Journal Article
. 1997 May; 6(5):583-9.
doi: 10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80346-5.

Tyrosine phosphorylation controls internalization of CTLA-4 by regulating its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-2

T Shiratori 1 S Miyatake  H Ohno  C Nakaseko  K Isono  J S Bonifacino  T Saito  
  • PMID: 9175836
  •     105 citations


CTLA-4 is a costimulation receptor that binds to the same ligands, CD80 and CD86, as CD28 with high affinity and is transiently expressed on the cell surface of activated T cells. CTLA-4 delivers an inhibitory signal through association of a phosphotyrosine-containing motif in the cytoplasmic domain with Syp tyrosine phosphatase. We now demonstrate that CTLA-4 interacts with the mu2 subunit of the plasma membrane-associated adaptor complex, AP-2, through the same motif involved in the interaction with Syp, except that the interaction with mu2 requires unphosphorylated tyrosine. The interaction with mu2 likely induces rapid internalization of CTLA-4 from the cell surface. Our results suggest that the phosphorylation state of a single tyrosine residue determines whether CTLA-4 delivers a negative signal or is internalized.

Exit of major histocompatibility complex class II-invariant chain p35 complexes from the endoplasmic reticulum is modulated by phosphorylation.
T Kuwana, P A Peterson, L Karlsson.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1998 Mar 14; 95(3). PMID: 9448284    Free PMC article.
Dileucine-based sorting signals bind to the beta chain of AP-1 at a site distinct and regulated differently from the tyrosine-based motif-binding site.
I Rapoport, Y C Chen, +2 authors, T Kirchhausen.
EMBO J, 1998 May 26; 17(8). PMID: 9545228    Free PMC article.
Mechanism of Nef-induced CD4 endocytosis: Nef connects CD4 with the mu chain of adaptor complexes.
V Piguet, Y L Chen, +3 authors, D Trono.
EMBO J, 1998 Jun 20; 17(9). PMID: 9564030    Free PMC article.
The SH3 domain-binding surface and an acidic motif in HIV-1 Nef regulate trafficking of class I MHC complexes.
M E Greenberg, A J Iafrate, J Skowronski.
EMBO J, 1998 Jun 10; 17(10). PMID: 9582271    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Determinants in the cytoplasmic domain of P-selectin required for sorting to secretory granules.
P W Modderman, E A Beuling, +4 authors, A Sonnenberg.
Biochem J, 1998 Nov 10; 336 ( Pt 1). PMID: 9806897    Free PMC article.
Role of the CTLA-4 receptor in T cell activation and immunity. Physiologic function of the CTLA-4 receptor.
P Scheipers, H Reiser.
Immunol Res, 1998 Dec 09; 18(2). PMID: 9844829
Expression of CTLA-4 molecule in peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
M F Liu, H S Liu, C R Wang, H Y Lei.
J Clin Immunol, 1998 Dec 19; 18(6). PMID: 9857283
Cluster of differentiation antigen 4 (CD4) endocytosis and adaptor complex binding require activation of the CD4 endocytosis signal by serine phosphorylation.
C Pitcher, S Höning, +2 authors, M Marsh.
Mol Biol Cell, 1999 Mar 09; 10(3). PMID: 10069811    Free PMC article.
Molecular bases for the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals.
J S Bonifacino, E C Dell'Angelica.
J Cell Biol, 1999 Jun 03; 145(5). PMID: 10352010    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
CD28/CTLA-4 and CD80/CD86 families: signaling and function.
J M Slavik, J E Hutchcroft, B E Bierer.
Immunol Res, 1999 Jun 22; 19(1). PMID: 10374692
Defective CTLA-4 cycling pathway in Chediak-Higashi syndrome: a possible mechanism for deregulation of T lymphocyte activation.
F J Barrat, F Le Deist, +4 authors, G de Saint Basile.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1999 Jul 21; 96(15). PMID: 10411929    Free PMC article.
Phosphoinositide-AP-2 interactions required for targeting to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits.
I Gaidarov, J H Keen.
J Cell Biol, 1999 Aug 25; 146(4). PMID: 10459011    Free PMC article.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) engagement delivers an inhibitory signal through the membrane-proximal region in the absence of the tyrosine motif in the cytoplasmic tail.
C Nakaseko, S Miyatake, +5 authors, T Saito.
J Exp Med, 1999 Sep 28; 190(6). PMID: 10499915    Free PMC article.
Internalization of CD26 by mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor contributes to T cell activation.
H Ikushima, Y Munakata, +5 authors, C Morimoto.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2000 Jul 19; 97(15). PMID: 10900005    Free PMC article.
The AP-3 complex required for endosomal synaptic vesicle biogenesis is associated with a casein kinase Ialpha-like isoform.
V V Faundez, R B Kelly.
Mol Biol Cell, 2000 Aug 10; 11(8). PMID: 10930456    Free PMC article.
CD28, CTLA-4 and their ligands: who does what and to whom?
D M Sansom.
Immunology, 2000 Sep 30; 101(2). PMID: 11012769    Free PMC article.
Tyrosine decaging leads to substantial membrane trafficking during modulation of an inward rectifier potassium channel.
Y Tong, G S Brandt, +5 authors, H A Lester.
J Gen Physiol, 2001 Feb 07; 117(2). PMID: 11158164    Free PMC article.
Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28.
E R Follows, J C McPheat, +7 authors, W M Abbott.
Biochem J, 2001 Oct 05; 359(Pt 2). PMID: 11583591    Free PMC article.
Surface cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 partitions within lipid rafts and relocates to the immunological synapse under conditions of inhibition of T cell activation.
Peter J Darlington, Miren L Baroja, +4 authors, Joaquín Madrenas.
J Exp Med, 2002 May 22; 195(10). PMID: 12021313    Free PMC article.
L1 endocytosis is controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle stimulated by outside-in signaling by L1.
Andrew W Schaefer, Yoshimasa Kamei, +7 authors, Vance Lemmon.
J Cell Biol, 2002 Jun 26; 157(7). PMID: 12082080    Free PMC article.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 inhibits integrin-mediated stimulation.
Lucia Gatta, Gabriella Calviello, +4 authors, Claudio Pioli.
Immunology, 2002 Oct 18; 107(2). PMID: 12383200    Free PMC article.
Adenovirus RIDbeta subunit contains a tyrosine residue that is critical for RID-mediated receptor internalization and inhibition of Fas- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Drew L Lichtenstein, Peter Krajcsi, +2 authors, William S M Wold.
J Virol, 2002 Oct 22; 76(22). PMID: 12388693    Free PMC article.
Multiple functions for CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 during different phases of T cell responses: implications for arthritis and autoimmune diseases.
Monika C Brunner-Weinzierl, Holger Hoff, Gerd-R Burmester.
Arthritis Res Ther, 2004 Apr 03; 6(2). PMID: 15059264    Free PMC article.
T cell receptor engagement leads to phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain during receptor internalization.
Victoria L Crotzer, Allan S Mabardy, Arthur Weiss, Frances M Brodsky.
J Exp Med, 2004 Apr 07; 199(7). PMID: 15067034    Free PMC article.
Differential expression of CTLA-4 among T cell subsets.
C B Jago, J Yates, +2 authors, G Lombardi.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2004 May 19; 136(3). PMID: 15147348    Free PMC article.
Dileucine and YXXL motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of the bovine leukemia virus transmembrane envelope protein affect protein expression on the cell surface.
Sinisa Novakovic, Earl T Sawai, Kathryn Radke.
J Virol, 2004 Jul 16; 78(15). PMID: 15254202    Free PMC article.
Translocation of CD28 to lipid rafts and costimulation of IL-2.
Ali Sadra, Tomas Cinek, John B Imboden.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004 Jul 29; 101(31). PMID: 15280538    Free PMC article.
Testing for endocytosis in plants.
F Aniento, D G Robinson.
Protoplasma, 2005 Oct 19; 226(1-2). PMID: 16231096
NGF rapidly increases membrane expression of TRPV1 heat-gated ion channels.
Xuming Zhang, Jiehong Huang, Peter A McNaughton.
EMBO J, 2005 Dec 02; 24(24). PMID: 16319926    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 interacts with STAT5 and inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription.
M Srahna, L A Van Grunsven, J E Remacle, P Vandenberghe.
Immunology, 2006 Feb 16; 117(3). PMID: 16476059    Free PMC article.
B cell antigen receptor signaling and internalization are mutually exclusive events.
Ping Hou, Elizabeth Araujo, +6 authors, Marcus R Clark.
PLoS Biol, 2006 May 25; 4(7). PMID: 16719564    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint blockade in cancer immunotherapy.
Alan J Korman, Karl S Peggs, James P Allison.
Adv Immunol, 2006 May 30; 90. PMID: 16730267    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Site-specific ubiquitination exposes a linear motif to promote interferon-alpha receptor endocytosis.
K G Suresh Kumar, Hervé Barriere, +8 authors, Serge Y Fuchs.
J Cell Biol, 2007 Dec 07; 179(5). PMID: 18056411    Free PMC article.
T-cell exhaustion in HIV infection.
Mohamed El-Far, Rabih Halwani, +8 authors, Elias K Haddad.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2008 Apr 18; 5(1). PMID: 18417030
CTLA-4 trafficking and surface expression.
Elke Valk, Christopher E Rudd, Helga Schneider.
Trends Immunol, 2008 May 13; 29(6). PMID: 18468488    Free PMC article.
The cytoplasmic domain of the hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (HARE) contains multiple endocytic motifs targeting coated pit-mediated internalization.
Madhu S Pandey, Edward N Harris, Janet A Weigel, Paul H Weigel.
J Biol Chem, 2008 Jun 10; 283(31). PMID: 18539600    Free PMC article.
Signals and sequences that control CD28 localization to the central region of the immunological synapse.
Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Beth Graf, Jim Miller.
J Immunol, 2008 Nov 20; 181(11). PMID: 19017952    Free PMC article.
Structure-Function analysis of the CTLA-4 interaction with PP2A.
Wendy A Teft, Thu A Chau, Joaquín Madrenas.
BMC Immunol, 2009 May 02; 10. PMID: 19405949    Free PMC article.
CD28 and CTLA-4 coreceptor expression and signal transduction.
Christopher E Rudd, Alison Taylor, Helga Schneider.
Immunol Rev, 2009 May 12; 229(1). PMID: 19426212    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Activation-induced accumulation of B and T lymphocyte attenuator at the immunological synapse in CD4+ T cells.
Takayoshi Owada, Norihiko Watanabe, +7 authors, Hiroshi Nakajima.
J Leukoc Biol, 2009 Nov 07; 87(3). PMID: 19892849    Free PMC article.
Rigid-body ligand recognition drives cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptor triggering.
Chao Yu, Andreas F-P Sonnen, +9 authors, Simon J Davis.
J Biol Chem, 2010 Dec 16; 286(8). PMID: 21156796    Free PMC article.
A recycling-defective vacuolar sorting receptor reveals an intermediate compartment situated between prevacuoles and vacuoles in tobacco.
Ombretta Foresti, David C Gershlick, +3 authors, Jürgen Denecke.
Plant Cell, 2010 Dec 24; 22(12). PMID: 21177482    Free PMC article.
Intrinsic and extrinsic control of peripheral T-cell tolerance by costimulatory molecules of the CD28/ B7 family.
Hélène Bour-Jordan, Jonathan H Esensten, +3 authors, Jeffrey A Bluestone.
Immunol Rev, 2011 Apr 15; 241(1). PMID: 21488898    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 as a new therapeutic approach for advanced melanoma.
Xiang-Yang Wang, Daming Zuo, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B Fisher.
Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2011 Nov 15; 12(17). PMID: 22077831    Free PMC article.
The emerging role of CTLA4 as a cell-extrinsic regulator of T cell responses.
Lucy S K Walker, David M Sansom.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2011 Nov 26; 11(12). PMID: 22116087
Highly Cited.
Constitutive clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CTLA-4 persists during T cell activation.
Omar S Qureshi, Satdip Kaur, +8 authors, David M Sansom.
J Biol Chem, 2012 Jan 21; 287(12). PMID: 22262842    Free PMC article.
T cell receptors are structures capable of initiating signaling in the absence of large conformational rearrangements.
Ricardo A Fernandes, David A Shore, +9 authors, Simon J Davis.
J Biol Chem, 2012 Jan 21; 287(16). PMID: 22262845    Free PMC article.
The N-terminal region of IFITM3 modulates its antiviral activity by regulating IFITM3 cellular localization.
Rui Jia, Qinghua Pan, +5 authors, Chen Liang.
J Virol, 2012 Oct 12; 86(24). PMID: 23055554    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4-Tg/CD-28-KO Mice Exhibit Reduced T Cell Proliferation in vivo Compared to CD-28-KO Mice in a Graft-versus-host Disease Model.
Jong-Sun Yoo, Yun-Jung Lee, +2 authors, Kwang Woo Hwang.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, 2012 Nov 03; 16(5). PMID: 23118560    Free PMC article.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a key regulator of IFNAR1 endocytosis and a target for antiviral therapies.
Christopher J Carbone, Hui Zheng, +8 authors, Serge Y Fuchs.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012 Nov 07; 109(47). PMID: 23129613    Free PMC article.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of the triple gene block protein 3 regulates cell-to-cell movement and protein interactions of Potato mop-top virus.
Olga Samuilova, Johanna Santala, Jari P T Valkonen.
J Virol, 2013 Feb 01; 87(8). PMID: 23365450    Free PMC article.
Down-regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef protein.
Mohamed El-Far, Catherine Isabelle, +12 authors, Rafick-Pierre Sékaly.
PLoS One, 2013 Feb 02; 8(1). PMID: 23372701    Free PMC article.
Comparison of the intracellular trafficking itinerary of ctla-4 orthologues.
Satdip Kaur, Omar S Qureshi, David M Sansom.
PLoS One, 2013 Apr 09; 8(4). PMID: 23565286    Free PMC article.
At the bench: preclinical rationale for CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade as cancer immunotherapy.
Andrew M Intlekofer, Craig B Thompson.
J Leukoc Biol, 2013 Apr 30; 94(1). PMID: 23625198    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Evaluation of polymorphism, hypermethylation and expression pattern of CTLA4 gene in a sample of Iranian patients with schizophrenia.
Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani, Shahram Vaziri, Nahid Dahmardeh, Adam Torkamanzehi.
Mol Biol Rep, 2013 May 15; 40(8). PMID: 23666060
Cargo recognition in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Linton M Traub, Juan S Bonifacino.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 2013 Nov 05; 5(11). PMID: 24186068    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A rheostat for immune responses: the unique properties of PD-1 and their advantages for clinical application.
Taku Okazaki, Shunsuke Chikuma, +2 authors, Tasuku Honjo.
Nat Immunol, 2013 Nov 19; 14(12). PMID: 24240160
Highly Cited. Review.
T-cell costimulatory blockade in organ transplantation.
Jonathan S Maltzman, Laurence A Turka.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med, 2013 Dec 04; 3(12). PMID: 24296352    Free PMC article.
Rab8 binding to immune cell-specific adaptor LAX facilitates formation of trans-Golgi network-proximal CTLA-4 vesicles for surface expression.
Matthew C Banton, Kerry L Inder, +2 authors, Helga Schneider.
Mol Cell Biol, 2014 Feb 12; 34(8). PMID: 24515439    Free PMC article.
A phosphotyrosine switch for cargo sequestration at clathrin-coated buds.
Souvik Chakraborty, Perunthottathu K Umasankar, +4 authors, Linton M Traub.
J Biol Chem, 2014 May 07; 289(25). PMID: 24798335    Free PMC article.
The ap-2 clathrin adaptor mediates endocytosis of an inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor in human NK cells.
Amanda K Purdy, Diana A Alvarez Arias, +3 authors, Kerry S Campbell.
J Immunol, 2014 Sep 23; 193(9). PMID: 25238755    Free PMC article.
Clinical blockade of PD1 and LAG3--potential mechanisms of action.
Linh T Nguyen, Pamela S Ohashi.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2014 Dec 24; 15(1). PMID: 25534622
Highly Cited. Review.
Diverse mechanisms regulate the surface expression of immunotherapeutic target ctla-4.
Helga Schneider, Christopher E Rudd.
Front Immunol, 2014 Dec 30; 5. PMID: 25538704    Free PMC article.
Confusing signals: recent progress in CTLA-4 biology.
Lucy S K Walker, David M Sansom.
Trends Immunol, 2015 Jan 15; 36(2). PMID: 25582039    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A transendocytosis model of CTLA-4 function predicts its suppressive behavior on regulatory T cells.
Tie Zheng Hou, Omar S Qureshi, +4 authors, David M Sansom.
J Immunol, 2015 Jan 30; 194(5). PMID: 25632005    Free PMC article.
Dynamics of virus-receptor interactions in virus binding, signaling, and endocytosis.
Steeve Boulant, Megan Stanifer, Pierre-Yves Lozach.
Viruses, 2015 Jun 05; 7(6). PMID: 26043381    Free PMC article.
Activity-regulated trafficking of the palmitoyl-acyl transferase DHHC5.
G Stefano Brigidi, Brendan Santyr, +2 authors, Shernaz X Bamji.
Nat Commun, 2015 Sep 04; 6. PMID: 26334723    Free PMC article.
Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Regulates CD4(+) CTLA-4 Expression and Transplant Rejection.
K L Modjeski, S C Levy, +5 authors, C N Morrell.
Am J Transplant, 2015 Nov 26; 16(5). PMID: 26601915    Free PMC article.
Cell Type-Specific Regulation of Immunological Synapse Dynamics by B7 Ligand Recognition.
Joanna Brzostek, Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Vasily Rybakin.
Front Immunol, 2016 Feb 13; 7. PMID: 26870040    Free PMC article.
Sequential administration of nivolumab and ipilimumab with a planned switch in patients with advanced melanoma (CheckMate 064): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.
Jeffrey S Weber, Geoff Gibney, +14 authors, F Stephen Hodi.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Jun 09; 17(7). PMID: 27269740    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Identifying functional defects in patients with immune dysregulation due to LRBA and CTLA-4 mutations.
Tie Zheng Hou, Nisha Verma, +17 authors, David M Sansom.
Blood, 2017 Feb 06; 129(11). PMID: 28159733    Free PMC article.
The prognostic value of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 in cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pingping Hu, Qiqi Liu, +4 authors, Jiandong Zhang.
Sci Rep, 2017 Feb 18; 7. PMID: 28211499    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway.
Yoshiko Iwai, Junzo Hamanishi, Kenji Chamoto, Tasuku Honjo.
J Biomed Sci, 2017 Apr 06; 24(1). PMID: 28376884    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunometabolic Regulations Mediated by Coinhibitory Receptors and Their Impact on T Cell Immune Responses.
Nikolaos Patsoukis, Jessica D Weaver, +3 authors, Vassiliki A Boussiotis.
Front Immunol, 2017 Apr 27; 8. PMID: 28443090    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint inhibitors in hematological malignancies.
Chi Young Ok, Ken H Young.
J Hematol Oncol, 2017 May 10; 10(1). PMID: 28482851    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immune deficiency and autoimmunity in patients with CTLA-4 (CD152) mutations.
N Verma, S O Burns, L S K Walker, D M Sansom.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2017 Jun 11; 190(1). PMID: 28600865    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint Inhibitors: Applications for Autoimmunity.
Anna S Tocheva, Adam Mor.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 2017 Sep 29; 17(10). PMID: 28956259    Free PMC article.
The Membrane Glycoprotein M6a Endocytic/Recycling Pathway Involves Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Affects Neuronal Synapses.
Micaela D Garcia, Karina Formoso, +2 authors, Camila Scorticati.
Front Mol Neurosci, 2017 Oct 06; 10. PMID: 28979185    Free PMC article.
The coexpression of multi-immune inhibitory receptors on T lymphocytes in primary non-small-cell lung cancer.
Wenjie Guo, Sihan Liu, +5 authors, Peng Luo.
Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017 Dec 15; 11. PMID: 29238163    Free PMC article.
The immunobiology of ubiquitin-dependent B cell receptor functions.
James R Drake.
Mol Immunol, 2018 Jun 26; 101. PMID: 29940407    Free PMC article.
Endocrine Toxicity of Cancer Immunotherapy Targeting Immune Checkpoints.
Lee-Shing Chang, Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, +3 authors, Le Min.
Endocr Rev, 2018 Sep 06; 40(1). PMID: 30184160    Free PMC article.
Characterization of CTLA4 Trafficking and Implications for Its Function.
Sahamoddin Khailaie, Behzad Rowshanravan, +6 authors, Michael Meyer-Hermann.
Biophys J, 2018 Sep 17; 115(7). PMID: 30219287    Free PMC article.
Not All Immune Checkpoints Are Created Equal.
Annika De Sousa Linhares, Judith Leitner, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Peter Steinberger.
Front Immunol, 2018 Sep 21; 9. PMID: 30233564    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The Potential Role of Inhibitory Receptors in the Treatment of Psoriasis.
Neha Shah, Sabina Sandigursky, Adam Mor.
Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013), 2017 Sep 14; 75(3). PMID: 28902599    Free PMC article.
CTLA-4: a moving target in immunotherapy.
Behzad Rowshanravan, Neil Halliday, David M Sansom.
Blood, 2017 Nov 10; 131(1). PMID: 29118008    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Leukemic B Cell CTLA-4 Suppresses Costimulation of T Cells.
Priscilla Do, Kyle A Beckwith, +9 authors, John C Byrd.
J Immunol, 2019 Mar 27; 202(9). PMID: 30910862    Free PMC article.
IFITM proteins-cellular inhibitors of viral entry.
Se Smith, S Weston, P Kellam, M Marsh.
Curr Opin Virol, 2014 Feb 01; 4. PMID: 24480526    Free PMC article.
T cell costimulation, checkpoint inhibitors and anti-tumor therapy.
Dipankar Nandi, Sanmoy Pathak, +6 authors, Vijayamahantesh.
J Biosci, 2020 Apr 30; 45. PMID: 32345776
Immune checkpoint signaling and cancer immunotherapy.
Xing He, Chenqi Xu.
Cell Res, 2020 May 30; 30(8). PMID: 32467592    Free PMC article.
Harnessing the Complete Repertoire of Conventional Dendritic Cell Functions for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Lukas Amon, Lukas Hatscher, +2 authors, Christian H K Lehmann.
Pharmaceutics, 2020 Jul 18; 12(7). PMID: 32674488    Free PMC article.
Isolation of Two Novel Human Anti-CTLA-4 mAbs with Intriguing Biological Properties on Tumor and NK Cells.
Margherita Passariello, Cinzia Vetrei, +7 authors, Claudia De Lorenzo.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 13; 12(8). PMID: 32781690    Free PMC article.
ICOS+ Tregs: A Functional Subset of Tregs in Immune Diseases.
Dan-Yang Li, Xian-Zhi Xiong.
Front Immunol, 2020 Sep 29; 11. PMID: 32983168    Free PMC article.
Coordinating Cytoskeleton and Molecular Traffic in T Cell Migration, Activation, and Effector Functions.
Marta Mastrogiovanni, Marie Juzans, Andrés Alcover, Vincenzo Di Bartolo.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Nov 17; 8. PMID: 33195256    Free PMC article.
The role of lysosomes in cancer development and progression.
Tao Tang, Ze-Yu Yang, +7 authors, Shi-Cang Yu.
Cell Biosci, 2020 Dec 10; 10(1). PMID: 33292489    Free PMC article.
Beyond T-Cells: Functional Characterization of CTLA-4 Expression in Immune and Non-Immune Cell Types.
Damilola Oyewole-Said, Vanaja Konduri, +3 authors, William K Decker.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jan 02; 11. PMID: 33384695    Free PMC article.
Cytoplasmic short linear motifs in ACE2 and integrin β3 link SARS-CoV-2 host cell receptors to mediators of endocytosis and autophagy.
Johanna Kliche, Hanna Kuss, Muhammad Ali, Ylva Ivarsson.
Sci Signal, 2021 Jan 14; 14(665). PMID: 33436498    Free PMC article.
Short linear motif candidates in the cell entry system used by SARS-CoV-2 and their potential therapeutic implications.
Bálint Mészáros, Hugo Sámano-Sánchez, +8 authors, Toby J Gibson.
Sci Signal, 2021 Jan 14; 14(665). PMID: 33436497    Free PMC article.
Regulatory mechanisms of immune checkpoints PD-L1 and CTLA-4 in cancer.
Hao Zhang, Ziyu Dai, +6 authors, Quan Cheng.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Jun 06; 40(1). PMID: 34088360    Free PMC article.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling: Structure, assembly and endocytosis of the signalosome.
Gabriele Colozza, Bon-Kyoung Koo.
Dev Growth Differ, 2021 Feb 24; 63(3). PMID: 33619734    Free PMC article.
Detection of Immune Checkpoint Receptors - A Current Challenge in Clinical Flow Cytometry.
Benjamin Shibru, Katharina Fey, +8 authors, Andreas Boldt.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jul 20; 12. PMID: 34276685    Free PMC article.
Treg-expressed CTLA-4 depletes CD80/CD86 by trogocytosis, releasing free PD-L1 on antigen-presenting cells.
Murat Tekguc, James Badger Wing, +2 authors, Shimon Sakaguchi.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2021 Jul 25; 118(30). PMID: 34301886    Free PMC article.
Regulation of CTLA-4 recycling by LRBA and Rab11.
Daniel Janman, Claudia Hinze, +8 authors, David M Sansom.
Immunology, 2021 May 08; 164(1). PMID: 33960403    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoints in Cancers: From Signaling to the Clinic.
Céline Pisibon, Amira Ouertani, +2 authors, Yann Cheli.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 13(18). PMID: 34572799    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment Profiles Reveal Distinct Therapy-Oriented Proteogenomic Characteristics in Colorectal Cancer.
Nan Wang, Rongshui Wang, +6 authors, Zhiyong Ding.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2021 Nov 16; 9. PMID: 34778231    Free PMC article.
Current Progress and Future Perspectives of Immune Checkpoint in Cancer and Infectious Diseases.
Xin Cai, Huajie Zhan, +4 authors, Yuan Zhuang.
Front Genet, 2021 Dec 18; 12. PMID: 34917131    Free PMC article.