Journal Article
. 2021 Jul; 13(13):.
doi: 10.3390/cancers13133356.

Evaluation of In Vitro Phototoxicity of a Minibody-IR700 Conjugate Using Cell Monolayer and Multicellular Tumor Spheroid Models

Mouldy Sioud 1 Petras Juzenas 2 Qindong Zhang 1 Andrius Kleinauskas 2 Qian Peng 2 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 34283089
  •     50 References
  •     1 citations

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment strategy that utilizes photosensitizers (PSs) and light of a specific wavelength to kill cancer cells. However, limited tumor specificity is still a drawback for the clinical application of PDT. To increase the therapeutic efficacy and specificity of PDT, a novel human minibody (MS5) that recognizes a cell surface receptor expressed on various cancer cells was labeled with the hydrophilic phthalocyanine PS IR700 to generate an MS5-IR700 conjugate that is activated by near-infrared (NIR) light. The phototoxicity of the conjugate was mainly tested against the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. The MS5-IR700 conjugate killed PC3 cells after NIR light irradiation as compared to untreated cells or cells treated with IR700 alone. Time-course analysis of cell viability revealed a high percentage of cell death during the first hour in PC3 cells exposed to the MS5-IR700 conjugate and NIR light irradiation. After irradiation, the MS5-IR700 conjugate-treated PC3 cells displayed cellular swelling, round shape, and rupture of the cell and nuclear membranes. In a co-culture model, the MS5-IR700 conjugate killed MS5-positive Ramos lymphoma cells specifically, while leaving MS5-negative cells unaffected. In line with the data obtained with the monolayer cultures, the MS5-IR700 conjugate also killed PC3 cancer cell spheroids. The treatment induced relocation of heat shock protein 70 and calreticulin to the cell surface, implying the induction of immunogenic cell death. Overall, the data suggest that the developed MS5-IR700 conjugate is a promising therapeutic agent that warrants further preclinical studies.

Keywords: antibodies; antibody-drug conjugates; photodynamic therapy; photoimmunotherapy; photosensitizers.

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