. 2022 Apr; 20(1):44.
doi: 10.1186/s12964-022-00854-y.

Tumor immunotherapies by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); the pros and cons

Adel Naimi 1 Rebar N Mohammed 2 Ahmed Raji 3 Supat Chupradit 4 Alexei Valerievich Yumashev 5 Wanich Suksatan 6 Mohammed Nader Shalaby 7 Lakshmi Thangavelu 8 Siavash Kamrava 9 Navid Shomali 10 Armin D Sohrabi 10 Ali Adili 11 Ali Noroozi-Aghideh 12 Ehsan Razeghian 13 
  • PMID: 35392976
  •     300 References


The main breakthrough in tumor immunotherapy was the discovery of immune checkpoint (IC) proteins, which act as a potent suppressor of the immune system by a myriad of mechanisms. After that, scientists focused on the immune checkpoint molecules mainly. Thereby, much effort was spent to progress novel strategies for suppressing these inhibitory axes, resulting in the evolution of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Then, ICIs have become a promising approach and shaped a paradigm shift in tumor immunotherapies. CTLA-4 plays an influential role in attenuation of the induction of naïve and memory T cells by engagement with its responding ligands like B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). Besides, PD-1 is predominantly implicated in adjusting T cell function in peripheral tissues through its interaction with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2. Given their suppressive effects on anti-tumor immunity, it has firmly been documented that ICIs based therapies can be practical and rational therapeutic approaches to treat cancer patients. Nonetheless, tumor inherent or acquired resistance to ICI and some treatment-related toxicities restrict their application in the clinic. The current review will deliver a comprehensive overview of the ICI application to treat human tumors alone or in combination with other modalities to support more desired outcomes and lower toxicities in cancer patients. Video Abstract.

Keywords: CTLA-4; Cancer; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy; PD-1/PD-L1.

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Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor: A Potential Combination Strategy With Immunotherapy in Cancer.
Dan Pu, Liyuan Yin, +6 authors, Lu Li.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 16; 11. PMID: 33718229    Free PMC article.
Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer.
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Front Oncol, 2020 Sep 10; 10. PMID: 32903369    Free PMC article.
Implementing tumor mutational burden (TMB) analysis in routine diagnostics-a primer for molecular pathologists and clinicians.
Michael Allgäuer, Jan Budczies, +13 authors, Albrecht Stenzinger.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2018 Dec 07; 7(6). PMID: 30505715    Free PMC article.
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Combination viroimmunotherapy with checkpoint inhibition to treat glioma, based on location-specific tumor profiling.
Julia V Cockle, Karishma Rajani, +11 authors, Richard Vile.
Neuro Oncol, 2015 Sep 28; 18(4). PMID: 26409567    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunoediting and resistance to T cell-based immunotherapy.
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Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2018 Dec 12; 16(3). PMID: 30523282
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Oncolytic Viruses and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition: The Best of Both Worlds.
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Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2019 May 14; 13. PMID: 31080879    Free PMC article.
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Molecular basis and rationale for combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
Alessandro Leonetti, Birgit Wever, +5 authors, Elisa Giovannetti.
Drug Resist Updat, 2019 Oct 05; 46. PMID: 31585395
Changes in expression of PD-L1 on peripheral T cells in patients with melanoma and lung cancer treated with PD-1 inhibitors.
Sarah J Dart, Alistair M Cook, +5 authors, Samantha E Bowyer.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jul 30; 11(1). PMID: 34321489    Free PMC article.
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Taku Okazaki, Tasuku Honjo.
Trends Immunol, 2006 Feb 28; 27(4). PMID: 16500147
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Avelumab for the treatment of relapsed or refractory extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma: an open-label phase 2 study.
Seok Jin Kim, Jing Quan Lim, +13 authors, Won Seog Kim.
Blood, 2020 Aug 09; 136(24). PMID: 32766875
Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy promotes a survival benefit with intratumoral and systemic immune responses in recurrent glioblastoma.
Timothy F Cloughesy, Aaron Y Mochizuki, +27 authors, Robert M Prins.
Nat Med, 2019 Feb 12; 25(3). PMID: 30742122    Free PMC article.
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Breaking immune tolerance by targeting CD25+ regulatory T cells is essential for the anti-tumor effect of the CTLA-4 blockade in an HLA-DR transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer.
Elena N Klyushnenkova, Vladimir B Riabov, +3 authors, Richard B Alexander.
Prostate, 2014 Aug 12; 74(14). PMID: 25111463
The prognostic impact of tumor mutational burden (TMB) in the first-line management of advanced non-oncogene addicted non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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ESMO Open, 2021 May 04; 6(3). PMID: 33940346    Free PMC article.
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Tolerability and efficacy of durvalumab in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors.
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Cancer Sci, 2019 Mar 21; 110(5). PMID: 30891877    Free PMC article.
Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of PD-L1-Selected Patients with NSCLC.
Roy S Herbst, Giuseppe Giaccone, +19 authors, David R Spigel.
N Engl J Med, 2020 Oct 01; 383(14). PMID: 32997907
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Toxicity in 2018.
Douglas B Johnson, Sunandana Chandra, Jeffrey A Sosman.
JAMA, 2018 Oct 05; 320(16). PMID: 30286224
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Ipilimumab and Nivolumab as First-Line Treatment of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma: The Evidence to Date.
Iris Y Sheng, Moshe C Ornstein.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Jul 02; 12. PMID: 32606975    Free PMC article.
Potential function of CTLA-4 in the tumourigenic capacity of melanoma stem cells.
Bingyu Zhang, Jianzhong Dang, +3 authors, Fang Zheng.
Oncol Lett, 2018 Oct 23; 16(5). PMID: 30344757    Free PMC article.
Neoadjuvant atezolizumab in combination with sequential nab-paclitaxel and anthracycline-based chemotherapy versus placebo and chemotherapy in patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (IMpassion031): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Hong Zhang, +17 authors, Nadia Harbeck.
Lancet, 2020 Sep 24; 396(10257). PMID: 32966830
Combinational Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiotherapy, Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Beyond.
Yun Hua Lee, David Tai, +2 authors, Valerie Chew.
Front Immunol, 2020 Oct 30; 11. PMID: 33117354    Free PMC article.
Predictive Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
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Cancer Med, 2020 Dec 15; 10(1). PMID: 33314633    Free PMC article.
First-line pembrolizumab in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer (KEYNOTE-052): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.
Arjun V Balar, Daniel Castellano, +12 authors, Joaquim Bellmunt.
Lancet Oncol, 2017 Oct 03; 18(11). PMID: 28967485
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Dual blockade of CXCL12-CXCR4 and PD-1-PD-L1 pathways prolongs survival of ovarian tumor-bearing mice by prevention of immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.
Yang Zeng, Binghao Li, +9 authors, Mark C Poznansky.
FASEB J, 2019 Feb 26; 33(5). PMID: 30802149    Free PMC article.
Radiotherapy induces responses of lung cancer to CTLA-4 blockade.
Silvia C Formenti, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, +15 authors, Sandra Demaria.
Nat Med, 2018 Nov 07; 24(12). PMID: 30397353    Free PMC article.
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Fundamental Mechanisms of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy.
Spencer C Wei, Colm R Duffy, James P Allison.
Cancer Discov, 2018 Aug 18; 8(9). PMID: 30115704
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Gemcitabine and checkpoint blockade exhibit synergistic anti-tumor effects in a model of murine lung carcinoma.
Bin Du, Xiaojiao Wen, +2 authors, Jinhuo Lai.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2020 Jun 23; 86. PMID: 32570034
Pembrolizumab monotherapy for previously treated metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: cohort A of the phase II KEYNOTE-086 study.
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Ann Oncol, 2018 Nov 27; 30(3). PMID: 30475950
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Microsatellite instability is a biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors in endometrial cancer.
Hitomi Yamashita, Kentaro Nakayama, +10 authors, Satoru Kyo.
Oncotarget, 2018 Feb 22; 9(5). PMID: 29464025    Free PMC article.
Heating it up: Oncolytic viruses make tumors 'hot' and suitable for checkpoint blockade immunotherapies.
Shashi Gujar, Jonathan G Pol, Guido Kroemer.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Sep 18; 7(8). PMID: 30221036    Free PMC article.
A synergistic triad of chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and caloric restriction mimetics eradicates tumors in mice.
Sarah Lévesque, Julie Le Naour, +12 authors, Jonathan G Pol.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Oct 28; 8(11). PMID: 31646107    Free PMC article.
Looking for the Optimal PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor in Cancer Treatment: A Comparison in Basic Structure, Function, and Clinical Practice.
Yu Chen, Yanqing Pei, +3 authors, Xiangjiao Meng.
Front Immunol, 2020 Jun 18; 11. PMID: 32547566    Free PMC article.
Phase 2 study of cemiplimab in patients with metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: primary analysis of fixed-dosing, long-term outcome of weight-based dosing.
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J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Jun 20; 8(1). PMID: 32554615    Free PMC article.
Communication between EMT and PD-L1 signaling: New insights into tumor immune evasion.
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Cancer Lett, 2019 Oct 13; 468. PMID: 31605776
Mismatch repair deficiency is associated with MSI phenotype, increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in immune cells in ovarian cancer.
Xue Xiao, Dandan Dong, +4 authors, Lan Xie.
Gynecol Oncol, 2018 Mar 03; 149(1). PMID: 29496294
Combination of gemcitabine and anti-PD-1 antibody enhances the anticancer effect of M1 macrophages and the Th1 response in a murine model of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis.
Tuyen Thuy Bich Ho, Alessandro Nasti, +13 authors, Yoshio Sakai.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Nov 15; 8(2). PMID: 33188035    Free PMC article.
PD-1 blockade in recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer: Data from cemiplimab phase I expansion cohorts and characterization of PD-L1 expression in cervical cancer.
Danny Rischin, Marta Gil-Martin, +19 authors, Matthew G Fury.
Gynecol Oncol, 2020 Sep 13; 159(2). PMID: 32917410
Metronomic paclitaxel improves the efficacy of PD-1 monoclonal antibodies in breast cancer by transforming the tumor immune microenvironment.
Qian Chen, Rui Xia, +4 authors, Jianming Shi.
Am J Transl Res, 2020 Mar 21; 12(2). PMID: 32194900    Free PMC article.
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Lucie Laplane, Dorothée Duluc, +2 authors, Andreas Bikfalvi.
Trends Cancer, 2018 Nov 25; 4(12). PMID: 30470302
Combination Treatment of the Oral CHK1 Inhibitor, SRA737, and Low-Dose Gemcitabine Enhances the Effect of Programmed Death Ligand 1 Blockade by Modulating the Immune Microenvironment in SCLC.
Triparna Sen, Carminia M Della Corte, +14 authors, Lauren A Byers.
J Thorac Oncol, 2019 Aug 31; 14(12). PMID: 31470128    Free PMC article.
Distribution and prognostic relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints in human brain metastases.
Patrick N Harter, Simon Bernatz, +17 authors, Michel Mittelbronn.
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One or Two Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?
Caroline Robert, Emilie Lanoy, Benjamin Besse.
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Avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer: a phase 1b JAVELIN Solid Tumor study.
Luc Y Dirix, Istvan Takacs, +15 authors, Erika P Hamilton.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2017 Oct 25; 167(3). PMID: 29063313    Free PMC article.
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Systemic CTLA-4 blockade ameliorates glioma-induced changes to the CD4+ T cell compartment without affecting regulatory T-cell function.
Peter E Fecci, Hidenobu Ochiai, +7 authors, John H Sampson.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Apr 04; 13(7). PMID: 17404100
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Targeting Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell, a Promising Strategy to Overcome Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Aohan Hou, Kaiyu Hou, +2 authors, Wanling Chen.
Front Immunol, 2020 Jun 09; 11. PMID: 32508809    Free PMC article.
CTLA-4-mediated inhibition in regulation of T cell responses: mechanisms and manipulation in tumor immunotherapy.
C A Chambers, M S Kuhns, J G Egen, J P Allison.
Annu Rev Immunol, 2001 Mar 13; 19. PMID: 11244047
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Pembrolizumab monotherapy for the treatment of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer unresponsive to BCG (KEYNOTE-057): an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 study.
Arjun V Balar, Ashish M Kamat, +15 authors, Ronald de Wit.
Lancet Oncol, 2021 May 30; 22(7). PMID: 34051177
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Joseph Maly, Lapo Alinari.
Eur J Haematol, 2016 May 06; 97(3). PMID: 27147112    Free PMC article.
Efficacy of Pembrolizumab in Patients With Noncolorectal High Microsatellite Instability/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Cancer: Results From the Phase II KEYNOTE-158 Study.
Aurelien Marabelle, Dung T Le, +19 authors, Luis A Diaz.
J Clin Oncol, 2019 Nov 05; 38(1). PMID: 31682550    Free PMC article.
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Interferon-γ induced PD-L1 expression and soluble PD-L1 production in gastric cancer.
Yushi Imai, Tetsuhiro Chiba, +18 authors, Naoya Kato.
Oncol Lett, 2020 Aug 13; 20(3). PMID: 32782533    Free PMC article.
Contrasting effects of cyclophosphamide on anti-CTL-associated protein 4 blockade therapy in two mouse tumor models.
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Cancer Sci, 2017 Aug 09; 108(10). PMID: 28787548    Free PMC article.
Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Hossein Borghaei, Luis Paz-Ares, +25 authors, Julie R Brahmer.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Sep 29; 373(17). PMID: 26412456    Free PMC article.
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Efficacy and Safety of Avelumab for Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Ovarian Cancer: Phase 1b Results From the JAVELIN Solid Tumor Trial.
Mary L Disis, Matthew H Taylor, +14 authors, James L Gulley.
JAMA Oncol, 2019 Jan 25; 5(3). PMID: 30676622    Free PMC article.
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Cooperation of Oncolytic Herpes Virotherapy and PD-1 Blockade in Murine Rhabdomyosarcoma Models.
Chun-Yu Chen, Pin-Yi Wang, +7 authors, Timothy P Cripe.
Sci Rep, 2017 May 26; 7(1). PMID: 28539588    Free PMC article.
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Int Immunol, 2014 Oct 18; 27(1). PMID: 25323844
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Safety and antitumour activity of durvalumab plus tremelimumab in non-small cell lung cancer: a multicentre, phase 1b study.
Scott Antonia, Sarah B Goldberg, +8 authors, Naiyer A Rizvi.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Feb 10; 17(3). PMID: 26858122    Free PMC article.
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Novel PD-1 inhibitor prolgolimab: expanding non-resectable/metastatic melanoma therapy choice.
Sergey Tjulandin, Lev Demidov, +13 authors, Ivan Kuryshev.
Eur J Cancer, 2021 Apr 20; 149. PMID: 33872982
Nivolumab vs investigator's choice in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: 2-year long-term survival update of CheckMate 141 with analyses by tumor PD-L1 expression.
Robert L Ferris, George Blumenschein, +18 authors, Maura L Gillison.
Oral Oncol, 2018 Jun 10; 81. PMID: 29884413    Free PMC article.
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Atezolizumab (MPDL3280A) Monotherapy for Patients With Metastatic Urothelial Cancer: Long-term Outcomes From a Phase 1 Study.
Daniel P Petrylak, Thomas Powles, +10 authors, Nicholas J Vogelzang.
JAMA Oncol, 2018 Feb 10; 4(4). PMID: 29423515    Free PMC article.
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Pembrolizumab versus brentuximab vedotin in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (KEYNOTE-204): an interim analysis of a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.
John Kuruvilla, Radhakrishnan Ramchandren, +20 authors, KEYNOTE-204 investigators.
Lancet Oncol, 2021 Mar 16; 22(4). PMID: 33721562
Relationship between immune checkpoint proteins, tumour microenvironment characteristics, and prognosis in primary operable colorectal cancer.
Sara Sf Al-Badran, Lauren Grant, +11 authors, Joanne Edwards.
J Pathol Clin Res, 2020 Dec 19; 7(2). PMID: 33338327    Free PMC article.
Prognostic relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoints in pediatric medulloblastoma.
Jeroen F Vermeulen, Wim Van Hecke, +8 authors, Niels Bovenschen.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Feb 06; 7(3). PMID: 29399402    Free PMC article.
Gemcitabine Synergizes with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Overcomes Resistance in a Preclinical Model and Mesothelioma Patients.
Paulino Tallón de Lara, Virginia Cecconi, +14 authors, Alessandra Curioni-Fontecedro.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Aug 30; 24(24). PMID: 30154226
Avelumab Maintenance Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.
Thomas Powles, Se Hoon Park, +24 authors, Petros Grivas.
N Engl J Med, 2020 Sep 19; 383(13). PMID: 32945632
Immune Modulation by Telomerase-Specific Oncolytic Adenovirus Synergistically Enhances Antitumor Efficacy with Anti-PD1 Antibody.
Nobuhiko Kanaya, Shinji Kuroda, +13 authors, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara.
Mol Ther, 2020 Jan 29; 28(3). PMID: 31991110    Free PMC article.
Overall Survival with Durvalumab after Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC.
Scott J Antonia, Augusto Villegas, +31 authors, PACIFIC Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Oct 04; 379(24). PMID: 30280658
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Predictive biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Rilan Bai, Zheng Lv, Dongsheng Xu, Jiuwei Cui.
Biomark Res, 2020 Aug 31; 8. PMID: 32864131    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Russell W Jenkins, David A Barbie, Keith T Flaherty.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Jan 11; 118(1). PMID: 29319049    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Actively personalized vaccination trial for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
Norbert Hilf, Sabrina Kuttruff-Coqui, +61 authors, Wolfgang Wick.
Nature, 2018 Dec 21; 565(7738). PMID: 30568303
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Atezolizumab with or without bevacizumab in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (GO30140): an open-label, multicentre, phase 1b study.
Michael S Lee, Baek-Yeol Ryoo, +11 authors, GO30140 investigators.
Lancet Oncol, 2020 Jun 06; 21(6). PMID: 32502443
Five-Year Survival with Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2019 Sep 29; 381(16). PMID: 31562797
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Long-Term Gemcitabine Treatment Reshapes the Pancreatic Tumor Microenvironment and Sensitizes Murine Carcinoma to Combination Immunotherapy.
Daniel R Principe, Matthew Narbutis, +12 authors, Ajay Rana.
Cancer Res, 2020 Apr 03; 80(15). PMID: 32238357    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral CD40 activation and checkpoint blockade induces T cell-mediated eradication of melanoma in the brain.
Manisha Singh, Christina Vianden, +15 authors, Willem W Overwijk.
Nat Commun, 2017 Nov 14; 8(1). PMID: 29129918    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy-concept and review of current literature.
Loka Thangamathesvaran, Roshni Shah, Rebeka Verma, Omar Mahmoud.
Ann Transl Med, 2018 Jun 05; 6(8). PMID: 29862244    Free PMC article.
Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Richard S Finn, Shukui Qin, +19 authors, IMbrave150 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2020 May 14; 382(20). PMID: 32402160
Assessment of Combined Nivolumab and Bevacizumab in Relapsed Ovarian Cancer: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.
Joyce F Liu, Christina Herold, +10 authors, Don S Dizon.
JAMA Oncol, 2019 Oct 11; 5(12). PMID: 31600397    Free PMC article.
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Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Dec 04; 3(12). PMID: 14647476
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Combining Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Tumor-Specific Vaccine for Patients With Incurable Human Papillomavirus 16-Related Cancer: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.
Erminia Massarelli, William William, +18 authors, Bonnie Glisson.
JAMA Oncol, 2018 Sep 30; 5(1). PMID: 30267032    Free PMC article.
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Modeling combination therapy for breast cancer with BET and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Xiulan Lai, Andrew Stiff, +3 authors, Avner Friedman.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 May 08; 115(21). PMID: 29735668    Free PMC article.
Atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab, paclitaxel and carboplatin for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, including patients with EGFR mutations.
Martin Reck, Geetha Shankar, +5 authors, Alan Sandler.
Expert Rev Respir Med, 2019 Dec 13; 14(2). PMID: 31829747
Subcutaneous envafolimab monotherapy in patients with advanced defective mismatch repair/microsatellite instability high solid tumors.
Jian Li, Yanhong Deng, +12 authors, Lin Shen.
J Hematol Oncol, 2021 Jun 23; 14(1). PMID: 34154614    Free PMC article.
CTLA-4 blockade enhances antitumor immunity of intratumoral injection of immature dendritic cells into irradiated tumor in a mouse colon cancer model.
Cheol-Hun Son, Jae-Ho Bae, +7 authors, You-Soo Park.
J Immunother, 2013 Dec 10; 37(1). PMID: 24316550
Toxicities of the anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies.
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TriMix and tumor antigen mRNA electroporated dendritic cell vaccination plus ipilimumab: link between T-cell activation and clinical responses in advanced melanoma.
Brenda De Keersmaecker, Sofie Claerhout, +5 authors, Kris Thielemans.
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Palliative radiotherapy in advanced cancer patients treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors: The PRACTICE study.
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CD28/B7 system of T cell costimulation.
D J Lenschow, T L Walunas, J A Bluestone.
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FDA Approval Summary: Pembrolizumab for Treatment of Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: First-Line Therapy and Beyond.
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CTLA-4 blockade expands infiltrating T cells and inhibits cancer cell repopulation during the intervals of chemotherapy in murine mesothelioma.
Licun Wu, Zhihong Yun, +2 authors, Marc de Perrot.
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Clinical activity of durvalumab for patients with advanced mismatch repair-deficient and repair-proficient endometrial cancer. A nonrandomized phase 2 clinical trial.
Yoland Antill, Peey-Sei Kok, +18 authors, Australia New Zealand Gynaecological Oncology Group (ANZGOG).
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Jun 10; 9(6). PMID: 34103352    Free PMC article.
Durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Luis Paz-Ares, Mikhail Dvorkin, +22 authors, CASPIAN investigators.
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Safety and efficacy of concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitors and hypofractionated body radiotherapy.
Osama Mohamad, Alberto Diaz de Leon, +17 authors, Raquibul Hannan.
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Efficacy, Safety, and Correlative Biomarkers of Toripalimab in Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Phase II Clinical Trial (POLARIS-02).
Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Li Wei, +21 authors, Rui-Hua Xu.
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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blockade enhances antitumor immunity by stimulating melanoma-specific T-cell motility.
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Avelumab plus Axitinib versus Sunitinib for Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.
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Updated Analysis From KEYNOTE-189: Pembrolizumab or Placebo Plus Pemetrexed and Platinum for Previously Untreated Metastatic Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Partially Realized Potential.
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An update on immunotherapy options for urothelial cancer.
Burak Bilgin, Mehmet A N Sendur, Mutlu Hizal, Bülent Yalçın.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2019 Sep 14; 19(12). PMID: 31518156
Cardiotoxicity from immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Lars Michel, Tienush Rassaf, Matthias Totzeck.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc, 2019 Sep 14; 25. PMID: 31517036    Free PMC article.
Zika virus oncolytic activity requires CD8+ T cells and is boosted by immune checkpoint blockade.
Sharmila Nair, Luciano Mazzoccoli, +11 authors, Milan G Chheda.
JCI Insight, 2020 Nov 25; 6(1). PMID: 33232299    Free PMC article.
Response to Programmed Cell Death-1 Blockade in a Murine Melanoma Syngeneic Model Requires Costimulation, CD4, and CD8 T Cells.
Blanca Homet Moreno, Jesse M Zaretsky, +11 authors, Antoni Ribas.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Sep 04; 4(10). PMID: 27589875    Free PMC article.
Current status and future potential of predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastric cancer.
Byung Woog Kang, Ian Chau.
ESMO Open, 2020 Aug 21; 5(4). PMID: 32817133    Free PMC article.
Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Jun 02; 373(1). PMID: 26027431    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune biomarkers of response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
M Oliva, A Spreafico, +4 authors, L L Siu.
Ann Oncol, 2018 Nov 22; 30(1). PMID: 30462163    Free PMC article.
Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and the Timing and Dose of Corticosteroids in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Associated Myocarditis.
Lili Zhang, Daniel A Zlotoff, +33 authors, Tomas G Neilan.
Circulation, 2020 Jun 17; 141(24). PMID: 32539614    Free PMC article.
Cemiplimab in locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: results from an open-label, phase 2, single-arm trial.
Michael R Migden, Nikhil I Khushalani, +19 authors, Danny Rischin.
Lancet Oncol, 2020 Jan 19; 21(2). PMID: 31952975    Free PMC article.
The Antitumor Activity of Combinations of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Is Model-Dependent.
Chloé Grasselly, Morgane Denis, +7 authors, Charles Dumontet.
Front Immunol, 2018 Oct 26; 9. PMID: 30356816    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 regulation revisited: impact on immunotherapeutic strategies.
Giulia Lucibello, Baharia Mograbi, +2 authors, Patrick Brest.
Trends Mol Med, 2021 Jul 01; 27(9). PMID: 34187739
Innate immune recognition of breast tumor cells mediates CCL22 secretion favoring Treg recruitment within tumor environment.
Christine Ménétrier-Caux, Julien Faget, +3 authors, Christophe Caux.
Oncoimmunology, 2012 Aug 31; 1(5). PMID: 22934274    Free PMC article.
Phase IA/IB study of single-agent tislelizumab, an investigational anti-PD-1 antibody, in solid tumors.
Jayesh Desai, Sanjeev Deva, +22 authors, Michael Millward.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Jun 17; 8(1). PMID: 32540858    Free PMC article.
T cell recruitment triggered by optimal dose platinum compounds contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of sequential PD-1 blockade in a mouse model of colon cancer.
Deqiang Fu, Jichun Wu, +4 authors, Qiuyu Zhang.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 Mar 21; 10(2). PMID: 32195021    Free PMC article.
Adjuvant Pembrolizumab after Nephrectomy in Renal-Cell Carcinoma.
Toni K Choueiri, Piotr Tomczak, +31 authors, KEYNOTE-564 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2021 Aug 19; 385(8). PMID: 34407342
CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in tumor-infiltrating immune cells as prognostic biomarker for patients with MSI-high colon cancer.
Soo Jung Lee, Sun-Young Jun, +7 authors, Jong Gwang Kim.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2018 Mar 10; 144(6). PMID: 29520442
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
Jedd D Wolchok, Harriet Kluger, +21 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724867    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 induced by IFN-γ from tumor-associated macrophages via the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways promoted progression of lung cancer.
Xiaohui Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, +8 authors, Jian-An Huang.
Int J Clin Oncol, 2017 Jul 28; 22(6). PMID: 28748356
Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Leena Gandhi, Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu, +27 authors, KEYNOTE-189 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Apr 17; 378(22). PMID: 29658856
Highly Cited.
Predicting benefit from anti-angiogenic agents in malignancy.
Adrian M Jubb, Adam J Oates, Scott Holden, Hartmut Koeppen.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2006 Jul 14; 6(8). PMID: 16837971
Neoadjuvant PD-1 inhibitor (Sintilimab) in NSCLC.
Shugeng Gao, Ning Li, +29 authors, Jie He.
J Thorac Oncol, 2020 Feb 10; 15(5). PMID: 32036071
Co-stimulation in T cell responses.
C A Chambers, J P Allison.
Curr Opin Immunol, 1997 Jun 01; 9(3). PMID: 9203422
Atezolizumab as first-line treatment in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.
Arjun V Balar, Matthew D Galsky, +33 authors, IMvigor210 Study Group.
Lancet, 2016 Dec 13; 389(10064). PMID: 27939400    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 ligation blocks CD28-dependent T cell activation.
T L Walunas, C Y Bakker, J A Bluestone.
J Exp Med, 1996 Jun 01; 183(6). PMID: 8676075    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor toxicities: systems-based approaches to improve patient care and research.
Douglas B Johnson, Kerry L Reynolds, +5 authors, Javid J Moslehi.
Lancet Oncol, 2020 Aug 08; 21(8). PMID: 32758477
Intravenous delivery of oncolytic reovirus to brain tumor patients immunologically primes for subsequent checkpoint blockade.
Adel Samson, Karen J Scott, +36 authors, Alan A Melcher.
Sci Transl Med, 2018 Jan 05; 10(422). PMID: 29298869    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Oncolytic Virotherapy Promotes Intratumoral T Cell Infiltration and Improves Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy.
Antoni Ribas, Reinhard Dummer, +17 authors, Georgina V Long.
Cell, 2017 Sep 09; 170(6). PMID: 28886381    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeted Glucose or Glutamine Metabolic Therapy Combined With PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Tumors - Mechanisms and Strategies.
Guofeng Ma, Chun Li, +8 authors, Haitao Niu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 31; 11. PMID: 34327138    Free PMC article.
Atezolizumab in combination with carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment for metastatic non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (IMpower130): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Howard West, Michael McCleod, +17 authors, Federico Cappuzzo.
Lancet Oncol, 2019 May 28; 20(7). PMID: 31122901
Highly Cited.
Cyclophosphamide and Vinorelbine Activate Stem-Like CD8+ T Cells and Improve Anti-PD-1 Efficacy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Paolo Falvo, Stefania Orecchioni, +6 authors, Francesco Bertolini.
Cancer Res, 2020 Dec 04; 81(3). PMID: 33268528
Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade relies on the gut microbiota.
Marie Vétizou, Jonathan M Pitt, +35 authors, Laurence Zitvogel.
Science, 2015 Nov 07; 350(6264). PMID: 26541610    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mechanisms of Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Why Does Checkpoint Inhibitor Immunotherapy Not Work for All Patients?
Charlene M Fares, Eliezer M Van Allen, +2 authors, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book, 2019 May 18; 39. PMID: 31099674
Highly Cited. Review.
Atezolizumab with or without chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer (IMvigor130): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Matthew D Galsky, José Ángel Arranz Arija, +24 authors, IMvigor130 Study Group.
Lancet, 2020 May 18; 395(10236). PMID: 32416780
Pembrolizumab as Second-Line Therapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.
Joaquim Bellmunt, Ronald de Wit, +18 authors, KEYNOTE-045 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2017 Feb 18; 376(11). PMID: 28212060    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Successful administration of sequential TVEC and pembrolizumab followed by Temozolomide in immunotherapy refractory intracranial metastatic melanoma with acquired B2M mutation.
Karam Khaddour, Joshua Dowling, +6 authors, George Ansstas.
Oncotarget, 2021 Jan 16; 11(52). PMID: 33447351    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Toxicities.
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Razvan M Chirila, Roxana S Dronca.
Mayo Clin Proc, 2019 Jul 06; 94(7). PMID: 31272574
Nivolumab in patients with metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient or microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CheckMate 142): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study.
Michael J Overman, Ray McDermott, +13 authors, Thierry André.
Lancet Oncol, 2017 Jul 25; 18(9). PMID: 28734759    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy for cancer: An overview of FDA-approved immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Kristian M Hargadon, Coleman E Johnson, Corey J Williams.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2018 Jul 11; 62. PMID: 29990692
Highly Cited. Review.
Combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors and radiotherapy: Review of the literature.
Alessandro Sindoni, Fabio Minutoli, Giorgio Ascenti, Stefano Pergolizzi.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 2017 Apr 22; 113. PMID: 28427523
Macrophage Polarization Contributes to Glioblastoma Eradication by Combination Immunovirotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Dipongkor Saha, Robert L Martuza, Samuel D Rabkin.
Cancer Cell, 2017 Aug 16; 32(2). PMID: 28810147    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Durvalumab, with or without tremelimumab, plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide alone in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): updated results from a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Jonathan W Goldman, Mikhail Dvorkin, +23 authors, CASPIAN investigators.
Lancet Oncol, 2020 Dec 08; 22(1). PMID: 33285097
CTLA-4 and PD-L1 checkpoint blockade enhances oncolytic measles virus therapy.
Christine E Engeland, Christian Grossardt, +10 authors, Guy Ungerechts.
Mol Ther, 2014 Aug 27; 22(11). PMID: 25156126    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.
Drew M Pardoll.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2012 Mar 23; 12(4). PMID: 22437870    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Oncolytic Adenovirus and Tumor-Targeting Immune Modulatory Therapy Improve Autologous Cancer Vaccination.
Hong Jiang, Yisel Rivera-Molina, +8 authors, Juan Fueyo.
Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 02; 77(14). PMID: 28566332    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mobilization of CD8+ T Cells via CXCR4 Blockade Facilitates PD-1 Checkpoint Therapy in Human Pancreatic Cancer.
Yongwoo David Seo, Xiuyun Jiang, +13 authors, Venu G Pillarisetty.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Apr 04; 25(13). PMID: 30940657    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Philip W Kantoff, Celestia S Higano, +11 authors, IMPACT Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Sep 08; 363(5). PMID: 20818862
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Solid Tumor Immunotherapy with T Cell Engager-Armed Oncolytic Viruses.
Eleanor M Scott, Margaret R Duffy, +2 authors, Leonard W Seymour.
Macromol Biosci, 2017 Sep 14; 18(1). PMID: 28902983
Pembrolizumab versus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
Caroline Robert, Jacob Schachter, +20 authors, KEYNOTE-006 investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Apr 22; 372(26). PMID: 25891173
Highly Cited.
Interaction of SHP-2 SH2 domains with PD-1 ITSM induces PD-1 dimerization and SHP-2 activation.
Nikolaos Patsoukis, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, +6 authors, Vassiliki A Boussiotis.
Commun Biol, 2020 Mar 19; 3(1). PMID: 32184441    Free PMC article.
PD-1/PD-L1 blockade together with vaccine therapy facilitates effector T-cell infiltration into pancreatic tumors.
Kevin C Soares, Agnieszka A Rucki, +15 authors, Lei Zheng.
J Immunother, 2014 Nov 22; 38(1). PMID: 25415283    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Durvalumab and tremelimumab with or without stereotactic body radiation therapy in relapsed small cell lung cancer: a randomized phase II study.
Suchita Pakkala, Kristin Higgins, +14 authors, Taofeek K Owonikoko.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Jan 12; 8(2). PMID: 33428583    Free PMC article.
Multiple functions for CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 during different phases of T cell responses: implications for arthritis and autoimmune diseases.
Monika C Brunner-Weinzierl, Holger Hoff, Gerd-R Burmester.
Arthritis Res Ther, 2004 Apr 03; 6(2). PMID: 15059264    Free PMC article.
Blockade of CTLA-4 on both effector and regulatory T cell compartments contributes to the antitumor activity of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies.
Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada, +2 authors, James P Allison.
J Exp Med, 2009 Jul 08; 206(8). PMID: 19581407    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular Determinants of Response to Anti-Programmed Cell Death (PD)-1 and Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Blockade in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Profiled With Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.
Hira Rizvi, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, +29 authors, Matthew D Hellmann.
J Clin Oncol, 2018 Jan 18; 36(7). PMID: 29337640    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 blockade enhances the vaccination-induced immune response in glioma.
Joseph P Antonios, Horacio Soto, +9 authors, Robert M Prins.
JCI Insight, 2016 Jul 28; 1(10). PMID: 27453950    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CD28 co-stimulation in T-cell homeostasis: a recent perspective.
Niklas Beyersdorf, Thomas Kerkau, Thomas Hünig.
Immunotargets Ther, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27471717    Free PMC article.
Four-Year Survival With Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC-an Update From the PACIFIC Trial.
Corinne Faivre-Finn, David Vicente, +20 authors, Scott J Antonia.
J Thorac Oncol, 2021 Jan 22; 16(5). PMID: 33476803
Anti-angiogenesis therapy overcomes the innate resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in VEGFA-overexpressed mouse tumor models.
Qiaohong Wang, Jingze Gao, Wen Di, Xia Wu.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Apr 30; 69(9). PMID: 32347357
Durvalumab: First Global Approval.
Yahiya Y Syed.
Drugs, 2017 Jun 24; 77(12). PMID: 28643244    Free PMC article.
Tumors attenuating the mitochondrial activity in T cells escape from PD-1 blockade therapy.
Alok Kumar, Kenji Chamoto, Partha S Chowdhury, Tasuku Honjo.
Elife, 2020 Mar 04; 9. PMID: 32122466    Free PMC article.
Clinical activity and molecular correlates of response to atezolizumab alone or in combination with bevacizumab versus sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma.
David F McDermott, Mahrukh A Huseni, +29 authors, Thomas Powles.
Nat Med, 2018 Jun 06; 24(6). PMID: 29867230    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Colorectal Cancer.
Daniel Sur, Andrei Havasi, +6 authors, AlexandruIrimie.
J Clin Med, 2020 Jan 16; 9(1). PMID: 31936611    Free PMC article.
Oxaliplatin induces immunogenic cells death and enhances therapeutic efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor in a model of murine lung carcinoma.
Fengfei Sun, Lijuan Cui, +3 authors, Dezhi Li.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res, 2019 Aug 24; 39(3). PMID: 31441696
Safety and efficacy of quavonlimab, a novel anti-CTLA-4 antibody (MK-1308), in combination with pembrolizumab in first-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
R Perets, J Bar, +17 authors, B C Cho.
Ann Oncol, 2020 Dec 05; 32(3). PMID: 33276076
Oncolytic viruses and immunity.
Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Nanhai G Chen, Yuman Fong.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2018 Mar 20; 51. PMID: 29550660
Melanoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1 Receptor Functions Promote Tumor Growth.
Sonja Kleffel, Christian Posch, +19 authors, Tobias Schatton.
Cell, 2015 Sep 12; 162(6). PMID: 26359984    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Phase 1b Study of Sintilimab Plus Anlotinib as First-line Therapy in Patients With Advanced NSCLC.
Tianqing Chu, Runbo Zhong, +16 authors, Baohui Han.
J Thorac Oncol, 2021 Feb 02; 16(4). PMID: 33524601
Cancer Immunotherapy Update: FDA-Approved Checkpoint Inhibitors and Companion Diagnostics.
Julianne D Twomey, Baolin Zhang.
AAPS J, 2021 Mar 08; 23(2). PMID: 33677681    Free PMC article.
Nivolumab + Ipilimumab for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma previously treated with Sorafenib.
Josephine Tsang, Jeffrey Sum Lung Wong, +5 authors, Thomas Yau.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Mar 06; 15(6). PMID: 33666530
Blockade of CTLA-4 on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells abrogates their function in vivo.
Simon Read, Rebecca Greenwald, +5 authors, Fiona Powrie.
J Immunol, 2006 Sep 20; 177(7). PMID: 16982872    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab for Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Peter Schmid, Javier Cortes, +19 authors, KEYNOTE-522 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2020 Feb 27; 382(9). PMID: 32101663
Tumour- and class-specific patterns of immune-related adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review.
L Khoja, D Day, +2 authors, A R Hansen.
Ann Oncol, 2017 Sep 26; 28(10). PMID: 28945858
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone versus ipilimumab alone in advanced melanoma (CheckMate 067): 4-year outcomes of a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial.
Frank Stephen Hodi, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +16 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
Lancet Oncol, 2018 Oct 27; 19(11). PMID: 30361170
Highly Cited.
5T4 oncofoetal glycoprotein: an old target for a novel prostate cancer immunotherapy.
Federica Cappuccini, Emily Pollock, +2 authors, Irina Redchenko.
Oncotarget, 2017 May 26; 8(29). PMID: 28537896    Free PMC article.
Cemiplimab monotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with PD-L1 of at least 50%: a multicentre, open-label, global, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial.
Ahmet Sezer, Saadettin Kilickap, +24 authors, Petra Rietschel.
Lancet, 2021 Feb 15; 397(10274). PMID: 33581821
Oncolytic Viruses Engineered to Enforce Leptin Expression Reprogram Tumor-Infiltrating T Cell Metabolism and Promote Tumor Clearance.
Dayana B Rivadeneira, Kristin DePeaux, +9 authors, Greg M Delgoffe.
Immunity, 2019 Sep 01; 51(3). PMID: 31471106    Free PMC article.
Neoadjuvant atezolizumab and chemotherapy in patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.
Catherine A Shu, Justin F Gainor, +13 authors, Naiyer A Rizvi.
Lancet Oncol, 2020 May 11; 21(6). PMID: 32386568
An Oncolytic Adenovirus Targeting Transforming Growth Factor β Inhibits Protumorigenic Signals and Produces Immune Activation: A Novel Approach to Enhance Anti-PD-1 and Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy.
Yuefeng Yang, Weidong Xu, +17 authors, Prem Seth.
Hum Gene Ther, 2019 May 28; 30(9). PMID: 31126191    Free PMC article.
Molecular basis of T cell inactivation by CTLA-4.
K M Lee, E Chuang, +7 authors, J A Bluestone.
Science, 1998 Dec 18; 282(5397). PMID: 9856951
Highly Cited.
Melanoma-intrinsic β-catenin signalling prevents anti-tumour immunity.
Stefani Spranger, Riyue Bao, Thomas F Gajewski.
Nature, 2015 May 15; 523(7559). PMID: 25970248
Highly Cited.
Safety and Efficacy of Pembrolizumab Monotherapy in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: Phase 2 Clinical KEYNOTE-059 Trial.
Charles S Fuchs, Toshihiko Doi, +26 authors, Harry H Yoon.
JAMA Oncol, 2018 Mar 16; 4(5). PMID: 29543932    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Controlled local delivery of CTLA-4 blocking antibody induces CD8+ T-cell-dependent tumor eradication and decreases risk of toxic side effects.
Marieke F Fransen, Tetje C van der Sluis, +2 authors, Cornelis J M Melief.
Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Jun 22; 19(19). PMID: 23788581
PD-1 Blockade Prevents the Development and Progression of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Premalignant Lesions.
Jin Wang, Tongxin Xie, +5 authors, Carlos Caulin.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2017 Oct 12; 10(12). PMID: 29018057    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic viruses as therapeutic cancer vaccines.
David L Bartlett, Zuqiang Liu, +4 authors, Zong Sheng Guo.
Mol Cancer, 2013 Sep 12; 12(1). PMID: 24020520    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
PD-1 Blockade with Cemiplimab in Advanced Cutaneous Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.
Michael R Migden, Danny Rischin, +34 authors, Matthew G Fury.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Jun 05; 379(4). PMID: 29863979
Highly Cited.
First-In-Human Study of Cemiplimab Alone or In Combination with Radiotherapy and/or Low-dose Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Advanced Malignancies.
Kyriakos P Papadopoulos, Melissa L Johnson, +15 authors, Marka R Crittenden.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Dec 05; 26(5). PMID: 31796520
Loss of IFN-γ Pathway Genes in Tumor Cells as a Mechanism of Resistance to Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy.
Jianjun Gao, Lewis Zhichang Shi, +13 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Cell, 2016 Sep 27; 167(2). PMID: 27667683    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunotherapy and tumor microenvironment.
Haidong Tang, Jian Qiao, Yang-Xin Fu.
Cancer Lett, 2015 Oct 20; 370(1). PMID: 26477683    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunotherapy: Evading immune escape: synergy of COX and immune-checkpoint inhibitors.
Lisa Hutchinson.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2015 Sep 24; 12(11). PMID: 26391776
Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines Alone or in Combination With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Treatment.
Jing Zhao, Ye Chen, Zhen-Yu Ding, Ji-Yan Liu.
Front Pharmacol, 2019 Nov 05; 10. PMID: 31680963    Free PMC article.
Rationale for Combining Radiotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition for Patients With Hypoxic Tumors.
Franziska Eckert, Kerstin Zwirner, +3 authors, Stephan M Huber.
Front Immunol, 2019 Apr 02; 10. PMID: 30930892    Free PMC article.
Tremelimumab combined with durvalumab in patients with mesothelioma (NIBIT-MESO-1): an open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 study.
Luana Calabrò, Aldo Morra, +9 authors, Michele Maio.
Lancet Respir Med, 2018 May 19; 6(6). PMID: 29773326
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade in combination with xenogeneic DNA vaccines enhances T-cell responses, tumor immunity and autoimmunity to self antigens in animal and cellular model systems.
Polly D Gregor, Jedd D Wolchok, +11 authors, Alan N Houghton.
Vaccine, 2004 Apr 08; 22(13-14). PMID: 15068853
Cancer vaccines: between the idea and the reality.
Olivera J Finn.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Sep 17; 3(8). PMID: 12974478
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase I study of single-agent anti-programmed death-1 (MDX-1106) in refractory solid tumors: safety, clinical activity, pharmacodynamics, and immunologic correlates.
Julie R Brahmer, Charles G Drake, +17 authors, Suzanne L Topalian.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Jun 03; 28(19). PMID: 20516446    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Combination Cancer Therapy with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Mechanisms and Strategies.
Shetal A Patel, Andy J Minn.
Immunity, 2018 Mar 22; 48(3). PMID: 29562193    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Safety and efficacy of durvalumab (MEDI4736) in various solid tumors.
Hui Yang, Kai Shen, +3 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018 Jul 18; 12. PMID: 30013326    Free PMC article.