 12(2). PMID: 19970261    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Microadenomas of the pituitary and abnormal sellar tomograms in an unselected autopsy series.
G N Burrow, G Wortzman, +2 authors, K Kovacs.
N Engl J Med, 1981 Jan 15; 304(3). PMID: 7442734
Highly Cited.
Modern imaging of the pituitary.
A D Elster.
Radiology, 1993 Apr 01; 187(1). PMID: 8451394
Review.
Presenting Features in 269 Patients With Clinically Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas Enrolled in a Prospective Study.
Pamela U Freda, Jeffrey N Bruce, +7 authors, Kalmon D Post.
J Endocr Soc, 2020 Apr 08; 4(4). PMID: 32258955    Free PMC article.
Pituitary adenomas in old age.
K Kovacs, N Ryan, +2 authors, C Ezrin.
J Gerontol, 1980 Jan 01; 35(1). PMID: 6243145
Subclinical adenomas of the human pituitary. New light on old problems.
D J McComb, N Ryan, E Horvath, K Kovacs.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 1983 Sep 01; 107(9). PMID: 6309114
The epidemiology of pituitary adenomas in Iceland, 1955-2012: a nationwide population-based study.
Tomas Thor Agustsson, Tinna Baldvinsdottir, +7 authors, Rafn Benediktsson.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2015 Oct 02; 173(5). PMID: 26423473
[Epidemiology of pituitary adenoma: results of the first Swiss study].
E Fontana, R Gaillard.
Rev Med Suisse, 2009 Dec 09; 5(223). PMID: 19968031
The incidence rate of pituitary adenomas in western Sweden for the period 2001-2011.
Axel Tjörnstrand, Kerstin Gunnarsson, +4 authors, Helena Filipsson Nyström.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2014 Aug 03; 171(4). PMID: 25084775
CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2011-2015.
Quinn T Ostrom, Haley Gittleman, +3 authors, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan.
Neuro Oncol, 2018 Nov 18; 20(suppl_4). PMID: 30445539    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Incidence, mortality, and cardiovascular diseases in pituitary adenoma in Korea: a nationwide population-based study.
Jae Sang Oh, Hyun Jung Kim, +7 authors, Hyeong Sik Ahn.
Pituitary, 2020 Sep 20; 24(1). PMID: 32949324
The Epidemiology of Pituitary Adenomas.
Adrian F Daly, Albert Beckers.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2020 Aug 04; 49(3). PMID: 32741475
Review.
Transsphenoidal microsurgical removal of 250 pituitary adenomas.
C B Wilson, L C Dempsey.
J Neurosurg, 1978 Jan 01; 48(1). PMID: 201736
Incidence, Pathology, and Recurrence of Pituitary Adenomas: Study of 647 Unselected Surgical Cases.
Takahiko Terada, Kalman Kovacs, Lucia Stefaneanu, Eva Horvath.
Endocr Pathol, 1995 Jan 01; 6(4). PMID: 12114812
Diagnosis and management of hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.
A Klibanski, N T Zervas.
N Engl J Med, 1991 Mar 21; 324(12). PMID: 1997855
Review.
Epidemiology and biomarker profile of pituitary adenohypophysial tumors.
Ozgur Mete, Amber Cintosun, Irwin Pressman, Sylvia L Asa.
Mod Pathol, 2018 Feb 13; 31(6). PMID: 29434339
A prognostic clinicopathologic classification of pituitary endocrine tumors.
Gérald Raverot, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Jacqueline Trouillas.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2015 Mar 04; 44(1). PMID: 25732637
Review.
Surgical Results of Pure Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for 331 Pituitary Adenomas: A 15-Year Experience from a Single Institution.
Ji Hwan Jang, Kyu Hong Kim, +2 authors, Young Zoon Kim.
World Neurosurg, 2016 Sep 25; 96. PMID: 27663264
Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings.
E Knosp, E Steiner, K Kitz, C Matula.
Neurosurgery, 1993 Oct 01; 33(4). PMID: 8232800
Highly Cited.
Outcome of Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas That Regrow After Primary Treatment: A Study From Two Large UK Centers.
Metaxia Tampourlou, Georgia Ntali, +13 authors, Niki Karavitaki.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2017 Mar 23; 102(6). PMID: 28323946
Biomarkers of aggressive pituitary adenomas.
Ozgur Mete, Shereen Ezzat, Sylvia L Asa.
J Mol Endocrinol, 2012 Jul 24; 49(2). PMID: 22822048
Review.
Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Pituitary Pathology.
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete.
Endocr Pathol, 2018 Feb 18; 29(2). PMID: 29453601
Review.
Biochemical remission and recurrence rate of secreting pituitary adenomas after transsphenoidal adenomectomy: long-term endocrinologic follow-up results.
Antonio Santoro, Giuseppe Minniti, +3 authors, Roberto Delfini.
Surg Neurol, 2007 Oct 27; 68(5). PMID: 17961741
Microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas.
Pietro Mortini, Lina Raffaella Barzaghi, +2 authors, Marco Losa.
Endocrine, 2017 Oct 27; 59(1). PMID: 29067608
Validation of a clinicopathological score for the prediction of post-surgical evolution of pituitary adenoma: retrospective analysis on 566 patients from a tertiary care centre.
S Asioli, A Righi, +9 authors, M P Foschini.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2018 Nov 28; 180(2). PMID: 30481158
Aggressive transsphenoidal resection of tumors invading the cavernous sinus in patients with acromegaly: predictive factors, strategies, and outcomes.
Hiroshi Nishioka, Noriaki Fukuhara, Kentaro Horiguchi, Shozo Yamada.
J Neurosurg, 2014 Jul 12; 121(3). PMID: 25014437
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly: remission using modern criteria, complications, and predictors of outcome.
John A Jane, Robert M Starke, +6 authors, Mary Lee Vance.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011 Jul 01; 96(9). PMID: 21715544
Endoscopic vs microsurgical transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly: outcomes in a concurrent series of patients using modern criteria for remission.
Robert M Starke, Daniel M S Raper, +3 authors, John A Jane.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2013 Jun 06; 98(8). PMID: 23737543
Long-term endocrinological follow-up evaluation in 115 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly.
P U Freda, S L Wardlaw, K D Post.
J Neurosurg, 1998 Sep 02; 89(3). PMID: 9724106
The outcome of surgery in 668 patients with acromegaly using current criteria of biochemical 'cure'.
Panagiotis Nomikos, Michael Buchfelder, Rudolf Fahlbusch.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2005 Mar 11; 152(3). PMID: 15757854
Highly Cited.
Long-term mortality after transsphenoidal surgery and adjunctive therapy for acromegaly.
B Swearingen, F G Barker, +6 authors, N T Zervas.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1998 Oct 13; 83(10). PMID: 9768641
Highly Cited.
Predictors of surgical outcome and early criteria of remission in acromegaly.
Ximene Antunes, Nina Ventura, +8 authors, Leandro Kasuki.
Endocrine, 2018 Apr 08; 60(3). PMID: 29626274
Endoscopic versus microscopic approach for surgical treatment of acromegaly.
Hussein Fathalla, Michael D Cusimano, +5 authors, Harley Smyth.
Neurosurg Rev, 2015 Feb 11; 38(3). PMID: 25666392
Microsurgical versus endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for acromegaly: a systematic review of outcomes and complications.
Ching-Jen Chen, Natasha Ironside, +7 authors, Marvin Bergsneider.
Acta Neurochir (Wien), 2017 Sep 16; 159(11). PMID: 28913667    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Long-term remission and recurrence rates in Cushing's disease: predictive factors in a single-centre study.
Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Gregory A Kaltsas, +9 authors, Ashley B Grossman.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2013 Feb 02; 168(4). PMID: 23371975
Impact of technique on cushing disease outcome using strict remission criteria.
Hussein Alahmadi, Michael D Cusimano, +7 authors, Kalman Kovacs.
Can J Neurol Sci, 2013 Apr 23; 40(3). PMID: 23603168
Therapeutic outcomes in patients undergoing surgery after diagnosis of Cushing's disease: A single-center study.
Shozo Yamada, Naoko Inoshita, +6 authors, Yasuhiro Takeuchi.
Endocr J, 2015 Oct 20; 62(12). PMID: 26477323
Outcome of Transsphenoidal Surgery for Cushing Disease: A Single-Center Experience over 20 Years.
Camille Brichard, Emmanuel Costa, +2 authors, Christian Raftopoulos.
World Neurosurg, 2018 Jul 22; 119. PMID: 30031194
The Treatment of Cushing's Disease.
Rosario Pivonello, Monica De Leo, Alessia Cozzolino, Annamaria Colao.
Endocr Rev, 2015 Jun 13; 36(4). PMID: 26067718    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Cushing's Disease: Lessons Learned From 1500 Cases.
Edward H Oldfield.
Neurosurgery, 2017 Sep 14; 64(CN_suppl_1). PMID: 28899067
Basis of persistent and recurrent Cushing disease: an analysis of findings at repeated pituitary surgery.
Rob D Dickerman, Edward H Oldfield.
J Neurosurg, 2003 Jan 01; 97(6). PMID: 12507132
Growth patterns of pituitary adenomas and histopathological correlates.
Eric Monsalves, Soroush Larjani, +8 authors, Gelareh Zadeh.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2014 Jan 16; 99(4). PMID: 24423330
Ki-67 labeling index and expression of p53 are non-predictive for invasiveness and tumor size in functional and nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.
Florian Grimm, Roland Maurus, +7 authors, Jürgen Honegger.
Acta Neurochir (Wien), 2019 May 01; 161(6). PMID: 31037500
Ki-67 in pituitary neoplasms: a review--part I.
Fateme Salehi, Anne Agur, +3 authors, Michael Cusimano.
Neurosurgery, 2009 Aug 19; 65(3). PMID: 19687686
Review.
In vivo responsiveness of morphological variants of growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas to octreotide.
S Ezzat, G Kontogeorgos, +3 authors, K Kovacs.
Eur J Endocrinol, 1995 Dec 01; 133(6). PMID: 8548053
The implication of somatotroph adenoma phenotype to somatostatin analog responsiveness in acromegaly.
Shelly Bhayana, Gillian L Booth, +2 authors, Shereen Ezzat.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005 Aug 25; 90(11). PMID: 16118335
The USP8 mutational status may predict drug susceptibility in corticotroph adenomas of Cushing's disease.
Kyohei Hayashi, Naoko Inoshita, +9 authors, Shozo Yamada.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2015 Nov 19; 174(2). PMID: 26578638
Recurrent gain-of-function USP8 mutations in Cushing's disease.
Zeng-Yi Ma, Zhi-Jian Song, +43 authors, Yao Zhao.
Cell Res, 2015 Feb 14; 25(3). PMID: 25675982    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Null cell adenomas of the pituitary gland: an institutional review of their clinical imaging and behavioral characteristics.
James A Balogun, Eric Monsalves, +5 authors, Gelareh Zadeh.
Endocr Pathol, 2014 Nov 19; 26(1). PMID: 25403448
Clinical, pathologic, and imaging characteristics of pituitary null cell adenomas as defined according to the 2017 World Health Organization criteria: a case series from two pituitary centers.
Joao Paulo Almeida, Corbin C Stephens, +9 authors, Andrew S Little.
Pituitary, 2019 Aug 12; 22(5). PMID: 31401793
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of null-cell versus silent gonadotroph adenomas in a series of 1166 pituitary adenomas from a single institution.
Alexander F Haddad, Jacob S Young, +17 authors, Manish K Aghi.
Neurosurg Focus, 2020 Jun 02; 48(6). PMID: 32480370
Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Recurrence and Its Relationship with Sex, Size, and Hormonal Immunohistochemical Profile.
Rafael Loch Batista, Ericka Barbosa Trarbach, +5 authors, Nina Rosa Musolino.
World Neurosurg, 2018 Aug 24; 120. PMID: 30138730
Treatment and follow-up of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas.
O M Dekkers, A M Pereira, J A Romijn.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 Aug 07; 93(10). PMID: 18682516
Review.
Natural history of postoperative nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yong Chen, Cheng De Wang, +4 authors, Zhe Bao Wu.
Neuroendocrinology, 2012 Jun 13; 96(4). PMID: 22687984
Systematic Review.
The role of mediators of cell invasiveness, motility, and migration in the pathogenesis of silent corticotroph adenomas.
Ozgur Mete, Caroline Hayhurst, +6 authors, Gelareh Zadeh.
Endocr Pathol, 2013 Oct 05; 24(4). PMID: 24091601
Clinical features of silent corticotroph adenomas.
Hussein Alahmadi, Daniel Lee, +5 authors, Gelareh Zadeh.
Acta Neurochir (Wien), 2012 May 24; 154(8). PMID: 22619024
Silent corticotroph adenomas: further clinical and pathological observations.
John A Lopez, B k Kleinschmidt-Demasters Bk, +2 authors, Kevin O Lillehei.
Hum Pathol, 2004 Sep 03; 35(9). PMID: 15343517
Clinically silent corticotroph tumors of the pituitary gland.
B W Scheithauer, A J Jaap, +5 authors, W F Young.
Neurosurgery, 2000 Sep 12; 47(3). PMID: 10981760
Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Silent Pituitary Adenomas.
Juliana Drummond, Federico Roncaroli, Ashley B Grossman, Márta Korbonits.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2018 Jul 19; 104(7). PMID: 30020466    Free PMC article.
Review.
Silent adenoma subtype 3 of the pituitary--immunohistochemical and ultrastructural classification: a review of 29 cases.
E Horvath, K Kovacs, +2 authors, W Singer.
Ultrastruct Pathol, 2005 Dec 01; 29(6). PMID: 16316952
Review.
Crooke's cell adenoma of the pituitary: an aggressive variant of corticotroph adenoma.
David H George, Bernd W Scheithauer, +4 authors, Frederic B Meyer.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2003 Sep 26; 27(10). PMID: 14508394
Crooke's cell tumors of the pituitary.
Antonio Di Ieva, Jennilee M Davidson, +5 authors, Kalman Kovacs.
Neurosurgery, 2015 Jan 31; 76(5). PMID: 25635886
Review.
Aggressive Pituitary Tumor with Crooke's Cells and Invasion of the Posterior Fossa.
Gustavo M Cortez, Andre Monteiro, +3 authors, Ricardo A Hanel.
World Neurosurg, 2020 Mar 08; 138. PMID: 32145418
Relationship between cytokeratin staining patterns and clinico-pathological features in somatotropinomae.
Yuriz Bakhtiar, Hirofumi Hirano, +8 authors, Koji Takano.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2010 Aug 07; 163(4). PMID: 20688896
Granulation pattern, but not GSP or GHR mutation, is associated with clinical characteristics in somatostatin-naive patients with somatotroph adenomas.
Sarah Larkin, Raghava Reddy, +3 authors, Olaf Ansorge.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2013 Jan 05; 168(4). PMID: 23288882
Growth hormone tumor histological subtypes predict response to surgical and medical therapy.
Katja Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Nichole E Carlson, +4 authors, Margaret E Wierman.
Endocrine, 2014 Aug 19; 49(1). PMID: 25129651    Free PMC article.
Acidophil stem cell adenoma of the human pituitary: clinicopathologic analysis of 15 cases.
E Horvath, K Kovacs, +4 authors, M H Weiss.
Cancer, 1981 Feb 15; 47(4). PMID: 6261917
Acidophil stem cell adenoma of the human pituitary.
E Horvath, K Kovacs, +2 authors, N A Kerenyi.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 1977 Nov 01; 101(11). PMID: 199135
Dopaminergic resistant prolactinomas in the peripubertal population.
Carol Huang, Shereen Ezzat, Sylvia L Asa, Jill Hamilton.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2006 Sep 26; 19(7). PMID: 16995577
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors: diagnostic criteria, thyroid hormone sensitivity, and treatment outcome in 25 patients followed at the National Institutes of Health.
F Brucker-Davis, E H Oldfield, +2 authors, B D Weintraub.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1999 Feb 18; 84(2). PMID: 10022404
A new prognostic clinicopathological classification of pituitary adenomas: a multicentric case-control study of 410 patients with 8 years post-operative follow-up.
Jacqueline Trouillas, Pascal Roy, +43 authors, A Tabarin.
Acta Neuropathol, 2013 Feb 13; 126(1). PMID: 23400299
Highly Cited.
Aggressive pituitary adenomas--diagnosis and emerging treatments.
Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo, +2 authors, Kalman Kovacs.
Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2014 May 14; 10(7). PMID: 24821329
Highly Cited. Review.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the pathophysiology and treatment of pituitary adenomas.
Eric Monsalves, Kyle Juraschka, +4 authors, Gelareh Zadeh.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2014 Jul 24; 21(4). PMID: 25052915
Review.
Widely metastatic atypical pituitary adenoma with mTOR pathway STK11(F298L) mutation treated with everolimus therapy.
Laura E Donovan, Ashley V Arnal, Shih-Hsiu Wang, Yazmin Odia.
CNS Oncol, 2016 Sep 13; 5(4). PMID: 27615706    Free PMC article.
Treatment of pituitary neoplasms with temozolomide: a review.
Luis V Syro, Leon D Ortiz, +7 authors, Eva Horvath.
Cancer, 2010 Sep 17; 117(3). PMID: 20845485
Review.
Treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas: results of a European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) survey 2016.
Ann McCormack, Olaf M Dekkers, +5 authors, ESE survey collaborators.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2018 Jan 14; 178(3). PMID: 29330228
Highly Cited.
European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas.
Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman, +6 authors, European Society of Endocrinology.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2017 Oct 20; 178(1). PMID: 29046323
Highly Cited. Review.
Temozolomide therapy for aggressive pituitary tumours - current understanding and future perspectives.
Pia Burman, Lydia Lamb, Ann McCormack.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord, 2020 Mar 10; 21(2). PMID: 32147777
Review.
Long-term outcome and MGMT as a predictive marker in 24 patients with atypical pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas given treatment with temozolomide.
Daniel Bengtsson, Henrik Daa Schrøder, +10 authors, Pia Burman.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015 Feb 04; 100(4). PMID: 25646794
Temozolomide treatment for aggressive pituitary tumors: correlation of clinical outcome with O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and expression.
Zachary M Bush, Janina A Longtine, +6 authors, M Beatriz S Lopes.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010 Jul 30; 95(11). PMID: 20668043    Free PMC article.
Temozolomide (Temodar®) and capecitabine (Xeloda®) treatment of an aggressive corticotroph pituitary tumor.
Marie S Thearle, Pamela U Freda, +3 authors, Robert L Fine.
Pituitary, 2009 Dec 05; 14(4). PMID: 19960369    Free PMC article.
High response rates and prolonged survival in patients with corticotroph pituitary tumors and refractory Cushing disease from capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM): a case series.
Brad E Zacharia, Anthony P Gulati, +6 authors, Robert L Fine.
Neurosurgery, 2013 Nov 15; 74(4). PMID: 24226425
An Institutional Experience of Tumor Progression to Pituitary Carcinoma in a 15-Year Cohort of 1055 Consecutive Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete, Shereen Ezzat.
Endocr Pathol, 2019 Feb 02; 30(2). PMID: 30706322
Treatment and long-term outcomes in pituitary carcinoma: a cohort study.
Fernando Santos-Pinheiro, Marta Penas-Prado, +6 authors, Ian E McCutcheon.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2019 Jul 28; 181(4). PMID: 31349217
First demonstration of the effectiveness of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 111In-DTPA-octreotide in a giant PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma resistant to conventional treatment.
S Baldari, F Ferraù, +6 authors, S Cannavò.
Pituitary, 2012 Jan 10; 15 Suppl 1. PMID: 22222543
Genetic aspects of adenomatosis of endocrine glands.
P WERMER.
Am J Med, 1954 Mar 01; 16(3). PMID: 13138607
Highly Cited.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes revisited. Clinical, morphologic, and molecular features.
R A DeLellis.
Lab Invest, 1995 May 01; 72(5). PMID: 7745945
Review.
Pituitary adenomas of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I syndrome.
B W Scheithauer, E R Laws, +3 authors, J A Carney.
Semin Diagn Pathol, 1987 Aug 01; 4(3). PMID: 2890193
Pituitary tumors and hyperplasia in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1): a case-control study in a series of 77 patients versus 2509 non-MEN1 patients.
Jacqueline Trouillas, Françoise Labat-Moleur, +10 authors, Groupe d'études des Tumeurs Endocrines.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2008 Feb 28; 32(4). PMID: 18300794
Two different pituitary adenomas in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 associated with growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing pancreatic tumor: clinical and genetic features.
Y Shintani, K Yoshimoto, +7 authors, S Kannuki.
Endocr J, 1995 Jun 01; 42(3). PMID: 7670561
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4).
Rajesh V Thakker.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2013 Aug 13; 386(1-2). PMID: 23933118    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Germ-line mutations in p27Kip1 cause a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in rats and humans.
Natalia S Pellegata, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, +6 authors, Michael J Atkinson.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 Oct 13; 103(42). PMID: 17030811    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Germline CDKN1B/p27Kip1 mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia.
Marianthi Georgitsi, Anniina Raitila, +20 authors, Lauri A Aaltonen.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2007 May 24; 92(8). PMID: 17519308
Rare germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and related states.
Sunita K Agarwal, Carmen M Mateo, Stephen J Marx.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2009 Jan 15; 94(5). PMID: 19141585    Free PMC article.
MEN4 and CDKN1B mutations: the latest of the MEN syndromes.
Rami Alrezk, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2017 Aug 22; 24(10). PMID: 28824003    Free PMC article.
Review.
D & E midtrimester abortion: a medical innovation.
S Lewit.
Women Health, 1982 Jan 01; 7(1). PMID: 7180000
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) Phenocopy Due to a Cell Cycle Division 73 (CDC73) Variant.
Kate E Lines, Lisa B Nachtigall, +6 authors, Rajesh V Thakker.
J Endocr Soc, 2020 Nov 06; 4(11). PMID: 33150274    Free PMC article.
The complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity.
J A Carney, H Gordon, +2 authors, V L Go.
Medicine (Baltimore), 1985 Jul 01; 64(4). PMID: 4010501
Highly Cited.
Mutations of the gene encoding the protein kinase A type I-alpha regulatory subunit in patients with the Carney complex.
L S Kirschner, J A Carney, +5 authors, C A Stratakis.
Nat Genet, 2000 Sep 06; 26(1). PMID: 10973256
Highly Cited.
Pituitary-specific knockout of the Carney complex gene Prkar1a leads to pituitary tumorigenesis.
Zhirong Yin, Lisa Williams-Simons, +2 authors, Lawrence S Kirschner.
Mol Endocrinol, 2007 Nov 03; 22(2). PMID: 17975024    Free PMC article.
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient neoplasia.
Anthony J Gill.
Histopathology, 2017 Dec 15; 72(1). PMID: 29239034
Review.
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations in pituitary tumors: could this be a new role for mitochondrial complex II and/or Krebs cycle defects?
Paraskevi Xekouki, Constantine A Stratakis.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2012 Aug 15; 19(6). PMID: 22889736    Free PMC article.
Unusual DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors in Lynch syndrome: a report of new cases and review of the literature.
Yevgeniy Karamurzin, Zhaoshi Zeng, +11 authors, David S Klimstra.
Hum Pathol, 2012 Apr 21; 43(10). PMID: 22516243
Review.
Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort.
Daniel Bengtsson, Patrick Joost, +7 authors, Pia Burman.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2017 Sep 25; 102(11). PMID: 28938458
Isolated familial somatotropinoma.
Beatriz Santana Soares, Lawrence A Frohman.
Pituitary, 2005 Mar 12; 7(2). PMID: 15761658
The clinical, pathological, and genetic features of familial isolated pituitary adenomas.
Albert Beckers, Adrian F Daly.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2007 Sep 26; 157(4). PMID: 17893250
Review.
Pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by germline mutations in the AIP gene.
Outi Vierimaa, Marianthi Georgitsi, +13 authors, Lauri A Aaltonen.
Science, 2006 May 27; 312(5777). PMID: 16728643
Highly Cited.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein and pituitary adenomas: a population-based study on subjects exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy, accident.
Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Andrea Baccarelli, +4 authors, Anna Spada.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2008 Sep 13; 159(6). PMID: 18787049
Landscape of Familial Isolated and Young-Onset Pituitary Adenomas: Prospective Diagnosis in AIP Mutation Carriers.
Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Plamena Gabrovska, +11 authors, International FIPA Consortium.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015 Jul 18; 100(9). PMID: 26186299    Free PMC article.
Gigantism and acromegaly due to Xq26 microduplications and GPR101 mutation.
Giampaolo Trivellin, Adrian F Daly, +48 authors, Constantine A Stratakis.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Dec 04; 371(25). PMID: 25470569    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Gigantism due to pituitary mammosomatotroph hyperplasia.
A Moran, S L Asa, +7 authors, O H Pescovitz.
N Engl J Med, 1990 Aug 02; 323(5). PMID: 2164153
Genomics and Epigenomics of Pituitary Tumors: What Do Pathologists Need to Know?
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete, Shereen Ezzat.
Endocr Pathol, 2021 Jan 13; 32(1). PMID: 33433883
Review.
Clinical, biochemical, and morphological correlates in patients bearing growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors with or without constitutively active adenylyl cyclase.
A Spada, M Arosio, +4 authors, G Faglia.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1990 Dec 01; 71(6). PMID: 1977758
USP8 Mutations in Pituitary Cushing Adenomas-Targeted Analysis by Next-Generation Sequencing.
Cora Ballmann, Anne Thiel, +8 authors, Ute I Scholl.
J Endocr Soc, 2018 Mar 31; 2(3). PMID: 29600293    Free PMC article.
Mutations in the deubiquitinase gene USP8 cause Cushing's disease.
Martin Reincke, Silviu Sbiera, +17 authors, Masayuki Komada.
Nat Genet, 2014 Dec 09; 47(1). PMID: 25485838
Highly Cited.
DAXX/ATRX, MEN1, and mTOR pathway genes are frequently altered in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Yuchen Jiao, Chanjuan Shi, +13 authors, Nickolas Papadopoulos.
Science, 2011 Jan 22; 331(6021). PMID: 21252315    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Whole-exome sequencing identifies somatic ATRX mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
Lauren Fishbein, Sanika Khare, +12 authors, Katherine L Nathanson.
Nat Commun, 2015 Jan 22; 6. PMID: 25608029    Free PMC article.
Whole-exome sequencing studies of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
Paul J Newey, M Andrew Nesbit, +11 authors, Rajesh V Thakker.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2013 Mar 02; 98(4). PMID: 23450047    Free PMC article.
Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Pituitary Adenomas.
Wenya Linda Bi, Peleg Horowitz, +17 authors, Ian F Dunn.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Oct 07; 23(7). PMID: 27707790    Free PMC article.
Genomic Alterations and Complex Subclonal Architecture in Sporadic GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.
Mirella Hage, Say Viengchareun, +12 authors, Peter Kamenický.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2018 Feb 24; 103(5). PMID: 29474559
The Genomic Landscape of Sporadic Prolactinomas.
Sunita M C De Sousa, Paul P S Wang, +10 authors, Hamish S Scott.
Endocr Pathol, 2019 Sep 02; 30(4). PMID: 31473917
DNA damage and growth hormone hypersecretion in pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Nan Deng, +5 authors, Shlomo Melmed.
J Clin Invest, 2020 Jul 17; 130(11). PMID: 32673291    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Impact of Novel Molecular Subtypes of Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumor.
Anna Karpathakis, Harpreet Dibra, +19 authors, Christina Thirlwell.
Clin Cancer Res, 2015 Jul 15; 22(1). PMID: 26169971
Epigenetics of pituitary tumors: Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.
Shereen Ezzat, Sonia Cheng, Sylvia L Asa.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2017 Jul 18; 469. PMID: 28711607
Review.
Subtle cognitive impairments in patients with long-term cure of Cushing's disease.
Jitske Tiemensma, Nieke E Kokshoorn, +5 authors, Johannes A Romijn.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010 Apr 08; 95(6). PMID: 20371667
Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly.
Jitske Tiemensma, Nienke R Biermasz, +4 authors, Johannes A Romijn.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010 Sep 17; 95(12). PMID: 20843947
Personality in patients with pituitary adenomas is characterized by increased anxiety-related traits: comparison of 70 acromegalic patients with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and age- and gender-matched controls.
C Sievers, M Ising, +5 authors, G K Stalla.
Eur J Endocrinol, 2008 Dec 17; 160(3). PMID: 19073833
Impact of surgeon and hospital volume on outcomes of radical prostatectomy.
Daniel A Barocas, Robert Mitchell, Sam S Chang, Michael S Cookson.
Urol Oncol, 2009 Apr 28; 28(3). PMID: 19395287
Review.
Subspecialization may improve an esophageal atresia service but has not addressed declining trainee experience.
Wajid Jawaid, Benjamin Chan, Edwin C Jesudason.
J Pediatr Surg, 2012 Jul 21; 47(7). PMID: 22813798
Endocrine surgery as a model for value-based health care delivery.
Amer G Abdulla, Philip H G Ituarte, +3 authors, Michael W Yeh.
Surg Neurol Int, 2013 Feb 02; 3. PMID: 23372979    Free PMC article.